These learning objectives are expressed in the chapter and you may prefer to move directly to slide 5, if you are comfortable that students agree with the objectives. It should be noted at this point, that all slides that have been prepared for this and the other chapters, have been animated to assist in the presentation. The most important animations are not the bulleted text items (which are animated) but rather the animation of models and exhibits. Models and exhibits contain “sequenced” animations and attempt to portray in visual terms, what the text attempts to portray in words. Many of the models contained in the textbook are taken out of their “static” context and shown here as the “dynamic” constructs they are. A dynamic construct is one that shows how one variable or event is affected by another, and this implies change. Such concepts should be presented dynamically, which means the animation should reflect the change implied by the construct or model. It is a good idea to “play” through the slides before presenting the materials to be sure you understand how they work. Although these slides can be printed and displayed as “transparencies”, the dynamic nature of the concepts will be less obvious. The slides are best shown in the classroom with your computer connected to the overhead projector. To view the animated presentation, select “View Show” from the Slide Show pull-down menu, or press the F5 key at the top of the keyboard, or select “Slide Show” from the View pull-down menu. . The slides were prepared using Office 2000 to facilitate the likely lowest common denominator for software. However, they will also play under Office XP and newer software.
The photos that accompany this slide may generate a good discussion of differences between people (career choices, gender, etc.) that play a role in motivational factors. What motivates architects, doctors and construction workers, for example? What is the role of internal and external forces in our choices regarding careers to pursue?
Exhibit 12.1 (page 413 of the text) has been animated to permit point-by-point discussion of each of the three sources of motivation, if presented in the “View Show” mode. Characteristics of the individual are related to “Internal or push forces”, whereas characteristics of the job and characteristics of the work situation are both associated with “External or pull forces.” The text in this slide is necessarily small and may be difficult to view in some classrooms.
Exhibit 12.2 (page 414 of the textbook) has been animated to permit point-by-point discussion of the two types of theories (content and process), and the focus and name of the theories.
This slide previews the concepts in the theory. You may prefer to delay discussion of details until slide 11, where a hybrid model comparing Maslow’s concept to that of Alderfer.
This slide previews the concepts in the theory. You may prefer to delay discussion of details until slide 11, where a hybrid model comparing Maslow’s concept to that of Alderfer.
Exhibit 12.3 (page 418 of the text) has been animated to permit discussion at the three points in Alderfer’s hierarchy. This is a good time at which to bring in examples of rewards that satisfy each level of need and what managers might do to motivate employees using this concept.
This slide presents the acquired needs theory. Most of the discussion centers around the need for achievement, however, both the need for power and the need for affiliation are sources of motivation for managers and employees. Examples of people and positions for these two needs will round out your discussion.
This slide presents initial concepts in the two-factor theory, motivators and hygiene factors. The next slide (14) presents an animation of the variables within each factor set. Slide 15 presents a model for how these factors relate to one another and ultimately to higher employee motivation and performance.
Exhibit 12.4 (page 420) has been roughly animated to permit you to discuss variables associated with motivators, and those associated with hygiene factors. The differential impact of these variables on intrinsic motivation, vs. extrinsic motivation should be part of your discussion.
Exhibit 12.5 (page 421) has been animated from bottom to top. That is hygiene factors emerges from the bottom, and then motivators emerge from the state of being neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, in accordance with the premises of the concept. Examples of jobs with little satisfaction of hygiene factors, and those with satisfaction of hygiene factors, but little satisfaction of motivators, and finally those jobs with satisfaction of both factors will help clarify the differential impact of these factors.
This slide presents initial implications for job design, based on the job characteristics model. Again, by looking at specific occupations, a good discussion of the five characteristics can be generated. For the occupation pictured, what do students feel would be the nature of skill variety, task significance, experienced meaningfulness of work, experienced responsibility for outcomes of work, and autonomy? This worker appears to be pouring molten metal into a casting mold, is clad in protective clothing, etc. How might his job be redesigned to influence the job characteristics?
Exhibit 12:6 (page 422) has been animated to permit point-by-point discussion of core job characteristics, their impact on critical psychological states, and the subsequent impact on work outcomes. Three important “motivators” from Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory are juxtaposed to show their relationship to this job enrichment model.
Exhibit 12.7 (page 423) is presented over 2 slides, which will appear seamlessly as one if presented in the “View Show” mode. The exhibit is animated to present point-by-point discussion of the five core job characteristics, their definitions and examples. You may change the examples, but be careful you don’t lose the alignments of the columns. I would not recommend changing the definitions, as they need to be accurate definitions of the characteristic(s).
This slide previews the concepts in the theory. You may prefer to delay discussion of details until the next slide, which presents several examples of equity/inequity situations, and the means available to employees to resolve inequities.
Exhibit 12.8 (page 424) has been animated to permit point-by-point discussion of equity and two types of inequity (underpayment inequity is the first inequity example and overpayment inequity is the second. Five actions available to employees for resolving inequities are then presented. It is useful to elicit from students, reasons why they have left jobs, and whether many of them fit the equity explanation. By the way, I altered the inequity boxes to reflect an unequal sign rather than an equal sign, a more common method of expressing an inequity. Students may ask about this, and it is really just a convention that some prefer. If you prefer the equal sign, then “ungroup” those two boxes, delete the line drawn for indicating unequal, and reanimate the boxes, being sure to maintain the order in which the boxes are animated.
