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Transcript

  • 1.
    • Signalling the structures
  • 2.
    • An intonation break corresponds to a syntactic boundary. It may be placed between successive sentences, successive phrases, and occasionally successive words. However, intonation breaks between words are only used for emphasis.
  • 3.
    • Typical examples:
    • ‘ Milk comes from ‘ cows . || ‘Wool comes from ‘ sheep .
    • ‘ Milk comes from ‘ cows , | and ‘wool comes from ‘ sheep .
    • ‘ Milk | comes from ‘ cows .
  • 4.
    • Less typical examples:
    • De ‘ li cious, | ‘ cool | ‘ milk .
    • I ‘ don’t | ‘ like it.
  • 5.
    • Even less typical examples:
    • ‘ Ab so | ‘ lute ly | ‘ de | ‘ lic ious!
    • ‘ Bor | ‘ ing !
  • 6.
    • Sometimes intonation breaks carry some ambiguities to the hearer. These ambiguities cannot be resolved by intonation breaks; only by the common sense of the hearer.
  • 7.
    • Example:
    • ‘ Look at that dog with one ‘ eye !
    • ‘ Look at that ‘ dog | with one ‘ eye !
  • 8.
    • But some ambiguities can be resolved by intonation break.
  • 9.
    • Example:
    • I’ll ‘talk to the students in the ‘ garden .
    • I’ll ‘talk to the ‘ students | in the ‘ garden .
  • 10.
    • It is not only the presence or absence of intonation break than can resolve a possible ambiguity, but also its location.
  • 11.
    • Examples:
    • The com ‘petitors who ‘ fi nished | ‘first received a ‘ goody bag.
    • The com ‘petitors who finished ‘ first | re ‘ceived a ‘ goody bag.
    • The intonation break marks the end of the relative clause and the end of the noun phrase that is the subject of the verb received .
  • 12.
    • There is in any case usually an intonation break at the end of the list.
    • Example:
    • The flags are ‘red, white and ‘ blue .
    • The flags are ‘ red , | ‘ white , | and ‘ blue .
  • 13.
    • Choosing the size of the chunks
  • 14.
    • Each intonation phrase presents one piece of information. The speaker has to break the message up into chunks of information.
  • 15.
    • The size of an IP is linked to the decisions the speaker makes about how many words, and therefore how many syllables, to accent.
  • 16.
    • IPs
    • Scripted material and Spontaneous conversation
    • material read aloud
    • IPs are longer IPs are shorter
    • IPs are have more accents IPs have fewer accents
  • 17.
    • Chunking and grammar
  • 18.
    • There are some strong tendencies exerted by the grammar and tonality.
    • There is normally an intonation break at every sentence boundary.
  • 19.
    • Examples:
    • ‘ Stop ! || You’re ‘going to hit the ‘ wall .
    • ‘ That’s the end of Part ‘ One . || In ‘Part ‘ Two , | we shall…
  • 20.
    • Each clause tends to be said as a separate IP. So if a sentence consists of several clauses, there will be usually be an intonation break at each clause boundary.
  • 21.
    • Examples:
    • When I ‘ cough , | it ‘hurts my ‘ throat .
    • I’ll tell you, | but you must ‘keep it a ‘ se cret.
  • 22.
    • If the subject of a coordinate clause is omitted, there is usually no intonation break.
  • 23.
    • Examples:
    • She was ‘sitting and ‘ thinking .
    • In this case, “she” is omitted, as well as “Peter” in the next case.
    • Peter ‘ likes him and ‘ trusts him.
  • 24.
    • Where the object or other element is omitted, there is no intonation break after the first verb, providing the subject is unchanged.
  • 25.
    • Examples:
    • Peter ‘likes and ‘ trusts him.
    • In both cases the object is omitted: “him” in the first sentence, and “the clothes” in the second one
    • I’ve ‘washed and ironed the ‘ clothes .
  • 26.
    • In coordinate clauses with different subjects and verbs but an ellipted object, an intonation break after each of the verbs is virtually compulsory.
  • 27.
    • Example:
    • Mary’s pre ‘ pared , | and we’ve ‘all just ‘ eaten , | a delicious ‘ meal .
    • In this case, “a delicious meal” is the ellipted object