Narmada riparian


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Narmada riparian

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Volume 3, No 1, 2012 © Copyright by the authors - Licensee IPA- Under Creative Commons license 3.0Research article ISSN 0976 – 4402 Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, India Vipin Vyas, Ankit Kumar, Shahnawaz Gani Wani, Vivek Parashar Department of Environmental Sciences and Limnology, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, India doi:10.6088/ijes.2012030131064ABSTRACTRiparian buffer zone is an area of trees, usually accompanied by shrubs and other vegetationsalong a river, stream or shoreline that is managed to maintain the integrity of the waterway toreduce pollution and to provide food, habitat and thermal protection for fish and other aquaticlife. They provide an extensive list of benefits to both man and the environment because oftheir unique position between land and water. To assess the status of Riparian Buffer Zone(RBZ) along flood plain areas of a selected reach of river Narmada, an extensive survey wascarried out on left and right banks. The observations made during the survey reveal that RBZsand floodplain areas were dominated by agricultural practices on both banks. The resultsdepicted that agricultural practices and human habitation contribute 57.5% and 16.5%respectively, different types of vegetation like shrubs covers 1.5%, bushes 9.5%, pasture land7%, barren land 6% and erosion approx 2% which shows that ecological conditions of river isdirectly disturbed due to excessive human interventions.Keywords: River Narmada, Riparian Buffer Zone, Floodplain areas.1. IntroductionRiver catchment or drainage basin is the natural unit of landscape, combining the linkbetween terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and it encompasses the entire area of land drainedby various tributaries to the main river. The drainage area bordering the stream is called theriparian zone and is of critical importance to the function, as well as the protection andmanagement of a river (Naiman et al., 1993). Riparian zone has dynamic environmentscharacterised by strong energy regimes, substantial habitat heterogeneity, a diversity ofecological processes and multidimensional gradients. Riparian buffer zone (RBZ) is an areaof trees, usually accompanied by shrubs and other vegetations along a river, stream orshoreline that is managed to maintain the integrity of the waterway to reduce pollution and toprovide food, habitat and thermal protection for fish and wild life. The unique ecologicalfunctions of riparian zones are linked to dynamic biophysical processes and interactionsacross multiple spatial and temporal scales. Riparian buffer zones help in controlling soil orsediment erosion, maintaining water quality, provide habitats for different aquatic organisms,flooding & temperature control and construct a stable river bank. Floodplain areas arepermanently wet area and can be distinguished from land subject to temporary, albeitsometimes prolonged, inundation resulting directly or indirectly from a rise in river level andtend to be highly productive ecosystems and have long been utilized for production of foodand fiber and harvest of wild plants and animals. The floodplain is often desirable for farmingand livestock production.Received on June 2012 Published on July 2012 659
  2. 2. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, IndiaGeographical Information System (GIS) is the computer based systems that can deal withvirtually any type of information about features that can be referenced by geographicallocation. These systems are capable of handling both locational and attribute data. Presentstudy was carried out on the riparian buffer zone including floodplain areas of river Narmadain a reach stretching from Shahganj to Barandur (Bandua) with an objective to assess thestatus of RBZs and floodplain areas with human interventions which affect the riverineecosystem.2. Material and methods2.1 Study areaRiver Narmada the fifth largest river, flows through the central province of India rises from apond called Narmada Kund at the height of 1057m above mean sea level from the pinnacle ofMaikal hill range at Amarkantak town of Shahdol district in Madhya Pradesh covers the totallength of 1312 kms from its origin to debouch in the gulf of Cambay, Arabian sea, Gujaratstate. Present study was conducted on a selected reach of River Narmada in the central zonefrom Sakatpur to Barandur on left bank between 770 48’ 05.5”E to 220 50’ 36.9”N and 77036’ 42.00”E to 220 43’ 18.94”N in Hoshangabad district and from Shahganj to Saptdhara onright bank between 770 48’ 14.3”E to 220 50’ 30.2”N and 770 36’ 30.35”E to 220 43’ 28.67”Nlongitude and latitude in Sehore district respectively. Location map of the study area is shownin figure 1. Figure 1: Location map of the study area Vipin Vyas et al 660 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012
