Consumer Behaviour Part2: The Individual Perspective


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Preparation for the Consumer Behaviour exam at Edinburgh Business School. Content extracted from the ‘Consumer Behaviour’ text book by David A. Statt. All pictures used for educational purposes only. No copyright infringement intended.

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Consumer Behaviour Part2: The Individual Perspective

  1. Consumer Behaviour Part II: The Individual Perspective Preparation for the Consumer Behaviour exam at Edinburgh Business School Content extracted from the ‘Consumer Behaviour’ text book by David A. Statt All pictures used for educational purposes only. No copyright infringement intended.
  2. PART II The Individual Perspective4) Perception 5) Personality 6) Learning, Memory & Thinking 7) Motivation
  3. Module 4: Perception
  4. Using our 5 Senses vision taste touch hearing smell
  5. Multi-sensual Marketing taste & smell touch vision hearingWe are used to associating particular consumer environments with specific senses, like a supermarket with vision, or a perfume counter with smell, but clever marketing will make use of as wide a range of sensory stimulation as possible.
  6. Thresholds of Awareness: j.n.d. just noticeable difference (j.n.d.) for a night at the Waldorf Astoria? $500 499
  7. Thresholds of Awareness: j.n.d. $3.49 just noticeable difference (j.n.d.) for a 2.49 menu at Cindy’s?
  8. Sensory Adaptation Can you still smell the fish? Just as people in fish markets get used to the smell, you can get used to the feel of what you wear.
  9. Processing Sensory InformationThe sense organs provide our brain with a steady flow of information about our environment and the brain’s task is then to take this raw material and use it to help us make sense of that environment through the process of perception.
  10. Focussing and Attention In or d e r to perceive something we have to give it our attention.
  11. External factors movement contrast repetition sizestimulus provided by a change in the environment that is most important
  12. Internal factors Different people react to the same sensations in different ways. One person may put on a sweater because the room is too cold, while another throws open the windows. The most important internal factor in perception is what people expect to see or hear in each situation.
  13. Organising Perceptual Cues/Distortions Figu re a Grou nd nd sio ns I llu
  14. Grouping into patterns The wearing of uniforms is a common form of grouping the similar and identifying the dissimilar as applied to people.
  15. Closure and The Zeigarnik Effect If certain things are familiar to us our perceptual process will close the gaps in the picture.
  16. Organising Perceptual Cues/DistortionsPerceptual ConstancyDepth and DistanceMovement
  17. Subliminal Perception The sheer amount of exposure to a stimulus increases our general feeling of liking for it.
  18. Product Images, Self-images and Consumer Behaviour Companies try to influence consumer perceptions by encouraging associations between themselves and a desirable and appropriate image.
  19. Perceiving Risk performance financial Six identified time forms of risk physical psychological
  20. Coping with Risk Relying on brand loyalty is the most popular strategy for reducing perceived risk.
  21. Module 5: Personality
  22. What makes someone a unique person? The psychologist and the layman use the term personality to make sense of an individual’s behaviour.
  23. Define ‘Personality’ The sum total of all the factors that make an individual human being both individual & human.
  24. Freudian Iceberg Ego Easy, you Conscious both. Unconscious ID Superego Do it! No, no.These three aspects of the personality are constantly interacting with each other as we move through life. Frequently they are in conflict.
  25. Freud’s Developmental Stages
  26. Owning a hot car is the psychic equivalent of having a mistress
  27. Personality TestsMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI★ most common encountered personality test, a questionnaire★ 550 statements to answer with ‘true’, ‘false’, or ‘cannot say’
  28. Personality TestsThematic Apperception Test TAT★ projective test; widely used★ 20 b/w pictures with ambiguous relationships depicted
  29. Personality TestsRorschach ink blot test★ projective test; maybe most famous psychological test★ Testee sees people or things that are important to him or her
  30. Neo-Freudian Psychoanalysis: Classify relationships Compliant, Aggressive, or Detached orientation
  31. Self Theory
  32. Marketing and the Concept of Self Actual self image: trad. concept of how people see themselves Ideal self image: how people would like to see themselves Social self image: how people think others see them Ideal social self image: how people would like others see them
  33. Trait Theory: Raymond Catell
  34. Brand Personality A way of characterising the image of a brand by giving it personal associations, as though it were an individual.
  35. Module 6: Learning, Memory & Thinking All consumer behaviour is learned behaviour
  36. Learning is......the relatively permanentprocess by which changesin behaviour, knowledge,feelings or attitudes occuras the result of priorexperience.
  37. The Behaviourist Approach Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. (Watson, 1913, p. 158)
  38. Classical Conditioning
  39. Classical Conditioning
  40. Classical Conditioning: Consumer Applications
