TELECOMMUNICATION Etymology The French word télécommunication was coined in 1904 by the French engineer and novelist Édouard Estaunié The word telecommunication was adapted from the French word télécommunication. compound of the Greek prefix tele-, meaning "far off", and the Latin communicare, meaning "to share".
HISTORY OF TELECOMMUNICATION In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system (or semaphore line) between Lille and Paris. However semaphore systems suffered from the need for skilled operators and the expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometers . As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial semaphore line was abandoned in 1880. A replica of one of Chappe'ssemaphore towers in Nalba
HISTORY OF TELECOMMUNICATION The first commercial electrical telegraph was constructed by Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill Cooke, and its use began on April 9, 1839. Then many transformation and improvement were done in telegraphics. The conventional telephone now in use worldwide was first patented by Alexander Graham Bell in March 1876. As with other great inventions such as radio, television, the light bulb, and the digital computer, Alexander Graham Bell and Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who created the first telephone company, the Bell Telephone Company of the United States, which later evolved into American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T). The first commercial telephone services were set up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven, Connecticut, and London, England.
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION POINT-TO-POINT COMMUNICATION Telecommunication over telephone lines BROADCAST COMMUNICATION Telecommunication through radio broadcasts MULTIPLEX SYSTEM. Telecommunications in which multiple transmitters and multpile receivers
Top 10 Largest Telecom Operators in World AT&T - the former SBC merged with AT&T creating the new AT&T (USA) China Mobile - formerly China state-owned, now still state-controlled, one of two mobile phone monopolies in the entire China. Vodafone - Britain's largest telecom operator. Verizon Communications - US-based telecom company formed after a series of mergers. Telefonica - Multinational company with stakes in Dpain, Latin America and Europe. Owns the O2 brand. Deutsche Telekom - German telecom company, also owns t-mobile. America Movil - Mexican operator controlled by the world's richest man - Carlos Slim. NTT DoCoMo - One of Japan's telecom operators. France Telecom - One of France's telecom companies. Nippon Telegraph & Telephone - Japan's second largest telecom operat
Indian Telecommunication Industry The Indian telecommunications has been zooming up the growth curve at a feverish pace The key sectors responsible for India's resurgent economic growth. India is has surpassed US to become the second largest wireless network in the world with a subscriber base of over 300 million ( acc. to the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India )
The year 2010 saw India achieving significant distinctions
Segment-wise growth Wireless segment is the preferred mode of telephone service by the consumers, the rising share of mobile phone connections to total connections. 1.The share of mobile phones has increased from 71.69 per cent at the end of March 2006 to 87.68 per cent at the end of May 2008. 2.While total mobile subscriber base was 277.92 million, wire line subscriber base was 39.05 million. 3.Consequently, overall tele-density has increased to 27.59 per cent at the end of May 2008. INDIA,the second largest mobile market in the BRIC nations, with 560 million mobile users
Investment cumulative FDI inflows into the Indian telecommunications sector amounted to US$ 3.84 billion, accounting for 6.81 per cent of the total FDI inflows into the country. In fact, the surge in mobile services market is likely to see huge amount of investment implying a mobile in the hands of every second person in the country. Buoyed by the rapid surge in the subscriber base, huge investments are being made into this industry by companies like • Maxis Communications-owned mobile service provider Aircel • Srei Group's Quippo Telecom Infrastructure Ltd (QTIL) • The Central public sector enterprises(CPSEs) have lined up investments for infrastructure sectors like telecom energy and power for 2008-09. • Vodafone Essar has invest US$ 6 billion to increase its mobile subscriber base from 40 million at present to over 100 million.
India is emerging as a handset super-power as more manufacturers set up base in the country, it is not only the world's fastest-growing telecom market but it is also making remarkable progress in the telecom manufacturing space. The Indian telecom equipment manufacturing sector is set to become one of the largest globally by 2010. Simultaneously, India's surging domestic market is also providing excellent investment opportunities in other segments of telecom equipment industry.
• Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) is shifting its global services business unit headquarters from Munich to India. • Nokia set up its manufacturing plant in Chennai. • Samsung has set up its GSM mobile manufacturing base in Manesar. • Motorola has established a manufacturing plant in Sriperumbedur. • Sony Ericsson has set up GSM Radio Base Station Manufacturing facility in Jaipur and R&D centre in Chennai.
Value Added Services Market India's runaway success in mobile telephony has also given a boost to the mobile value added services (MVAS) market. According to a study by Stanford University and consulting firm BDA, the Indian MVAS is likely to grow at a CAGR of 44 per cent 2010.