  3. 3. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, India2.2 Riparian Buffer Zones (RBZs) and Floodplain AreasOn foot survey was conducted on the left and right bank to assess the status of RBZs andfloodplains areas (Figure2). Study area was divided into four sections for the study (Table 1),(Figure3). Figure 2: On foot survey of the study area Table 1: Four sections of the Study area Section No. From To Bank Distance (In meters) Shakatpur Magaria Left 1. 6127 meters Bandrabhan Shahganj Right Magaria Railway bridge Left 2. 12388 meters Railway bridge Bandrabhan Right Railway bridge Randhal Left 3. 6343 meters Moukalan Railway bridge Right Randhal Barandur Left 4. 5383 meters Saptdhara Moukalan RightThe exact width of a buffer zone required for riparian corridor protection is widely disputed.Buffer width recommendations found in the literature vary from as little as 25ft to as great as300ft (Palfrey and Bradley, 1982). During the present study 300ft which is equals to 100marea of RBZ was taken on left and right bank for the study (Figure4). Riparian data sheet wasprepared as per Stream Channel and Riparian Area Monitoring Guide developed by MontanaRiparian Wetland Association Education Community and Montana Grazing LandConservation Initiative. Flow chart of the work is shown in figure5. During study someparameters were selected for survey to assess the health of RBZs and floodplain areas of the Vipin Vyas et al 661 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012
  4. 4. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, Indiaselected reach viz., vegetation, agriculture, human interference, soil erosion, pasture land,barren land and floodplain areas. Figure 3: Four sections of the study area Figure 4: 100 meters of Riparian buffer zones (RBZs) of left and right bank Vipin Vyas et al 662 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012
  5. 5. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, India Figure 5: Flow chart of the work2.3 Equipments usedDuring the survey Digital Camera (Model – Canon DS 1206071, Made in Japan with zoomlens 1:3.5-5.6 mega pixel), Global Position System (Model – Etrex Vista CX, Garmin, Madein Taiwan), Measuring Tape and Card Board were used.2.4 Topographical maps and satellite imageryPrimary information about study area was extracted through Survey of India Topographicalmaps and IRS P6 LISS – III FCC, DOP: 12 Feb 2008 satellite imagery procured fromNational Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), India was used for determining major land use andland cover classification (Figure 6). Figure 6: LISS- III satellite imagery of the study area Vipin Vyas et al 663 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012
  6. 6. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, India2.5 Software usedERDAS Imagine version 8.7 image analysis software was used for geometric correction ofsatellite imagery and topographical maps. Arc GIS / Arc Map version 9.0 vector basedsoftware was used for vector creations. Microsoft Excel 2007 graph based software is used tocreate graphs during study.2.6 Percent calculationThe data was recorded in the form of square meter and was converted into percentage form.In mathematics, percent is a way of expressing a number as a fraction of 100 (percentmeaning “per hundred” in French). It is often denoted using the percent sign “%” or theabbreviation “pct”. To find the percentage that a single unit represents out of a whole of Nunits, divide 100% by N. The percent is shown by popular diagrams like pie and bar.2.7 Physico-chemical analysisThe quality of water may be described in terms of concentration and state of some or all ofthe organic and inorganic material present in water, together with certain physicalcharacteristics. Natural influences such as climatic conditions, geological conditions andhydrological conditions also affect the quantity and quality of water. Human intervention likeagricultural practices, settlements and factories also has significant effects on water quality.Water samples were collected from some villages located on the bank and confluence pointsof some tributaries. Three water quality parameters were analysed during the study i.e.Chloride (Cl-), Nitrate (NO3-) and Orthophosphate (PO4-) using analytical methods as perAdoni et al., 1985.3. ResultsThe study revealed very useful information regarding health of riparian buffer zones andfloodplain areas of the selected reach of River Narmada. Figure 7: Status of Riparian buffer zone in section- 1 Vipin Vyas et al 664 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012
