THINK ABOUT YOUR PREVIOUS ENGLISH LEARNING EXPERIENCE
What percentage of instructional time was devoted to pronunciation?
How would you rate the quality of your teachers’ pronunciation of English (good, fair, poor)?
Which techniques for teaching pronunciation did your teachers use?
What type of feedback did you recieve regarding your pronunciation?
What else contributed to your learning the pronunciation of English? (at and outside school)
WHY TEACHING PRONUNCIATION
English is the major lingua franca globally.
More and more people need to use English for social, educational, and professional reasons in all kinds of contexts, locally and internationally.
It is essential that people who use English to communicate have a high level of intelligibility. ( Celce-Murcia et al, 1996)
HOW : APPROACHES TO PRONUNCIATION TEACHING
INTUITIVE-IMITATIVE: pronunciation is acquired as a result of exposure and interaction in an environment where the target language is spoken.
ANALYTIC-LINGUISTIC : pronunciation is learned through instruction in order to raise awareness
LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS AND PRONUNCIATION Grammar translation Direct method Audiolingual method Silent way Community language learning Total physical response Communicative approach
Teaching pronunciation within the communicative framework means guiding learners to experience speech as transfer of a message from one person to another. Doing this helps learners to think about their pronunciation as communication, rather than as a classroom exercise, and to focus on their listener’s perception rather than on their own production. (Celce-Murcia et al., 2001)
TO PROMOTE INTELLIGIBILITY (a high amount of understandable utterances)
TO ENSURE COMPREHENSIBILITY (meaning of the message is clearly understood) (Jenkins, 2002)
WHAT ASPECTS OF THE ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION TO TEACH?
PHONETICS vs PHONOLOGY
SEGMENTAL vs SUPRASEGMENTAL
LINGUA FRANCA CORE LANGUAGE: the pronunciation features that can cause interference in international communication contexts. (Jenkins 2000)
Lingua franca core
Vowel quantity: the distinction between long and short vowels is more important than exact vowel quality.
Phonetic realisations of consonants: some such approximations may lead to unintelligibility.
Consonant cluster simplification: consonant deletion to simplify a cluster affects intelligibility considerably.
Prominence and weak forms: teaching should focus on achieving correct prominence on stressed syllables, rather than on weak forms or schwa.
Tone groups: failing to use tone groups to divide the stream of speech into manageable, meaningful chunks has a serious effect on intelligibility for all listeners.
Nuclear/contrastive stress: putting prominence on the wrong word in an utterance, will direct the listener’s attention to the wrong place, leading to confusion.
What really works? Pronunciation teaching works better if the focus is on larger chunks of speech, such as words, phrases and sentences.
Pronunciation lessons work best if they involve the students in actually speaking, rather than in just learning facts or rules of pronunciation.
Learning pronunciation requires an enormous amount of practice, especially at early stages.
Good teaching principles?
* Setting realistic goals
* Integrating pronunciation to listening and speaking skills practice
* Being student-centred
* Helping learners become self-reliant
DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS: phonemic charts, minimal pairs, transcriptions, kinesthetic activities.
LISTENING DISCRIMINATION: listening for meaning, listening for pronunciation.
CONTROLLED PRACTICE: drills, repetition, shadow reading, reading aloud, role plays.
COMMUNICATIVE PRACTICE: discussions, speeches, conversations, problem solving.