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Teaching intonation

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    Teaching intonation Teaching intonation Presentation Transcript

    • TEACHING PRONUNCIATION WHY, WHAT, HOW
    • You r learning experience?
      • THINK ABOUT YOUR PREVIOUS ENGLISH LEARNING EXPERIENCE
      • What percentage of instructional time was devoted to pronunciation?
      • How would you rate the quality of your teachers’ pronunciation of English (good, fair, poor)?
      • Which techniques for teaching pronunciation did your teachers use?
      • What type of feedback did you recieve regarding your pronunciation?
      • What else contributed to your learning the pronunciation of English? (at and outside school)
    • WHY TEACHING PRONUNCIATION
      • English is the major lingua franca globally.
      • More and more people need to use English for social, educational, and professional reasons in all kinds of contexts, locally and internationally.
      • It is essential that people who use English to communicate have a high level of intelligibility. ( Celce-Murcia et al, 1996)
    • HOW : APPROACHES TO PRONUNCIATION TEACHING
      • INTUITIVE-IMITATIVE: pronunciation is acquired as a result of exposure and interaction in an environment where the target language is spoken.
      • ANALYTIC-LINGUISTIC : pronunciation is learned through instruction in order to raise awareness
    • LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS AND PRONUNCIATION  Grammar translation  Direct method  Audiolingual method  Silent way  Community language learning  Total physical response  Communicative approach
      • Teaching pronunciation within the communicative framework means guiding learners to experience speech as transfer of a message from one person to another. Doing this helps learners to think about their pronunciation as communication, rather than as a classroom exercise, and to focus on their listener’s perception rather than on their own production. (Celce-Murcia et al., 2001)
    • Aims
      • TO PROMOTE INTELLIGIBILITY (a high amount of understandable utterances)
      • TO ENSURE COMPREHENSIBILITY (meaning of the message is clearly understood) (Jenkins, 2002)
    • WHAT ASPECTS OF THE ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION TO TEACH?
      • PHONETICS vs PHONOLOGY
      • SEGMENTAL vs SUPRASEGMENTAL
      • LINGUA FRANCA CORE LANGUAGE: the pronunciation features that can cause interference in international communication contexts. (Jenkins 2000)
    • Lingua franca core
      • Vowel quantity: the distinction between long and short vowels is more important than exact vowel quality.
      • Phonetic realisations of consonants: some such approximations may lead to unintelligibility.
      • Consonant cluster simplification: consonant deletion to simplify a cluster affects intelligibility considerably.
      • Prominence and weak forms: teaching should focus on achieving correct prominence on stressed syllables, rather than on weak forms or schwa.
      • Tone groups: failing to use tone groups to divide the stream of speech into manageable, meaningful chunks has a serious effect on intelligibility for all listeners.
      • Nuclear/contrastive stress: putting prominence on the wrong word in an utterance, will direct the listener’s attention to the wrong place, leading to confusion.
      • What really works? Pronunciation teaching works better if the focus is on larger chunks of speech, such as words, phrases and sentences.
      • Pronunciation lessons work best if they involve the students in actually speaking, rather than in just learning facts or rules of pronunciation.
      • Learning pronunciation requires an enormous amount of practice, especially at early stages.
    • Good teaching principles?
      • * Setting realistic goals
      • * Integrating pronunciation to listening and speaking skills practice
      • * Being student-centred
      • * Helping learners become self-reliant
    • TEACHING STRATEGIES
      • DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS: phonemic charts, minimal pairs, transcriptions, kinesthetic activities.
      • LISTENING DISCRIMINATION: listening for meaning, listening for pronunciation.
      • CONTROLLED PRACTICE: drills, repetition, shadow reading, reading aloud, role plays.
      • COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE: discussions, speeches, conversations, problem solving.
    • ASSESSING PRONUNCIATION
      • Diagnostic evaluation: identifying students’ pronunciation needs.
      • Ongoing feedback: growing awareness on progress and focus on improvement.
      • Self-monitoring.
      • Peer feedback.
      • Teacher’s feedback.
      • Celce-Murcia et al, 2001
    • LEARNING STRATEGIES
      • COGNITIVE: memory strategies, practising naturalistically, formally practising the sounds and rhythm, analysing patterns.
      • METACOGNITIVE: setting goals, planning, self-monitoring, looking for opportunities to speak/ listen to English outside classroom.
      • SOCIO- AFECTIVE: asking for help, cooperating, peer-assessment, lowering anxiety.
    • Learners’ characteristics that may affect the process of learning :
      • Personality traits, self consciosness, self image (identity)
      • Overdemanding attitude
      • Physiological problems: articulators
      • Cognitive skills: memory, a “good ear”
    • Key points in pronunciation teaching
      • * Perception and Production
      • * Practice and patience
      • * Relaxing atmosphere, confidence building, awareness raising
      • * Focus on communication
    • YOUR TASK!
      • A- Choose a textbook and analize the pronunciation activities presented in terms of purpose and interaction.
      • B- Design a lesson integrating pronunciation into language teaching.
    • Bibliography
      • Celce-Murcia, Brinton, Goodwin (1996) TEACHING PRONUNCIATION. A Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge:CUP
      • Celce-Murcia, Marianne (2001) TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE. United Kingdom:Heinle-Heinle.