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EcmaScript 6 - The future is here

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Talk given at JsDay (Verona, Italy) - May 2014

Talk given at JsDay (Verona, Italy) - May 2014

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  • 1. Sebastiano Armeli @sebarmeli http://courtreportingnyc.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/future-of-court-reporting.jpg
  • 2. @sebarmeli Sebastiano Armeli
  • 3. ES6
  • 4. History 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2003 (May) B. Eich invented Mocha (Dec) LiveScript renamed to JavaScript JSScript (June) ECMA-262 Ed.1! ! by TC39 committee ECMA-262 Ed.2 ECMA-262 Ed.3 ECMA-262 Ed.4 started ECMA-262 Ed.4 abandoned (Sep) Mocha renamed to LiveScript
  • 5. History 2005 2007 2008 2009 2011 2013 2014 ES 4 again! (Adobe, Mozilla,! Google)! ES 3.1 ! (Microsoft, Yahoo)! beginning ES 5 spec finalized (June) ECMA-262 Ed.5 (June) ES 6 proposals freeze (Dec) ECMA-262 Ed.6 target release (27th April) latest spec draft (July) Agreement: ES3.1 & ES-Harmony! ! ES3.1 becomes ES5
  • 6. ECMA-262 TC39 ES 4 ES-Harmony ES.Next ES 6 ECMA ES 7 es-discuss
  • 7. ES-Harmony Proposal ES 6 Candidate ECMA-262 Ed.6 standardized ES 6 Specification Draft TC39 Process Strawman Proposal
  • 8. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping / Calling API improvements Proxies
  • 9. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping / Calling API improvements Proxies
  • 10. (Fat) arrow function var y = (x) => x + 1 var y = function(x) { return x + 1; } ES6 ES5
  • 11. (Fat) arrow function var y = (x) => x + 1 var y = function(x) { return x + 1; } ES6 ES5 No constructor Syntax sugar Lexical `this` binding
  • 12. (Fat) arrow function var y = (x) => x + 1 var y = function(x) { return x + 1; } ES6 ES5 No constructor Syntax sugar Lexical `this` binding
  • 13. (Fat) arrow function var y = (x) => x + 1 var y = function(x) { return x + 1; } ES6 ES5 No constructor Syntax sugar Lexical `this` binding
  • 14. let x = (x) => {return x + 1} var x = function(x) { return x + 1; } let x = (x, y) => ({ x: x, y: y }) var x = function(x, y) { return { x: x, y: y }; } ES6 ES5
  • 15. let map = words => words.map((w) => w.length); var map = function(words) { return words.map(function(w) { return w.length; } } ES6 ES5 map([‘sea’, ‘beach’, ‘do’]); // [3,5,2]
  • 16. var obj = { doIt: function(){}, handle: function(){ document.addEventListener(‘click’, function(e) { this.doIt(); }.bind(this)); } } ES5 var obj = { doIt: function(){}, handle: function(){ var that = this; document.addEventListener(‘click’, function(e) { that.doIt(); }); } } ES3
  • 17. var obj = { doIt: function(){}, handle: function(){ document.addEventListener(‘click’, (e) => this.doIt()); } } ES6
  • 18. Object.getPrototypeOf(() => {})
  • 19. Object.getPrototypeOf(() => {}) Function.prototype
  • 20. When to use ‘function’ ?
  • 21. Constructors Generators Methods in obj
  • 22. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping & Calling API improvements Proxies
  • 23. Block Scoping Each BLOCK has got its lexical environment let/const bind variables to the lexical environment Variables declared with let/const are NOT hoisted
  • 24. var vs let (function() { console.log(y) // “undefined” if (true) { var y = “value”; } console.log(y) // “value” }());
  • 25. var vs let (function() { if (true) { let y = “value”; } console.log(y) // ERROR!! }()); (function() { console.log(y) // “undefined” if (true) { var y = “value”; } console.log(y) // “value” }());