The Government has taken many proactive initiatives which has provided a framework for the rapid growth of the telecom industry. • Opening the industry for private sector participation. • 100 per cent FDI is permitted in telecom equipment manufacturing through the automatic route. • FDI ceiling in telecom services has been raised to 74 per cent. • Establishment of an independent regulator - the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)-for the telecom sector. • Introduction of a Unified access licensing regime for telecom services on a pan-India basis. . • Introduction of Mobile Number Portability in a phased manner, starting with the fourth quarter of 2008. • Allowing service providers to share active infrastructure
Road Ahead According to a report by Boston Consulting Group, while only one in 20 of the world's first two billion mobile subscribers live in India, as many as one in every four of the next billion subscribers will be an Indian. The department of telecommunication estimates the total subscriber base to total 500 million by 2010, out of which 80 million are expected to be from rural areas. The Indian telecom industry's revenue, likewise, is estimated to increase, which according to Ernst & Young is expected to be 3.6 per cent of the total GDP of the country. With such growth projection, this industry is likely to see increased investments. In fact, total investment is projected at US$ 76.6 billion during the eleventh plan period (2007-12). Private sector is estimated to continue its dominant share, accounting for 67 per cent of the total projected investment while public sector accounts for the rest.
Cellular services can be divided into two categories: The Global system for Mobile Communication (GSM) sector is dominated by Airtel, Vodafone-Hutch, and Idea Cellular TheCode Division Multiple Acess( CDMA) sector is dominated by Reliance and Tata Indicom. CDMA market has increased its market share up to 30%. across the globe, CDMA has been losing out numbers to popular GSM technology, contrary to the scenario in India
Reasons for growth > low tariffs >falling handset prices
PROBLEM FACED . The bottlenecks for ' Indian Telecom Industry ' are: >Slow reform process. >Low penetration. >Service providers bears huge initial cost to make inroads and achieving break-even is difficult. >Lack of infrastructure in semi-rural and rural areas, which makes it difficult to make inroads into this market segment as service providers have to incur a huge initial fixed cost. >Huge initial investments. >Limited spectrum availability and interconnection charges between the private and state operators.
Rural Telecom Market – an emerging market According to numbers compiled by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India As on September 2007, out of the 209 million mobile users in the entire country, 43 million were in rural areas. Rural India will wrest 40 percent of new telecom market
India’s rural telecom connectivity is poised for explosive growth in the next five to 10 years, grabbing a 40 percent share of the new market The government will roll out new incentives for mobile networks in rural India. It’s also planned that the ultra-low cost handset of approximately Rs.840 ($20) to the market with built-in subsidies, lifetime validity and minimal maintenance costs have promoted mobile usage in remote areas.
Reasons for rural inclination rural areas has now become the hot spot for private telecom operators. Nearly 75 per cent of the mobile users in the villages are now owned by private operators as cellular phones catch the imagination of rural consumers. Until now, state-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd was known to be the only significant rural telecom operator in the country. Analysts said that the share of rural telecom consumers will continue to increase as operators have initiated an aggressive roll-out plan to cover remote areas of the country. This is primarily driven by a slump in the growth rate of mobile user base in the metro and urban areas. According to the data released by the Cellular Operators Association of India Circle C and Circle B States such as Bihar, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and Punjab are showing better growth rates compared to the metros. Therefore, most of the mobile operators are investing heavily in setting up infrastructure in these circles. The telecom regulator has suggested a number of initiatives to make mobile connection attractive, including lower entry cost to make it more affordable.
Corporate views on telecom sector ! In a hi-tech market like telecom, Schumpeter's view that competition through innovation is more important than price holds significance. Technology advancements, lower costs and competition translate this into benefits for the consumer. Moreover, competition drives innovation." - PoonamMadanSarmah, Head of Research, Genesis PR. "We are looking at making the phone a more useful product than just an instrument to exchange voices. We want to be identified as a great value-added service provider." - HaritNagpal, Vice President (Corporate Marketing), Vodafone
Telecom tops in employment growth According to estimates of the World Bank, employment in the telecommunications sector has grown by 33 per cent since 1994, the highest growth among all the sectors in the services industry. While the Word Bank numbers, released in its recent report on `India's Services Revolution,' head-hunters and recruiters say that telecom is still the favorite among higher level professionals. Thanks to the aggressive rollout of a countrywide network, operators like Reliance Infocom, Tata Teleservices and Bharti have gone on a hiring overdrive. From a career point of view, telecom sector continues to offer growth and new learning as the sector matures and the business opportunities expand. These Telecom companies require large number of telecom engineers, telecom software engineers and Telecom test engineers in the functional areas of Embedded software development, Analog Digital engineering technology, Telecom networking, Protocol, Chip Design Engineering, VLSI Software Testing. In the Mumbai Telecom companies there are Software Engineer jobs, Telecom software Engineers jobs, Quality / Test Engineer jobs, Product Manager job openings, Network Security Systems Specialist vacancies, NMS Engineer jobs, Network Management specialists, Managers, UNIX Network Systems Operations Engineers, NMS Administrator jobs, Cisco Specialist Software Engineer etc. Taking a cue from the demand for telecom professionals, top educational institutions have begun specialized courses in telecommunication management. Symbiosis in Pune and Amity in Delhi are examples of such institutions. Even state-owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd (MTNL) has set up a training facility for telecom engineers in Mumbai.