This slide previews the concepts in the theory. You may prefer to delay discussion of details until the next slide, where the model itself is presented.
Exhibit 12.9 (page 426) has been animated to present each variable in this concept in sequential fashion, permitting point-by-point discussion. I have labeled the E—P influence as “expectancy” and the P—O influence as “instrumentality” which follows from the discussion in the textbook. If you prefer to remove these labels, merely click on those labels in the design mode (not the view show mode) and delete them by cutting or pressing the backspace key. The order of discussion is to click once to discuss “effort”, again to discuss “performance”, a third time to discuss “expectancy” while the notions of effort and performance are fresh. Then a fourth click will permit discussion of “outcome” and a final click will permit discussion of “instrumentality” while the notions of performance and outcome are fresh.
This slide presents several ways that expectancy theory can be applied (actions) to positively influence employee motivation. You may put this in terms of managerial functions, such as compensation, training and other functions that serve to complete these actions. For example, training an employee in steps necessary to complete a task serve to strengthen expectancy (beliefs that their efforts will lead to valued rewards. Other examples may be elicited from students.
This slide presents information pertinent to social cognitive theory. The important motivational variable in motivation according to this notion is self efficacy, measured by three variables; magnitude, strength and generality. The next slide is a model of methods for increasing one’s self-efficacy.
Four factors that increase self-efficacy are enactive mastery, vicarious learning, physiological or psychological arousal and verbal persuasion. These are presented in Exhibit 12.10 (page 427) which is animated here to permit point-by-point discussion of each factor. Note that self-efficacy increases as each factor is added to the equation, which is consistent with the concept. Each of these factors enhances self-efficacy on its own merits. The notes below are drawn from the textbook to remind you of the discussion surrounding these variables Enactive Mastery Experience: Succeeding on a similar prior task and attributing that success to one’s own capabilities rather than to luck or circumstances: for example, “I have the skill that it takes to succeed on this task,” rather than, say, “I was lucky,” or “I only did what was expected.” Vicarious Learning/Modeling: Knowledge gained by observing or learning how others successfully perform a task and then modeling one’s own behavior in a similar manner. Verbal Persuasion: Statements from others that convince a person that he or she can successfully perform the task. For instance, “As your manager, I have full confidence that you have the ability to perform this task quite successfully.” Physiological and Psychological Arousal: Potential energizing forces that can increase self-efficacy beliefs if the focus is directed to the task. For example, generating expressions of enthusiasm from colleagues can raise the arousal level of an individual. However, if such heightened arousal is focused on one’s self—as is often the case, for example, when one is giving a speech—rather than on the task, it can be distracting and thus detrimental to self-efficacy and subsequent performance.
This slide presents the two conclusions seen in the text regarding goals as a source of motivation. I have elicited from students personal experiences regarding goal difficulty and specificity, especially in terms of goals they have in mind for a course grade and how that affects their motivation.
Reinforcement theory (some use the term operant conditioning) is familiar to many students as a result of their having taken an undergraduate class in psychology. This slide presents four aspects of reinforcement theory that are obvious in relation to motivation.
I explain to students that the term “reinforcement” always means to strengthen behavior. That will sometimes help clear up confusion when they see the next slide (“negative” reinforcement).
Negative reinforcement also strengthens behavior, but students will confuse this with punishment unless you can give some good examples. I like to use the case of a teenager who has been punished for a previous bad behavior (came home late from a date), by being grounded. That punishment will weaken the behavior of staying out too late. A few days later the teenager cleans up his/her room without being asked, and the parents remove the grounding ( negative reinforcement ) which should strengthen the behavior of cleaning up his/her room. It is often the case that the presence of a negative factor in one’s environment is the result of a previous punishment remaining for some other undesired behavior. The clip art inserted into this slide is another good example of a work factor that can be “removed” from the work environment following a desired behavior. Excessive work load can be a very negative factor in the work environment. When an employee”organizes” and works hard to clear up the excess work load, that burden is “lifted” from his or her shoulders and the employee experiences a great sensation of relief as that work load is eliminated. This can be a very powerful, intrinsic reinforcement of the desired behavior of being organized and staying on top of one’s responsibilities.
Punishment and extinction both are intended to weaken undesired behavior. Psychologists tend to dislike punishment because of unintended consequences and avoidance behavior. Extinction is preferred, although psychologists would tend to remove all consequences, not just the positive consequences. Parents use this with misbehaving children and call it “time out” when they stand the child in the corner or banish them to a neutral environment such as a bathroom. Extinction is very difficult to apply because the administer must have control over all consequences (to prevent all of them), which is often not the case. To reinforce or to punish, they only have to have control over one (a single) consequence.
Exhibit 12.11 (page 433 of the textbook) has been animated to permit point-by-point discussion of each of the four reinforcement approaches. The exhibit is presented over this and the next slide, but will appear seamless if presented in the View Show mode. Because of the horizontal volume of information the text is at the lower end of readability and may not be viewable students in the back of very large classrooms. Providing additional examples will help students grasp the differences in these approaches.