  7. 7. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, India3.1 Riparian Buffer Zones (RBZs)Survey of RBZ was done in four sections and all survey parameters were evaluatedaccordingly.3.1.1 Section 1This section starts from Sakatpur and extends upto Magaria on left bank and Bandrabhan toShahganj on right bank. It was found that agricultural activities were dominant on left bank ofthis section and on right bank vegetation in the form of shrubs, bushes and gardens were indominant position. Barren land was absent on the left bank of the study area (Figure 7).Water samples were collected from villages near river Narmada of section 1 and wereanalysed as per the standard methods (Table 2). Table 2: Water quality status in section- 1 Chloride Nitrate Orthophosphate Village Name (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) Sakatpur 17 0.781 0.076 Magaria 15.6 0.798 0.068 Jahanpur 18.4 0.482 0.062 Hirani 17 0.462 0.044 Shahganj 17 0.895 0.1483.1.2 Section 2Section 2 is the longest area of the study area and is starts from village Magaria to Railwaybridge on left bank and Railway bridge to Bandrabhan village on right bank. On left bank ofthe study area maximum human interference was recorded than agricultural activities becauseHoshangabad, only city place of the region covers large human settlements. Whereas,agriculture activities were in dominant and human interference was less on the right bank.Budhni was a tehsil place situated there with less human settlements. Pasture and barren landwere absent on left bank (Figure 8).In section 2 water samples were collected from villages and confluence point of sometributaries located near river Narmada and analysed as per the standard methods (Table 3). Table 3: Water quality status in section- 2 Village/ Tributary Chloride Nitrate Orthophosphate Name (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) Railway Bridge 19.8 1.741 0.148 Gadaria Nala 18.4 0.982 0.152 Gunjari Nala 21.2 0.424 0.064 Bandrabhan 12.7 0.722 0.038 Vipin Vyas et al 665 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012
  8. 8. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, India Figure 8: Status of Riparian buffer zone in section- 23.1.3 Section 3Section 3 starts from Railway bridge to Randhal village on left bank and Moukalan village toRailway bridge on right bank of the study area. On both banks agriculture activities was indominant position, followed by vegetation at second dominant position on both banks. Barrenland and pasture land obtained the same position (Figure 9). Figure 9: Status of Riparian buffer zone in section- 3Physico-chemical parameters of collected water samples from villages near river bank wereanalysed as per the standard methods (Table 4). Vipin Vyas et al 666 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012
  9. 9. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, India Table 4: Water quality status in section- 3 Chloride Nitrate Orthophosphate Village Name (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) Dongarwara 25.5 1.246 0.268 Hasalpur 19.8 0.896 0.1523.1.4 Section 4This was the smallest section of the study area which starts from Randhal village to Barandurvillage on left bank and Saptdhara village to Moukalan village on right bank. Agriculturepractice was in dominant position on both banks of this section. Human interference wasabsent on left bank but on left bank 1, 25,800 m2 area was occupied by human settlements atHolipura village on the bank of river Narmada. Pasture land was absent on left bank (Figure10). Figure 10: Status of Riparian buffer zone in section- 4The water quality data of water samples collected from villages near the river in this sectionis shown in Table 5. Table 5: Water quality status in section- 4 Chloride Nitrate Orthophosphate Village Name (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) Randhal 22.6 0.542 0.032 Barandur 29.1 0.553 0.185During survey some plants that grow commonly within study area were identified as trees,herbs and shrubs is enlisted in Table 6. Vipin Vyas et al 667 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012
  10. 10. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, IndiaTable 6: List of common plants identified during survey on both banks of the study area Trees Family Species Name Common Name Anacardiaceae Magnifera indica Mango Boraginaceae Cordia dichotoma Koda, Lisora Caesalpiriaceae Tamarindus indica Imli Dipterocarpaceae Shorea robusta Sal Euphorbiaceae Emblica officinalis Amla Lamiaceae Tectona grandis Teak Meliaceae Azardichata indica Neem Mimosaceae Acacia leucoflea Babul Moraceae Artocarpus meterophylus Kathal Moraceae Ficus religiosa Peepal Myrtaceae Eugenia jambos Jamun Myrtaceae Psidium quajana Amrood Papilonaceae Butea monosperms Dhak, Palas Papilonaceae Dalbergia sisoo Shisham Rhamnaceae Ziziphus xylopyrus Ber Rutaceae Aegle marmelos Beel Sapotaceae Madhuca indica Mohwa Herbs Amaranthaceae Achyranthes aspera Chirchita Amaranthaceae Amaranthus spinosus Prickly amaranth Apocynaceae Catharanthus roseus Sadhabhar Apocynaceae Chonemopha macrophylla Moorva Asclepiadaceae Calotropis procera Akund, Asteraceae Parthenium hysterophorus Congress grass Lamiaceae Ocimum basilicum Tulsi Mimosaceae Mimosa pudica Lajwanti Papaveraceae Argemone maxicana Yellow poppy Papilonaceae Crotalaria leschenaultii Jhunjhunia Rutaceae Murraya koenigii Mithee_Neem Solanaceae Datura metel Sadadhutara Shrubs Apocynaceae Narium oleander Kaner Convolvulaceae Ipomoea carnea Beshram bel Euphorbiaceae Jatropa curcus Arand Musaceae Musa paradisiaca Kela Papilonaceae Abrus precatorius Ralti Spindaceae Dodonaea viscosa Vilayati mehandi Vipin Vyas et al 668 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012
