and                          relativityBig Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC   1
http://www.platypusart.com/   Clockwork universe   Ptolemy geocentrism   Copernicus: heliocentrism   Gelileo: moons of...
Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC   3
 1880-1900: optimism. Telegraph, telephone, radio,  automobile, airplane, economic growth. Later on: new cultural moveme...
 Questions on the internal structure of matter. Questioning properties of aether. Matter vs. radiation. Clash of world...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jean_Metzinger,_Le_go%C3%BBter,_Tea_Time,_1911,_75.9_x_70.2_cm,_Philadelphia_Museum_of_A...
Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC                    7             http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthisto...
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PoincareHyperbolicDisk.htmlhttp://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatland                             ...
A visitor from the fourth dimensionBig Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC   9
Hannah Höch, Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung 1919                                                                           ...
   Ideas about higher (spatial) dimensions were very    much part of culture in the end 19th, beginning 20th    centuries...
   After Einstein’s publication of general    relativity in 1916, artists engaged with motion    and dynamical space-time...
The Persisentece of Memory,                                                                                               ...
… and this is what The Simpsons made of it…      http://www.gearfuse.com/simpson-meets-dali-the-simpsons-and-the-persistan...
• Psychological                                                  • Cosmological                                           ...
Local timehttp://www.sxc.hu/photo/1086908                                  Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC...
Postulates:                                                                                          1.   Laws of physics ...
Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC   18
tic      toc      Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC   19
Time        time for                                                            Time       time for oneone tick of        ...
Time        time for                                         Time       time for oneone tick of                           ...
Time        time for                                        Time       time for oneone tick of                            ...
• Time       time for one tick ofResult:                                    : moving clocks                stationary cloc...
   Observers moving with constant velocity with    respect to each other:    1. The laws of physics are the same.    2. V...
Even though the observer on the ground and the observer inthe airplane see different things, the laws of physics that appl...
There can be no ether in which light propagates. Light moves at the same speed in alldirections.                       Big...
When time and space look alike               Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC   27
   Einstein 1915: mass implies curvature of space-time.   Curvature is perceived as gravitational attraction.           ...
 Black hole itself cannot be seen. Indirect evidence: matter swallowed up by supermassive black  object. Predictions: t...
Gravitational lensing: the earth looks like a pancake when it isbehind the black hole because light rays are deflected.   ...
   If as heavy as the sun: one meter.   Supermassive (one million suns): size of the solar system.   Milky Way: Sagitta...
Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC   32
If the water travels at downward speed (increasing down the waterfall) and the fish swimsat upward speed , the fish cannot...
• Psychological                                                  • Cosmological                                           ...
   Compare the two figures (on earth/in space).   What is the equivalence principle?   What does this say about gravity...
   1959 lecture The Two Cultures and the    Scientific Revolution: C.P. Snow famously    argued that asking whether someo...
   Measure of a system’s thermal energy per    unit temperature that is unavailable for doing    mechanical work.   Numb...
Increasing entropy (disorder)Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC           38
Increasing entropy (disorder)Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC           39
Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC   40
   Main source of energy   Energy processed by plants                                         • Kinetic energy          ...
   Kinetic energy     Engine     Industrial revolution   Potential energy     Altitude     Electrical attraction   ...
Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC   43
  Energy quadratic in speedfirst written down byÉmilie du Châtelet. Willem Jacob ‘s Gravesande The heavier the object, ...
   Pair production of particles out of energy:              Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC   45
   Nuclear fusion within the Sun:• Proton: positively charged, found in nucleus  of the atom• Neutron: neutral, found in ...
The Higgs boson is the particle that gives mass to everything around us.                 Big Questions in Science, spring ...
: moving clocks run slower                             48
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4 Einstein and His Time

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Big Questions in Science series, (4 of 9). Class taught at AUC (University of Amsterdam) during the 2012-2013 fall semester.