BhartiAirtel is one of the most valued company of India. It is also the leading telecom provider in India. Reliance Communications follows Airtel in market capitalization. Interestingly the same order holds good for the total number of subscribers these telecom companies has.
Bharti has a subscriber base of 91.1 million and added 2.7 million subscribers in Feb 2009. Reliance added 3.3 million new subscribers in FEB 2009 to take the total to 69.6 million. Reliance rolled out its GSM operations late last year following which there was a surge in the number of new subscribers. It also added more subscribers than Airtel in a month. Following MTNL is the list of other telecom providers in infrastructure, equipment and value added services. Vodafone-Essar which has 66 million subscribers is not listed on the Indian Bourses. BSNL is also not listed and that is the reason why it is not in the list. If listed it could be one of the top companies. There is a lot of things happening around BSNL’s IPO even before the recession started. Now, that the recession has started the IPO plans were postponed. But, BSNL will dilute 10% stake sooner than later. *Market valuations as on 20 MAR 2009. Source (ETIG)
Our Vision & promiseBy 2010 Airtel will be the most admired brand in India: Loved by more customers Targeted by top talent Benchmarked by more businesses We at Airtel always think in fresh and innovative ways about the needs of our customers and how we want them to feel. We deliver what we promise and go out of our way to delight the customer with a little bit more”
BhartiAirtel !! BhartiAirtel Telecom giant BhartiAirtel is the flagship company of Bharti Enterprises. The Bharti Group, has a diverse business portfolio and has created global brands in the telecommunication sector.
Airtel comes to you from BhartiAirtel Limited, India’s largest integrated and the first private telecom services provider with a footprint in all the 23 telecom circles. BhartiAirtel since its inception has been at the forefront of technology and has steered the course of the telecom sector in the country with its world class products and services. The businesses at BhartiAirtel have been structured into three individual strategic business units (SBU’s) - Mobile Services, AirtelTelemedia Services & Enterprise Services. The mobile business provides mobile & fixed wireless services using GSM technology across 23 telecom circles while the AirtelTelemedia Services business offers broadband & telephone services in 94 cities. The Enterprise services provide end-to-end telecom solutions to corporate customers and national & international long distance services to carriers. All these services are provided under the Airtel brand.
FUTURE Development In the mobile business, BhartiAirtel plans to make considerable investments in Network expansion to establish presence in all census towns and over 500,000 villages across India by 2010, thereby covering 95% of the country’s total population. The company’s strategic focus will be on further strengthening the Airtel brand through best-in-class customer service, which is backed by wide national distribution.
The Airtel subscriber base according to COAI - Cellular Operator Association of India as of May 2008 was
Achievements The first private player in telecom sector to connect all states of India. The first mobile service provider to introduce the lifetime prepaid services and electronic recharge systems. the network has spread over 93 per cent along the National Highways and 88 per cent of key rail routes across the State . Having achieved huge success in mobile services- postpaid and prepaid- Now entered fixed-line telephony providing broadband services in 92 cities across India. The company has an optical fiber network of 35,016 km and a customer base of 35,440,406 GSM mobile and 1,819,083 broadband subscribers. Airtel is listed on The Stock Exchange, Mumbai (BSE) and The National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE). Rapidly expands network, to roll out across all census towns and over 5,00,000 villages – covering over 95% of the population. the fastest private telecom company in the world to achieve this milestone Enters into the league of the world’s top telecom companies, moves towards top 5 global mobile companies Adding 25000 towers every month expanding their network all over India. Wide range of Value Added Services – like ringtones, caller tunes, news etc One of the 1st company to introduce mobile banking, mobile bill payments etc
Targets To provide a superior network service that is congestion-free and to help customers get connected the first time. The SMS capacity is sought to be raised spread its wings in US by providing its mobile service under the name 'CALLHOME' to the NRIs.
Advertisements Airtel’s advertising campaigns are always admired. Their idea of creating a signature ringtone with A R Rehman was brilliant; and they still continue to use that tone. In a masterstroke they elevated the brand without having to talk of talk time , rates etc. Then came the almost magical ‘Express Yourself ‘ campaign stunningly executed with excellent imagery and creativity. It showcased the ubiquitous utility of the mobile phone through the situations ( a fighting couple, a bride entering church, an irate mob) but converted a rational purchase decision to an extension of one’s voice. And from that Bharti’s market share has kept increasing to being the biggest mobile service provider. They chose the country’s most popular people i.e. SRK, Kareena and Sachin for their campaign & made connection with people. Its advertisements always touch the chord of the people.
Airtel to focus on rural expansion More than 48 million mobile users 9.80 million subscribers from rural areas. planned to increase the pace of its network expansion in rural areas Distribution has been growing at a rapid pace and Airtel will be in easy reach for all customers in the State. We want to increase the brand presence and become far more local,” CEO says.