  11. 11. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, India3.2 Floodplain areasFloodplain areas were studied separately for each section and it was observed that peoplewere using these areas for common and seasonal agricultural practices of crops (Wheat,Arhar and Caster), fruits (Watermelon, Muskmelon and Cucumber) and vegetables (Bottlegourd, Onion, Garlic and Brinjal) shown in figure 11. Figure 11: Agricultural practices in floodplain areas Figure 12: Percent status of floodplain areas in the study area Vipin Vyas et al 669 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012
  12. 12. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, IndiaAt Hirani village it was found that floodplain area was totally lost due to construction ofwater plant to fulfill drinking water requirement to Bhopal city, capital of Madhya Pradesh.People were using chemical fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides for production ofagricultural products thereby harming the ecology of River Narmada. In Section 1 floodplainareas were absent on both banks. In Section 2 on left bank 50% and on right bank 34%floodplain areas were present. 28% floodplain areas on left bank and 64% on right bank wererecorded in Section 3 during survey. In Section 4, 22% floodplain areas were identified onleft bank and 1% on right bank (Figure 12).3.3 DiscussionStudy was carried out across a width of 100 meters area of Riparian buffer zones of theselected reach of river Narmada on left and right banks. Much variance was observed on bothduring investigation. Some areas were dominated by agricultural practice, humaninterferences but fewer areas were wrapped with forests and trees. It was found that in someareas people were converting forestland to agriculture land. Activities in flood plain areasdirectly affect river ecology.3.3.1 VegetationDuring the investigation vegetation like shrubs, bushes, herbs and trees of moderate size wererecorded. Vegetation in the form of gardens like mango, lemon, guava and vegetables in thisarea were documented. In the study area, total 3% vegetation was recorded on left bank and17% on the right bank. Marc et al., 2004 studied the riparian vegetation of Central IdahoRiver of United States of America where lands are managed by the Nez Perce and PayetteNational Forests, recorded maximum of 55% and minimum of 29% riparian vegetation.Bachan, 2003 reported 46% of riparian vegetation along the middle and lower zones of theChalakkudy River in Kerala.3.3.2 Agricultural practicesAgriculture is the most predominant activity noticed in study area; Split Red Gram(Arhar/Tuvar Dal), Wheat, Rice and Soyabean were cultivated during Kharif and Rabi cropseasons. On left bank 84% agriculture was reported while on right bank only 36%agricultural practices were done. Anbumozhi et al., 2005 reported that 68% land was used foragriculture practices on Tokachikawa watershed in Hokkaido, Japan and Narumalani et al.,1997 reported that 44% area of Iowa river channel were used for agriculture practices andlack of riparian buffer zones alongside channels.3.3.3 Human interferenceBeside agriculture other human interferences like construction, soil mining, sand mining,settlement and conversion of forest land into agriculture through forest fire and deforestationwere noticed in RBZ of the study area. Minimum 9% human interference was recorded onleft bank and maximum 26% was on right bank. According to report submitted to NewtonCounty Board of Commissioners, Georgia (2009) 56% of major riparian buffer zone inAlcovy River was residential. Apan et al., 2002 reported that between 1973 and 1997 in theLockyer valley catchment of Queensland, Australia 35% to 36% woody vegetation of thetotal buffer zone was cleared mainly for pasture and only minor for agricultural crops orsettlement. Vipin Vyas et al 670 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012