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4 Einstein and His Time

  1. 1. and relativityBig Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 1
  2. 2. http://www.platypusart.com/ Clockwork universe Ptolemy geocentrism Copernicus: heliocentrism Gelileo: moons of Venus, Jupiters satellites, Saturns rings, sunspots Keplers laws Newton unifies heavens and earth: law of gravity Scientific revolutions Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 2
  3. 3. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 3
  4. 4.  1880-1900: optimism. Telegraph, telephone, radio, automobile, airplane, economic growth. Later on: new cultural movements (van Gogh, Cézanne, de Toulouse Lautrec). “There is nothing new to be discovered in physics now. All that remains is more and more precise measurement” (attributed to Lord Kelvin). Somewhat of a myth.  Modern physics developed in a context of crisis and decadence. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 4
  5. 5.  Questions on the internal structure of matter. Questioning properties of aether. Matter vs. radiation. Clash of world views:materialism vs. energeticism,mechanicism vs. electromagneticworld view. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 5
  6. 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jean_Metzinger,_Le_go%C3%BBter,_Tea_Time,_1911,_75.9_x_70.2_cm,_Philadelphia_Museum_of_Art.jpg Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 6http://www.theartworlddaily.com/2013/01/08/usps-turns-to-modern-art-for-its-2013-stamps-2/
  7. 7. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 7 http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/cubism/
  8. 8. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PoincareHyperbolicDisk.htmlhttp://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flatland http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Poincar%C3%A9 Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 8
  9. 9. A visitor from the fourth dimensionBig Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 9
  10. 10. Hannah Höch, Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung 1919 Naum Gabo, Kinetic Construction 1919-20 Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 10 Erich Mendelsohn, Einstein Tower 1920-21.
  11. 11.  Ideas about higher (spatial) dimensions were very much part of culture in the end 19th, beginning 20th centuries (Flatland). Poincaré suggested to represent higher-dimensional objects combining multiple perspectives. Picasso and Georges Braque responded to physics redefining matter and space: X-rays, radioactivity, electron, waves; not relativity. Picasso’s Vollard: space as suffused with ether, matter as transparent and continually dematerializing into ether on model of radioactivity. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 11
  12. 12.  After Einstein’s publication of general relativity in 1916, artists engaged with motion and dynamical space-times:  Gabo’s Kinetic Construction: sculpture in which space and time are active components.  Mendelsohn’s Einstein Tower: awareness of energies in mass, dynamic condition. Contractions of form. Science, technology organic as distortions of muscles human body (L. Dalrymple). Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 12
  13. 13. The Persisentece of Memory, 1931. Dalí engaged with time slowing down. He humorously compares paranoic “psychic dilation of ideas” to Einstein’s “physical dilation of measures”. “The soft, extravagant, and solitary paranoic-critical Camembert of time and space.”http://arthistory.about.com/od/from_exhibitions/ig/dali_painting_and_film/dali_moma_0708_11.htm Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 13
  14. 14. … and this is what The Simpsons made of it… http://www.gearfuse.com/simpson-meets-dali-the-simpsons-and-the-persistance-of-memory/ Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 14
  15. 15. • Psychological • Cosmological (increase in entropy) • Operational: what a clock measuresBig Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 15
  16. 16. Local timehttp://www.sxc.hu/photo/1086908 Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 16
  17. 17. Postulates: 1. Laws of physics are the same in all frames of reference 2. Speed of light is the same for all observershttp://www.newsbiscuit.com/2012/09/10/ministers-to-consider-raising-the-speed-of-light/ Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 17
  18. 18. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 18
  19. 19. tic toc Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 19
  20. 20. Time time for Time time for oneone tick of tick of moving clockstationary clock tic tic tic Time Time toc toc toc Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 20
  21. 21. Time time for Time time for oneone tick of tick of moving clockstationary clock tic tic tic toc toc toc Pythagoras: postulate 2 21
  22. 22. Time time for Time time for oneone tick of tick of moving clockstationary clock tic tic tic toc toc toc Result: : moving clocks run slower 22
  23. 23. • Time time for one tick ofResult: : moving clocks stationary clock run slower • Time time for one tick of moving clockTake:Object traveling at 99% of the speed of light:Stationary clock will tick seven times as fast Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 23
  24. 24.  Observers moving with constant velocity with respect to each other: 1. The laws of physics are the same. 2. Velocity of light in vacuum is the same. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 24
  25. 25. Even though the observer on the ground and the observer inthe airplane see different things, the laws of physics that applymust be the same for both. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 25
  26. 26. There can be no ether in which light propagates. Light moves at the same speed in alldirections. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 26
  27. 27. When time and space look alike Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 27
  28. 28.  Einstein 1915: mass implies curvature of space-time. Curvature is perceived as gravitational attraction. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 28
  29. 29.  Black hole itself cannot be seen. Indirect evidence: matter swallowed up by supermassive black object. Predictions: time delay, gravitational lensing. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 29
  30. 30. Gravitational lensing: the earth looks like a pancake when it isbehind the black hole because light rays are deflected.  Black hole itself cannot be seen.  Indirect evidence: matter swallowed up by supermassive black object.  Predictions: time delay, gravitational lensing. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 30
  31. 31.  If as heavy as the sun: one meter. Supermassive (one million suns): size of the solar system. Milky Way: Sagittarius A*. from us Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 31
  32. 32. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 32
  33. 33. If the water travels at downward speed (increasing down the waterfall) and the fish swimsat upward speed , the fish cannot escape beyond the point where . Near the horizon, space behaves as a timelike dimension. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 33
  34. 34. • Psychological • Cosmological (increase in entropy) • Operational: what a clock measuresBig Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 34
  35. 35.  Compare the two figures (on earth/in space). What is the equivalence principle? What does this say about gravity? Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 35
  36. 36.  1959 lecture The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution: C.P. Snow famously argued that asking whether someone is able to describe the Second Law of Thermodynamics is scientific equivalent of: Have you read a work of Shakespeare’s? His conclusion: every academic should know it. State the law (see e.g. p. 19, 64-65). How does it relate to time? Provide arguments for Snow’s statement. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 36
  37. 37.  Measure of a system’s thermal energy per unit temperature that is unavailable for doing mechanical work. Number of ways in which a system may be arranged (logarithmic grow times Boltzmann’s constant). The latter definition gives a measure of "disorder" (the higher the entropy, the higher the disorder). Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 37
  38. 38. Increasing entropy (disorder)Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 38
  39. 39. Increasing entropy (disorder)Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 39
  40. 40. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 40
  41. 41.  Main source of energy Energy processed by plants • Kinetic energy • Potential energy (gravitational, electric,…) • Heat (dissipated kinetic energy). Energy is conserved: types of energy Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 41
  42. 42.  Kinetic energy  Engine  Industrial revolution Potential energy  Altitude  Electrical attraction Heat:  Energy loss – friction Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 42
  43. 43. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 43
  44. 44.  Energy quadratic in speedfirst written down byÉmilie du Châtelet. Willem Jacob ‘s Gravesande The heavier the object, themore energy it contains. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 44
  45. 45.  Pair production of particles out of energy: Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 45
  46. 46.  Nuclear fusion within the Sun:• Proton: positively charged, found in nucleus of the atom• Neutron: neutral, found in nucleus of atom• Positron: positive charge, antiparticle of electron• Neutrino: neutral, interacts only weakly, small mass• Gamma ray: highly-energetic photon Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 46
  47. 47. The Higgs boson is the particle that gives mass to everything around us. Big Questions in Science, spring 2012. SdH, AUC 47
  48. 48. : moving clocks run slower 48

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