GD573: Graduate seminaRTrend Diagram & Essays Errors in Reasoning The Dangers of a Mindset Jumping to Conclusions Misconce...
GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Dangers of a Mindset                   to wear a ...
GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Dangers of a Mindset   personal experiences influ...
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GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Dangers of a Mindset                             ...
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GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Jumping to Conclusions                           ...
GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Jumping to Conclusions                  don’t hav...
GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Jumping to Conclusions           didn’t see it ha...
GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Jumping to Conclusions                   judgment...
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GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Misconceptions                  national tests   ...
GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Misconceptions                 confuse the meanin...
GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Misconceptions                          the glass...
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GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Wrong Generalizations                          pi...
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GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Mistaking Evidence for Proof                  bel...
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GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Circular Reasoning           Taxation of income  ...
GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Circular Reasoning               rephrase      th...
GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Circular Reasoning                             “b...
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GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   False Analogies                                th...
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GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   False Analogies                      proverbs    ...
GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   False Analogies                                  ...
GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Misusing Statistics                  the modern p...
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GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Misusing Statistics                              ...
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GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Relative Versus Absolute
GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Relative Versus Absolute                         ...
GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Relative Versus Absolute                         ...
GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Extreme Judgments                       legalized...
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GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning   Extreme Judgments                                ...
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Errors in Reasoning

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A lecture presentation for GD573: New Information Environments, a graduate graphic design seminar at NC State University. The presentation discusses common errors in reasoning when making and argument (errors to watch out for when evaluating source material). It also provides strategies for avoiding common errors in your own writing.

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Errors in Reasoning

  1. 1. GD573: Graduate seminaRTrend Diagram & Essays Errors in Reasoning The Dangers of a Mindset Jumping to Conclusions Misconceptions Wrong Generalizations Mistaking Evidence for Proof Circular Reasoning False Analogies Misusing Statistics Relative Versus Absolute Extreme Judgments
  2. 2. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Dangers of a Mindset to wear a seat belt
  3. 3. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Dangers of a Mindset personal experiences influence the development of our beliefs and values
  4. 4. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Dangers of a Mindset mindets are patterns of thinking that guide the way we react to situations
  5. 5. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Dangers of a Mindset mindsets determine what we notice and what we ignore
  6. 6. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Dangers of a Mindset we see and hear what we want to
  7. 7. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Dangers of a Mindset we select facts that reinforce our ideas
  8. 8. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Dangers of a Mindset ... but mindsets perform important functions
  9. 9. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Dangers of a Mindset checks and balances: examine assumptions & play devil’s advocate
  10. 10. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Jumping to Conclusions you did it
  11. 11. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Jumping to Conclusions don’t have all the facts and closed to new facts
  12. 12. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Jumping to Conclusions didn’t see it happen don’t know why it happened
  13. 13. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Jumping to Conclusions judgment based on circumstantial evidence
  14. 14. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Jumping to Conclusions checks and balances: assume benevolence & ask open questions & have the courage to be wrong
  15. 15. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Misconceptions national tests predict performance
  16. 16. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Misconceptions confuse the meaning of a relational word i.e. average
  17. 17. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Misconceptions the glass is half full or half empty
  18. 18. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Misconceptions stereotypes, prejudices, and discrimination
  19. 19. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Misconceptions checks and balances: define terms & support conclusion with direct facts (not inference)
  20. 20. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Wrong Generalizations pit bulls are aggressive dogs
  21. 21. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Wrong Generalizations too many exceptions to the rule
  22. 22. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Wrong Generalizations biased selection of information
  23. 23. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Wrong Generalizations overgeneralization applied beyond its proper limits and likely to produce wrong conclusions
  24. 24. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Wrong Generalizations checks and balances: define limitations & contextualize statements
  25. 25. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Mistaking Evidence for Proof belief that women are inferior to men
  26. 26. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Mistaking Evidence for Proof absolutely sure of generalized facts
  27. 27. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Mistaking Evidence for Proof beliefs become self-fulfilling prophecies
  28. 28. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Mistaking Evidence for Proof testimonies are not reliable
  29. 29. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Mistaking Evidence for Proof checks and balances: identify exceptions &evidence must be overwhelming
  30. 30. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Circular Reasoning Taxation of income is for the common good. Why do you say that? Because in the long run, taxation of income is in the best interest of all citizens.
  31. 31. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Circular Reasoning rephrase the statement you’re proving and then use a similar statement as proof for the original
  32. 32. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Circular Reasoning “because” makes it seem as if you’re saying why
  33. 33. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Circular Reasoning checks and balances: “5 Why’s” activity & list multiple effects
  34. 34. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning False Analogies there are plenty of fish in the sea
  35. 35. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning False Analogies if two things are similar in one way, they may also be similar in other ways
  36. 36. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning False Analogies “maybe” gets converted into “is”
  37. 37. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning False Analogies omit important differences
  38. 38. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning False Analogies an analogies is only a hypothesis
  39. 39. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning False Analogies proverbs appear to be sage advice, but can support any side i.e. “Make hay while the sun shines” (buy) “Haste makes waste” (don’t buy)
  40. 40. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning False Analogies checks and balances: identify assumptions & identify concrete similarities
  41. 41. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Misusing Statistics the modern plague of ADHD http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_ embedded&v=zDZFcDGpL4U
  42. 42. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Misusing Statistics makes the information seem accurate
  43. 43. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Misusing Statistics used to argue for special interests
  44. 44. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Misusing Statistics does not include outliers or discounted
  45. 45. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Misusing Statistics misinterpret “average” does not give any indication of the distribution of numbers
  46. 46. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Misusing Statistics checks and balances: learn basic statistical principles &verify the population & methods & look at the whole data set
  47. 47. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Relative Versus Absolute
  48. 48. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Relative Versus Absolute subjective words are relative lack established standards
  49. 49. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Relative Versus Absolute checks and balances: avoid absolutes (yes/no) & relation to multiple examples & plot examples along a spectrum
  50. 50. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Extreme Judgments legalized in 1967
  51. 51. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Extreme Judgments black and white interpretations
  52. 52. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Extreme Judgments convinced beyond a shadow of doubt
  53. 53. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Extreme Judgments seeking justice and/or revenge
  54. 54. GD573: Graduate seminaR .:. Trend Diagrams & EssaysErrors in Reasoning Extreme Judgments checks and balances: investigate the backstory & see from multiple sides & practice compassion

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