3 The Scientific Revolution

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Big Questions in Science series, (3 of 9). Class taught at AUC (University of Amsterdam) during the 2012-2013 fall semester.

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3 The Scientific Revolution

  1. 1. Big Questions in Science
  2. 2.  Scientific revolutions Copernicus: the Solar System Newton: gravity Todays idea of unification Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 2
  3. 3. • Oldest still working planetarium in the world, 1774-1781.• Reproduces the motion of the planets around the sun in real time. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 3
  4. 4. The mechanism http://www.planetariumzuylenburgh.com/CZ/Collectie_Z/Globes/Blaeu/Blaeu_EN.htmBig Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 4
  5. 5. • Medieval science (12th century renaissance): trust in human reason • Humanism of Renaissance: • Challenge Aristotle Technique: bridges, cathedrals, • New neoplatonic ideas fountains, optics, cartography, • Methodology machines • Value of technique • Other factors: cities, trade, voyages, warfare.Artificio de Juanelo, 16th century Toledo, Spain Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 5http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificio_de_Juanelo
  6. 6. • Applying the machine principle everywhere in science: animal bodies as complex machines. • Discovery of new worlds in the large and small scales: the universe is huge and packed. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 6http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strasbourg_astronomical_clock
  7. 7.  Galileo showed all machines based on lever principle. Kepler applied it to the planets (second law). “My aim is to show that the machine of the universe is not similar to a divine animated being, but similar to a clock.” Galilei: also falling stones tick like a clock. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 7
  8. 8.  Atoms.  Cartesian geometry.  “Most of the major steps forward in mechanics during the seventeenth century involved the contradiction of Descartes” (Westfall). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren%C3%A9_Descarteshttp://800millionparticles.blogspot.nl/2009/09/rene-descartes.html 8
  9. 9. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 9
  10. 10. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 10http://www.redorbit.com/education/reference_library/space_1/universe/2574692/geocentric_model/
  11. 11. http://astronomy.libsyn.com/index.php?post_id=203863 Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 11
  12. 12. Explanation of retrograde motion Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 12
  13. 13. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 13
  14. 14.  Ptolemaic Model Simulation Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 14
  15. 15. Heliocentric model: Sun at the center Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 15
  16. 16.  Planetary Orbit Simulator: Kepler’s First Law Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 16
  17. 17. Phases of Venus Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 17
  18. 18. Jupiter and its satellites: Saturn’s rings SunspotsIo, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 18
  19. 19.  Planetary Orbit Simulator: Kepler’s 2nd & 3rd Laws Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 19
  20. 20. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Newton-Principia-Mathematica_1-500x700.jpgBig Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 20
  21. 21.  Why does the Moon not fall on Earth? Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 21
  22. 22.  It is in constant fall but direction keeps changing. Kepler’s laws followThe Moon should behave asBig Questions in physical 2012. SdH, AUC instance an apple. any other Science, fall object, for 22
  23. 23. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 23
  24. 24. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 24
  25. 25. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 25
  26. 26. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 26
  27. 27.  Read the first page of Kuhn’s “Revolutions as Changes of World View”.  What does he mean by “scientists see… different things”, “scientists are responding to a different world”?  Give examples (dealt with in class and not dealt with in class).  Explain how the gestalt experiment relates to this. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 27
  28. 28. http://www.platypusart.com/ Clockwork universe Ptolemy geocentrism Copernicus: heliocentrism Gelileo: moons of Venus, Jupiters satellites, Saturns rings, sunspots Keplers laws Newton unifies heavens and earth: law of gravity Scientific revolutions Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 28
  29. 29. The Unity of Science Goal: unity of knowledge. Place of science within the pursuit of truth. Common to modern science, Greek tradition, Enlightenment. Unity of science can no longer be taken for granted:  Exponential growth of factual knowledge.  Increasing specialization and fragmentation.  Skepticism towards grand unifying schemes. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 29
  30. 30.  Big Question: what justifies our belief in the underlying unity of knowledge? Interdisciplinary approach assumes this. Disciplines are communicating vessels. Success of LAS program hinges on this assumption. Possible answer: reductionism. Everything can be reduced to physics. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 30
  31. 31.  Reduction still the goal in the natural sciences. Explain new kinds of phenomena: complexity, pattern formation, emergence, self-organization, information. New paradigm includes cultural and social dimensions of natural science. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 31
  32. 32.  Ethics, cosmos, logos:  Man is central to the stage of science (Kuhn’s revolution).  Complexity of the world rooted on order accessible to human enquiry and experimentation. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 32
  33. 33.  Education should reflect both order and complexity of nature.  Approach problems from a multitude of academic disciplines.  Adopt and adapt different methodologies.  Aim at synthesis. Big Questions in Science, fall 2012. SdH, AUC 33

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