  41. Operant Conditioning: The Skinner Box
  42. Operant Conditioning: Consumer Applications Your supermarket has a new brand of yoghurt on offer and you decide to try it, your future purchases of the product will depend on whether your response is reinforced or rewarded by your liking it.
  43. The Cognitive Approach See what someone does and infer from that behaviour what she thinks or feels.
  44. The Cognitive Approach reaction
  45. Information Processing & the Concept of Memory Whatever we learned would be of no use to us unless we had some way of storing it, ready to be retrieved when needed.
  46. Making Learning Meaningful: Repetition
  47. Making Learning Meaningful: Visuals one picture is worth a thousand words
  48. Making Learning Meaningful: Self-referencing When people are asked to relate information to their own lives their memory of the material is increased.
  49. Making Learning Meaningful: Meaningfulness We learn new things by linking them with things we already know.
  50. ModellingObserve thebehaviour ofothers and usethem as modelsfor your ownbehaviour.
  51. Module 7: Motivation ‘Why’ do people buy what they buy?
  52. How Managers see employee motivation THEORY X THEORY Y People are inherently lazy so they must be People seek meaning and a sense of motivated by external incentives accomplishment and to exercise auton- omy and be independent in their work They will pursue their own goals, which run As they are basically controlled and self- counter to those of the organisation, so they motivated they will find external controls and need extra controls to keep them in line incentives demeaning They are quite irrational and incapable of If they are only given the chance to do so self-discipline or self-control they will come to regard the organisation’s goals as their own. The rare individuals who are rational, controlled and self-motivated will therefore have to manage others.
  53. Motivation - the wish, need, desire - to do so. A general term for any part of the hypothetical psychological process which involves the experiencing of needs and drives and the behaviour that leads to the goal which satisfies them.
  54. Motivation and Buying Behaviour Buying Behaviour = Ability + Opportunity + Motivation BB = ƒ(A, O, M)
  55. Components of MotivationMotivation = Need Incentive Internal External Buying Behaviour
  56. The Fulfillment of Needs: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  57. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Consumer Applications
  58. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Consumer Applications
  59. The Motivational Mix: Multiple Motives One important implication for marketers is that where people do not enter a shopping mall with specific purchases in mind they need to consider the factors that underlie impulse buying.
  60. The Motivational Mix: Approach & Avoidance Approach-Approach conflict - conflict Approach- conflict
  61. The Motivational Mix The Force of Inertia Unless we are actively seeking certain products we will follow our established buying habits.
  62. The Motivational Mix: Antecedents of Involvement 1/3 Concerned with consumer’s self-image and the needs, drives, values, interests and fantasies. I.e.Intimate relationship with their car, buying of car magazines. PERSON
  63. The Motivational Mix: Antecedents of Involvement 2/3 Consumer’s perception of the product, affects the level of involvement. Product
  64. The Motivational Mix: Antecedents of Involvement 3/3 A consumer’s level of involvement can also be influenced by the situation in which a product is being purchased. Situation
  65. The Motivational Mix: Properties of Involvement Consumers who are highly involved will spend a great deal of time and effort on making purchase decisions.
  66. The Motivational Mix: Outcomes of Involvement The outcomes of involvement will depend on the interaction between the preceding two sets of factors.
  67. The Motivational Mix: Specific Needs Achievement Affiliation Power
  68. The Motivational Mix: Need of Achievement (labelled n Ach)People high on n Ach have a preference for particular situations, where the degree of risk involved is neither high nor low but moderate, feedback on their performance is provided, individual responsibility is acknowledged.
  69. The Motivational Mix: Need of Affiliation This need is characterised by the particular importance to the individual of love and acceptance and the feeling of belonging.
  70. The Motivational Mix: Need of Power Maslow’s level of Safety. That is, people who are high on this need seek a feeling of security by trying to control as much of their lives and their environment as possible.
  71. Unconscious Motivation When a woman bakes a cake and pulls it out of the oven she is(unconsciously and symbolically) going through the process of giving birth.
  72. also...
  73. Unconscious Motivation Research showed that killing roaches with a bug spray and watching them squirm and die allowed women to express their hostility toward men, and it also afforded them a feeling of power and control over their immediate environment.
  74. Semiotics Semiotics is concerned with the meanings that signs and symbols have for people, both consciously and unconsciously.
  75. Relationship between Maslow’s hierarchyand specific needs: MASLOW SPECIFIC Physiological ----- Safety Power Social Affiliation Self-esteem Achievement Self-actualisation Achievement
  76. Congrats! You finished Consumer Behaviour part II.