  13. 13. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, India3.3.4 Soil erosionIt is a natural process but it has been increased dramatically by human land use, especiallyindustrial, agriculture, deforestation and urban sprawl. The area under study however isrelatively safe in terms of soil erosion, only 1% of the area is prone to soil erosion on bothbanks. Naiman et al., 1993 found 30% annual soil erosion on agricultural croplands of Northand South Platte rivers.3.3.5 Pasture landRiparian zones are always rich in herbs, grasses and seedlings which attract cattle. Grazing isnoticed throughout the study area in identified pasture land. In some places cattle were freelyallowed to graze in the river banks and agricultural land after harvesting. These activities area part of livelihood activities of local people. In the study area 2% pasture land was found onleft bank and 11% on right bank. Meynendonckx et al., 2006 reported 29% pasture land inScheldt river basin.3.3.6 Barren landThe land which covers less than one third area of vegetation or other cover is known asbarren land. During the present investigation, minimum 1% of barren land was recorded onleft bank, while maximum 9% was recorded on right bank. Reed and Carpenter 2002 reportedbarren land in six south Wisconsin streams viz. Garfoot Creek 0.5%, Brewery Creek 0.7%,Pheasant Branch 2.3, Yahara River 3.8%, Otter Creek 0.4% and Silver Creek 2.4%respectively.3.3.7 Floodplain areaFloodplain areas are flat or nearly flat land adjacent to a stream or river that experiencesoccasional or periodic flooding. Flood plain areas were found in the study area and duringinvestigation it was observed that flood plain areas were disturbed due to agriculturalactivities. On both banks 50% of flood plain areas were recorded. Tockner and Stanford(2002) observed that in Europe and North America up to 90% of floodplains are alreadycultivated and therefore functionally extinct. In the developing world remaining natural floodplains are disappearing at an accelerating rate, primarily as a result of changing hydrology.3.3.8 Physico-chemical analysisIn the present study, three physico-chemical parameters viz., Chloride, Nitrate andOrthophosphate nutrients closely related to the riparian buffer zones were analysed. Theconcentration of Chloride ranges from 15.6 mg/l to 22.6 mg/l during the study. Anbumozhi etal., 2005 recorded range of chloride from 15 mg/l to 28 mg/l in Tokachikawa watershed ofHokkaido, Japan and sub watersheds of Indonesia. Nitrate ranges from 0.424 mg/l to 1.74mg/l and orthophosphate ranges from 0.032 mg/l to 0.268 mg/l during the investigation. DayJr. et al., 2006 found range of Nitrate from 0.007 mg/l to 0.15 mg/l and range ofOrthophosphate from 0.1 mg/l to 0.9 mg/l at riparian zone of Ramos Swamp, Amelia,Louisiana. Vipin Vyas et al 671 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012
  14. 14. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, India3.3.9 Overall Status of Riparian Buffer Zone (RBZ)During the present investigation, it was found that riparian buffer zone is dominated withagricultural practices and human habitation i.e. 57.5% and 16.5% while different types ofvegetation like shrubs cover 1.5% and bushes 9.5%. Pasture land covers 7%; barren landcovers 6% soil erosion prone area approx 2% in the study area. Major classes of riparianbuffer zone have been categorised through remotely sensed data using GIS software and itwas observed that RBZ of selected reach of river Narmada was totally disturbed (Figure13).Agriculture runoff from RBZ and flood plain areas directly affects the riverine ecosystem onlarge scale. Harmful chemicals, insecticides and pesticides load is harmful and hazardous forhuman being and aquatic organisms those are dependent directly or indirectly on the river. Figure 13: Overall status of Riparian Buffer Zone (RBZ) in the study area4. ConclusionNo other species than humans has a greater impact on the stability, dynamics, diversity,composition, structure and functioning on the earth’s communities and ecosystem. Noecosystem of the earth’s surface is free of pervasive human interventions. Rapidly expandinginvestigations of rivers in the context of their catchments and landscapes clearly indicate thatthe river ecosystems are strongly affected by human actions across spatial scales. Theinfluence of surrounding landscape on a river is manifest across multiple scales and iscomplicated by legacies from prior human activities. These findings indicate that condition ofRBZ and floodplain areas are alarming and needs some sustainable conservation efforts if theriverine ecosystem is to be conserved for the future generations.5. RecommendationsRiparian buffer zone is an area around a stream or another watercourse which has distinctivevegetation and other characteristics which separate it from the land beyond the riparian zone.Riparian buffer zones contribute a number of important things to natural environment andmany global agencies are promoting conservation, maintenance and restoration of riparianzones for benefit of the environment in their regions (, 2012). The following Vipin Vyas et al 672 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012
