Laden Yurttaguler - Discourse of volunteerism in a changing world
Content of the Presentation
Why or how , after the 1980s, the number and the
impact of the CSOs have increased globally?
How is volunteering defined in different periods since
What are the opportunities and obstacles for and/or due
to the volunteering for the disadventegous groups –
young people - ?
1980s have witnessed two important developments:
◦ Changes in the social welfare states
◦ Changes in the regimes
◦ Minimizing the «social welfare state»
«Thatcher and Reagan policies»
f.e. Health, education, accommodation/housing
If not state
then the market
if not the market then NGOs?
In 1970: 52 International NGOs
In 1994 419 in USA (USAID, 1995)
In 1980 1600 northern international aid CSO
In 1990 more than 2500 including OXFAM, CARE, Medecins San
Frontieres (OECD, 1993)
◦ Democratization around the world
1989 collapse of the Soviet Union
1989 fall of the Berlin Wall
Democratization in Latin America countries after
Citizens «call on duty» for the
transparency, control, monitor of the (representative)
Re-considering the social contract / citizenship
Citizenship as a concept
◦ Citizenship and rights
◦ T.H. Marshall : «status» - equal and full membership
civil, political and social rights : holistic
Who is providing social rights?
Citizenship and rights
◦ Citizenship and «activity»
◦ Kymlicka and Norman : «status + belonging + activity»
Equality and social contract
Activity : representative and/or participatory democracy
VOLUNTEERING for service or advocacy?
1980 military coup in Turkey : limited/restricted civil
1982 constitution banned/limited civil initiatives
23.700 association to be closed down
Union members: 5.721.074 in 1980 to 1.711.254 in
1983 law: association under police control
At the end of the 1980s and beginning with the 1990s:
Human Rights Association in 1986, Purple Roof Woman
Shelter Foundation in 1990, History Foundation in
1991, TEMA 1992, Helsinki Citizens Association in
1992 and AÇEV in 1993.
Change in the constitution, article 33 – freedom of
During 1990s – formation of the terminology
◦ History Foundation – Civil Society Symposiums from
1994 – 2004;
CSO or Third Sector Organization?
◦ Habitat-II - concept of governance
◦ 1999 earthquake – language + volunteering
Who is volunteer – who is not?
◦ Legal status – diversification
◦ Member or not?
◦ What about money?
◦ The CSOs need a space to discuss and need
Bilgi NGO (2003) + CSDC (STGM) (2002)
◦ Service Providing CSOs and Volunteering:
Meeting with the «other» (service providing or
Model development : empowerment of the target
Sustainability of the service providing CSOs
Relation between the service providing CSOs and
Is there a hierarchical relation between the service
provider and the target group?
Working with the disadvantageous groups: is it «good»
for volunteers or target group?
Volunteers yet not experts ...
◦ Volunteering for advocacy
Being a volunteer or an activist?
Coordination of volunteers – borrowin a term from
the Management literature «management of the
Are the volunteers only «unpaid» labor or decision
makers in the CSOs?
Who has the right to decide for the CSO?
In-organization democracy – possible?
After the 2000s: Volunteering as a citizenship duty or
◦ Corporate social responsibility
◦ Social responsibility projects/courses and young
people: Does volunteering become a compulsory
activity? For cv or for grade?
◦ Is volunteering empowering for young people?
◦ Can young people decide in the CSOs?
◦ “Activism vs. volunteering” artificial or not?