Objective 6:<br />Describe the basic properties and structures of lipids<br />
About lipids:<br />A group of naturally occurring compounds including fats, oil, steroids, and waxes.<br />Relatively inso...
Fatty Acids<br />Fatty acids fill two major roles in the body:<br />1. as the components of more complex membrane lipids.<...
Triacylglycerides<br />Also called triglycerides, these are fats and oils that comprise the major energy source for the bo...
Phospholipids<br />Phospholipids are similar to fats but one of the fatty acid groups is replaced by a phosphate group<br ...
The building block of the phospholipids is phosphatidic acid which results when the X substitution in the basic structure ...
Glycolipids<br />They contain a fatty acid, sphingosine (amino alcohol- contain both an amine functional group and an alco...
Eg. CerebrosideNB. O=C-R:  fatty acidhead group attached to sphingosine<br />
Lipoproteins<br />A lipoprotein contains both proteins and lipids water-bound to the proteins. <br />It’s structure consis...
Eg. LDL<br />
References<br />Chemistry of lipids presentation by Prof. S. Nayak<br />http://rpi.edu/dept/bcbp/molbiochem/MBWeb/mb1/part...
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Objective 6: basic functions and properties of lipids

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Objective 6: basic functions and properties of lipids

  1. 1. Objective 6:<br />Describe the basic properties and structures of lipids<br />
  2. 2. About lipids:<br />A group of naturally occurring compounds including fats, oil, steroids, and waxes.<br />Relatively insoluble in water - Fats are composed mostly of non-polar bonds which don't form hydrogen bonds. As a result the fat molecules do not interact well with water molecules, so they are 'repelled' by the water and do not dissolve<br />Soluble in non-polar solvents such as ether and chloroform<br />Through our diet essential fatty acids [PUFA: linoleic, linolenic and arachodinic] are obtained and allows for the absorption of fat soluble vitamins [ A,D,E,K]<br />Fat is stored in adipose tissue, protects internal organs from shock because of insulating effect [thermal insulator in subcutaneous tissues and around certain organs].<br />Non-polar lipids act as electrical insulators [ i.e. do not respond to an electric field and completely resists the flow of electric charge], thus allowing rapid propagation of depolarization waves along myelinated nerves- this allows for the smooth and rapid flow of impulses. [messengers: steroid hormones, prostaglandins]<br />
  3. 3. Fatty Acids<br />Fatty acids fill two major roles in the body:<br />1. as the components of more complex membrane lipids.<br />2. as the major components of stored fat in the form of triacylglycerols.<br />
  4. 4. Triacylglycerides<br />Also called triglycerides, these are fats and oils that comprise the major energy source for the body.<br />Triacylglycerides are composed of a glycerol backbone to which 3 fatty acids are esterified.<br />
  5. 5. Phospholipids<br />Phospholipids are similar to fats but one of the fatty acid groups is replaced by a phosphate group<br />Amphiphilic nature(hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails) form a bilayer arrangement essential in cell membrane structure<br />Lecithin present in brain, nervous tissue, sperm and egg yolk<br />Cephalins present in brain and erythrocytes<br />
  6. 6. The building block of the phospholipids is phosphatidic acid which results when the X substitution in the basic structure shown in the Figure below is a hydrogen atom.<br />
  7. 7. Glycolipids<br />They contain a fatty acid, sphingosine (amino alcohol- contain both an amine functional group and an alcohol functional group), carbohydrate or carbohydrate derivative.<br />Are an essential part of cell membranes.<br />Cerebrosides present in white matter of brain and myelin sheath of nerves. <br />Gangliosides are found in grey matter of the brain.<br />
  8. 8. Eg. CerebrosideNB. O=C-R: fatty acidhead group attached to sphingosine<br />
  9. 9. Lipoproteins<br />A lipoprotein contains both proteins and lipids water-bound to the proteins. <br />It’s structure consists of:<br />a core consisting of droplets of triacylglycerols and/or cholesteryl esters<br /> a surface monolayer of phospholipid, cholesterol and specific proteins (apolipoproteins, e.g., apoprotein B-100 in low density lipoprotein).<br />Many enzymes, transporters, structural proteins, antigens and toxins are lipoproteins. <br />The different types of lipoproteins are <br />1] Chylomicron: Transports dietary triglyceride and cholesterol esters from intestine to peripheral tissues and liver <br />2] Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL):Transports endogenous triglyceride from liver to extrahepatic tissues.<br />3] Low density lipoprotein (LDL): Transports cholesterol from liver to extrahepatic tissues<br />4] High density lipoprotein (HDL): Transports cholesterol from extrahepatic tissues back to the liver in an esterified form<br /> Since lipids are water insoluble they are present in the blood in the form of lipoproteins which are water-soluble. <br />
  10. 10. Eg. LDL<br />
  11. 11. References<br />Chemistry of lipids presentation by Prof. S. Nayak<br />http://rpi.edu/dept/bcbp/molbiochem/MBWeb/mb1/part2/lipid.htm<br />http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/lipids.html<br />

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