This discussion is not based on a “formal theory” of motivation, but is instead based on other things we know about motivation in work settings. It would be useful to elicit from students their different experiences with supervisors or workgroups and how these impacted their desire to work harder, or less hard.
Exhibit 12.12 is found on page 437 of the text. It has been animated to permit point-by-point discussion of the differences between American, Japanese and Arabic cultures in core values that impact motivation. Students who have international experience may be able to add to this discussion.
Exhibit 12. 13 from page 438 has been animated to permit point-by-point discussion of differences in work centrality between four countries. If you recall, work centrality is the degree of general importance that working has in the life of an individual at a point in time. I suspect this variable also differs within a culture by such factors as age and gender.
Adapted from Exhibit 12.1: Key Variables that Influence Motivation INTERNAL (PUSH FORCES) EXTERNAL (PULL FORCES) Characteristics of THE INDIVIDUAL (examples) Characteristics of THE JOB Characteristics of THE WORK SITUATION (examples) (examples)
Factors related to doing the job (work itself, responsibility, personal growth, sense of achievement, recognition)
Can prevent dissatisfaction, but cannot increase satisfaction
Factors extrinsic to or surrounding the job (supervision, relations with co-workers, working conditions, company policies and practices)
Motivators and Hygiene Factors Adapted from Exhibit 12.4: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: Motivators and Hygiene Factors Recognition Achievement Growth Responsibility Nature of the work Motivators: Factors directly related to doing a job Hygiene Factors: Elements associated with conditions surrounding the job Job Relations with co-workers Working conditions Benefits Compensation Supervision
Effects of Hygiene Factors and Motivators Adapted from Exhibit 12.5: Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory: Differential Effects of Hygiene Factors and Motivators
Hygiene factors must be satisfied first, leading to a state of being neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
From the state of being neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, motivators can impel an employee’s motivation and performance to higher levels
Hygiene-Factors Extrinsic factors related to conditions surrounding the job: Motivators Intrinsic factors related to the doing of the job itself: Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
Core Job Characteristics Adapted from Exhibit 12.7: Core Job Characteristics in Job Characteristics Model Core Job Definition Example Characteristics Task identity Task significance The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work, involving the use of a number of different skills and talents of the person. The aerospace engineer must be able to create blueprints, calculate tolerances, provide leadership to the work group, and give presentations to upper management. The degree to which a job requires completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work, that is, doing a job from beginning to end with a viable outcome. The event manager handles all the plans for the annual executive retreat, attends the retreat, and receives information on its success from the participants. The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people, whether those people are in the immediate organization or in the world at large. The finance manager devises a new benefits plan to improve health coverage for all employees.
Core Job Characteristics Adapted from Exhibit 12.7: Core Job Characteristics in Job Characteristics Model The degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. Feedback from job R&D scientists are linked via the company intranet, allowing them to post their ideas, ask questions, and propose solutions at any hour of the day, whether at the office, at home, or on the road. The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job provides the individual with direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. The lathe operator knows he is cutting his pieces correctly, as very few are rejected by the workers in the next production area. Source: Adapted from J. Richard Hackman and Greg R. Oldham, Work Redesign (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1980). Core Job Definition Example Characteristics
Focuses on the thought processes people use when faced with choosing among alternative courses of action
Effort (E P) x (P O) x V
Expectancy Theory E = effort P = performance O = outcome V = valence Adapted from Exhibit 12.9: Components of Expectancy Theory E P (I believe high effort will lead to good performance) P O (I believe high performance will lead to recognition from my supervisor) Effort Performance Outcome (V: I do or do not value recognition from my supervisor) Expectancy Instrumentality
Reinforcement Approaches Reinforcement Managerial Approach Action Effect Example Provide desirable consequence Increase probability of behavior being repeated Highway construction supervisor receives bonus for each day a project is completed ahead of schedule. Negative reinforcement Remove undesirable consequence Increase probability of behavior being repeated Management stops raising output quotas each time workers exceed them. Punishment Provide undesirable consequence Decrease probability of behavior being repeated Habitually tardy crew member is fined the equivalent of one hour’s pay each day he is late to work. Adapted from Exhibit 12.11: Reinforcement Approaches and Their Effects
Reinforcement Approaches Adapted from Exhibit 12.11: Reinforcement Approaches and Their Effects Remove desirable consequence Decrease probability of behavior being repeated Group member stops making unsolicited suggestions when team leader no longer mentions them in group meetings. Reinforcement Managerial Approach Action Effect Example
Differences in Core Values American Japanese Arabic Competition Risk-taking Material possessions Freedom Group harmony Belonging Reputation Family security Religious belief Social recognition Adapted from Exhibit 12.12: Differences in Core Values among Three Cultures
Work Centrality: Country Differences United States (4.79) Japan (5.2) Israel (4.89) Germany (4.29) Work Centrality Adapted from Exhibit 12.13: Work Centrality: Country Differences 0 1 2 3 4 5 6