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Teaching intonation

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Teaching intonation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. TEACHING PRONUNCIATION WHY, WHAT, HOW
  • 2. You r learning experience?
    • THINK ABOUT YOUR PREVIOUS ENGLISH LEARNING EXPERIENCE
    • What percentage of instructional time was devoted to pronunciation?
    • How would you rate the quality of your teachers’ pronunciation of English (good, fair, poor)?
    • Which techniques for teaching pronunciation did your teachers use?
    • What type of feedback did you recieve regarding your pronunciation?
    • What else contributed to your learning the pronunciation of English? (at and outside school)
  • 3. WHY TEACHING PRONUNCIATION
    • English is the major lingua franca globally.
    • More and more people need to use English for social, educational, and professional reasons in all kinds of contexts, locally and internationally.
    • It is essential that people who use English to communicate have a high level of intelligibility. ( Celce-Murcia et al, 1996)
  • 4. HOW : APPROACHES TO PRONUNCIATION TEACHING
    • INTUITIVE-IMITATIVE: pronunciation is acquired as a result of exposure and interaction in an environment where the target language is spoken.
    • ANALYTIC-LINGUISTIC : pronunciation is learned through instruction in order to raise awareness
  • 5. LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS AND PRONUNCIATION  Grammar translation  Direct method  Audiolingual method  Silent way  Community language learning  Total physical response  Communicative approach
  • 6.
    • Teaching pronunciation within the communicative framework means guiding learners to experience speech as transfer of a message from one person to another. Doing this helps learners to think about their pronunciation as communication, rather than as a classroom exercise, and to focus on their listener’s perception rather than on their own production. (Celce-Murcia et al., 2001)
  • 7. Aims
    • TO PROMOTE INTELLIGIBILITY (a high amount of understandable utterances)
    • TO ENSURE COMPREHENSIBILITY (meaning of the message is clearly understood) (Jenkins, 2002)
  • 8. WHAT ASPECTS OF THE ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION TO TEACH?
    • PHONETICS vs PHONOLOGY
    • SEGMENTAL vs SUPRASEGMENTAL
    • LINGUA FRANCA CORE LANGUAGE: the pronunciation features that can cause interference in international communication contexts. (Jenkins 2000)
  • 9. Lingua franca core
    • Vowel quantity: the distinction between long and short vowels is more important than exact vowel quality.
    • Phonetic realisations of consonants: some such approximations may lead to unintelligibility.
    • Consonant cluster simplification: consonant deletion to simplify a cluster affects intelligibility considerably.
    • Prominence and weak forms: teaching should focus on achieving correct prominence on stressed syllables, rather than on weak forms or schwa.
    • Tone groups: failing to use tone groups to divide the stream of speech into manageable, meaningful chunks has a serious effect on intelligibility for all listeners.
    • Nuclear/contrastive stress: putting prominence on the wrong word in an utterance, will direct the listener’s attention to the wrong place, leading to confusion.
  • 10.
    • What really works? Pronunciation teaching works better if the focus is on larger chunks of speech, such as words, phrases and sentences.
    • Pronunciation lessons work best if they involve the students in actually speaking, rather than in just learning facts or rules of pronunciation.
    • Learning pronunciation requires an enormous amount of practice, especially at early stages.
  • 11. Good teaching principles?
    • * Setting realistic goals
    • * Integrating pronunciation to listening and speaking skills practice
    • * Being student-centred
    • * Helping learners become self-reliant
  • 12. TEACHING STRATEGIES
    • DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS: phonemic charts, minimal pairs, transcriptions, kinesthetic activities.
    • LISTENING DISCRIMINATION: listening for meaning, listening for pronunciation.
    • CONTROLLED PRACTICE: drills, repetition, shadow reading, reading aloud, role plays.
    • COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE: discussions, speeches, conversations, problem solving.
  • 13. ASSESSING PRONUNCIATION
    • Diagnostic evaluation: identifying students’ pronunciation needs.
    • Ongoing feedback: growing awareness on progress and focus on improvement.
    • Self-monitoring.
    • Peer feedback.
    • Teacher’s feedback.
    • Celce-Murcia et al, 2001
  • 14. LEARNING STRATEGIES
    • COGNITIVE: memory strategies, practising naturalistically, formally practising the sounds and rhythm, analysing patterns.
    • METACOGNITIVE: setting goals, planning, self-monitoring, looking for opportunities to speak/ listen to English outside classroom.
    • SOCIO- AFECTIVE: asking for help, cooperating, peer-assessment, lowering anxiety.
  • 15. Learners’ characteristics that may affect the process of learning :
    • Personality traits, self consciosness, self image (identity)
    • Overdemanding attitude
    • Physiological problems: articulators
    • Cognitive skills: memory, a “good ear”
  • 16. Key points in pronunciation teaching
    • * Perception and Production
    • * Practice and patience
    • * Relaxing atmosphere, confidence building, awareness raising
    • * Focus on communication
  • 17. YOUR TASK!
    • A- Choose a textbook and analize the pronunciation activities presented in terms of purpose and interaction.
    • B- Design a lesson integrating pronunciation into language teaching.
  • 18. Bibliography
    • Celce-Murcia, Brinton, Goodwin (1996) TEACHING PRONUNCIATION. A Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge:CUP
    • Celce-Murcia, Marianne (2001) TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE. United Kingdom:Heinle-Heinle.