  15. 15. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, Indiarecommendations for the restoration of Riparian buffer zone in selected reach of RiverNarmada are as under:1. Riparian forest can be planted by humans for a specific purpose because it provides habitat for animals as well as an environment which may be more hospitable to some plant species and help to trap and control non-point pollution, stabilize river banks, to keep overall temperatures within a comfortable range, to reduce water loss through evaporation and reducing the risk of flood damage in low-lying areas which may be located in close proximity to the water..2. River side forests will be useful for sound land management system that includes nutrient management, filter sediment from surface runoff and erosion control.3. Homeowners who live along riverbanks are also encouraged to establish healthy riparian zones, which will look attractive in addition to raising property values and benefiting the environment.4. Government must integrate buffer restoration into state basin plans and watershed plans. Establishment of intergovernmental funding mechanism that link buffer acquisition to water quality benefits, coordinates land acquisition efforts with private and nonprofit organization.5. Plantation in the barren and eroded land should be done on large scale by collaboration of government and local people. Dirty pathways along or within buffer zones should be replaced with grasses way to revitalize riparian zone.6. NGO’s must take part in the restoration of riparian buffer zones of river Narmada with the assistance of villagers.7. Floodplain areas activity should be noted and monitored.AcknowledgementsThanks to Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi, India for providingfinancial assistance as INSPIRE Fellowship. Authors are thankful to Prof. PradeepShrivastava, Head, Department of Zoology and Applied Aquaculture, Barkatullah University,Bhopal for permission to use remote sensing and GIS software for preparation of maps.Valuable suggestions given by Mr. Amit Dubey are deeply acknowledged. Thanks to Mr.Gajanand Dholiya, Mr. Hilal Ahmed Bhat and villagers of the study area who helped usduring field visit.6. References 1. Adoni A.D, Joshi G, Ghosh K, Chourasia S.K, Vaishya A.K, Yadav M, Verma H.G, (1985), Workbook on Limnology. Pratibha publishers, Sagar, India, pp 1-127. 2. Anbumozhi V, Radhakrishnan J, Yamaji E, (2005), Impact of riparian buffer zones on water quality and associated management considerations, Ecological Engineering 24, pp 517-523. 3. Apan A.A, Raine S.R, Paterson M.S, (2002), Mapping and analysis of changes in the riparian landscape structure of the lockyer valley catchment, Queensland, Australia. Landscape and Urban Planning, 59(1), pp 43-57. 4. Bachan A.K.H, (2003), Riparian vegetation along the middle and lower zones of the Chalakkudy River. Kerala, India (Survey, mapping, community studies and Vipin Vyas et al 673 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012
  16. 16. Status of Riparian Buffer Zone and floodplain areas of River Narmada, India identification of the residual pockets for conservation), Limnological Association of Kerala, Iringalakkuda, Project report.5. Day Jr J.W, Westphal A, Pratt R, Hyfield E, Rybczyk J, Kemp G.P, Day J.N, Marx B, (2006), Effects of long-term municipal effluent discharge on the nutrient dynamics, productivity, and benthic community structure of a tidal freshwater forested wetland in Louisiana, Ecological Engineering, 27, pp 242-257.6. Healthy Buffers- healthy Communities Alcovy River Riparian Buffer, Phase- 1, Contact Reference no. 751-70085, (2009), Report to Newton County Board of Commissioners, Georgia, Marc C.C-R, Richard C.H, Eric K.A, Caroline K, Jeffrey L.K, (2004), Repeatability of riparian vegetation sampling methods: how useful are these techniques for broad- scale, long-term monitoring? General Technical Report RMRS-GTR, pp 138.8. Meynendonckx J, Heuvelmans G, Muys B, Feyen J, (2006), Effects of watershed and riparian zone characteristics on nutrient concentrations in the River Scheldt Basin, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 3, pp 653-679.9. Naiman R.J, Décamps H, Pollock M, (1993), The role of riparian corridors in maintaining regional biodiversity, Ecological Applications, 3(2), pp 209-212.10. Narumalani S, Zhou Y, Jensenb J.R, (1997), Application of remote sensing and geographic information systems to the delineation and analysis of riparian buffer zones. Aquatic Botany, 58, pp 393-409.11. Palfrey R, Bradley E, (1982), The buffer area study. Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Tidewater Adminstration. Annpolis, MD, pp 31-32.12. Reed T, Carpenter S.R, (2002), Comparisons of P-Yield, riparian buffer strips and land cover in six agricultural watersheds, Ecosystems, 5, pp 568–577.13. Stream Channel and Riparian Area Monitoring Guide of Montana State University, Bozeman, Animal and Range Sciences Extension Services, Linfield, Montana, available at channel.pdf.14. Tockner K, Stanford J.A, (2002), Riverine floodplains: Present state and future trends. Environmental Conservation, 29 (3), pp 308-330.15. What is a water course, (2012), available at watercourse.htm, accessed during May 2012. Vipin Vyas et al 674 International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 3 No.1, 2012