  • 26. const (function() { const X; X = “foo”; // ERROR: x unitialized }()); (function() { const X = “foo”; X = “foo2”; // ERROR: x is read-only }());
  • 27. Block functions if (true) { function fn () {} } ! fn(); // ERROR!
  • 28. Destructing array var [x,y] = [‘a’, ‘b’]; ! console.log(x); // ‘a’ ! console.log(y); // ‘b’ ! ! var [x,y] = [y, x]; ! console.log(x); // ‘b’
  • 29. Destructing object var obj = {width: 50, height: 100}; ! var {width, height} = obj; ! console.log(width); // 50
  • 30. Destructing multiple return value var fn = function(){ return [“50”, “100”]; } ! var [width, height] = fn(); ! console.log(width); //50 console.log(height); //100
  • 31. Default values function(foo) { foo = foo || “a”; }
  • 32. Default values function(foo) { foo = foo || “a”; } function(foo = “a”) {}
  • 33. function fn(…args) { console.log(args); //[“a”, “b”, “c”] args.forEach(function(arg) { console.log(arg); }; } ! fn(“a”, “b”, “c”); ! // a // b // c Rest parameters
  • 34. Rest parameters function fn(a, …args) { console.log(args); //[“b”, “c”] args.forEach(function(arg) { console.log(arg); }; } ! fn(“a”, “b”, “c”); ! // b // c
  • 35. Spread operator function fn(a, b, c) {} ! var array = [“A”, “B”, “C”]; fn.apply(null, array);
  • 36. function fn(a, b, c) {} ! var array = [“A”, “B”, “C”]; fn.apply(null, array); fn(…array); Spread operator
  • 37. function fn(a, b, c) { var array = Array.prototype. slice.apply(arguments); } Spread operator
  • 38. function fn(a, b, c) { var array = Array.prototype. slice.apply(arguments); var array = […arguments]; } Spread operator
  • 39. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping / Calling API improvements Proxies
  • 40. for-of for-of loop on ‘iterables’ Arrays/Sets/Maps are ’iterables’ for-in limitations
  • 41. Iterable { iterator: function() -> iterator } { next: function() -> any } Iterators
  • 42. for-of var array = [“a”, “b”, “c”]; ! for (let el of array) { console.log(el); } ! // “a” // “b” // “c”
  • 43. Array comprehension var array = [1, 2, 11, 20]; ! var array_c = [x (for x of array) (if x > 10)]; ! // [11, 20]
  • 44. function* g() { yield “a”; yield “b”; } Generator var generator = g(); generator ‘constructor’ generator.next(); //{ value: “a”, done: false} generator.next(); //{ value: “b”, done: false} generator.next(); //{ value: undefined, done: true}
  • 45. ! function* g() { yield “a”; var retVal = yield “b”; return retVal; } var generator = g(); generator.next().value; //“a” generator.next().value; //“b” generator.next(“c”).value; //“c”
  • 46. ! function* asyncFn() { var data = yield getUser(); doSomethingElse(data); } function run(genFunction) { var generator = genFunction(); generator.next().value.then(function(val){ generator.next(val); }, function(err) { generator.throw(err); }); } run(asyncFn); Promise
  • 47. for (let el of generator) { console.log(el); } Generators are iterables
  • 48. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping / Calling API improvements Proxies
  • 49. Set Set of values - NO duplicates Different type of values add(key)/ has(key) / delete(key) entries() -> Iterator
  • 50. let countries = new Set(); countries.add(“US”); countries.add(“Italy”); countries.add(“US”); ! countries.values().next().value; // “US” ! countries.values().next().value; // “Italy” ! for(let country of countries) { console.log(country); }
  • 51. Map key-value Different type of values Object can be keys get(key)/ has(key) / set(key,val)
  • 52. let dict = new Map(); dict.set(“A”, 1); dict.set(“B”, 2); ! dict.get(“A”); // “1” dict.delete(“B”); ! for(let w of dict.keys()) { console.log(w); // “A” } ! for(let w of dict.values()) { console.log(w); // “A” }
  • 53. WeakMap Avoid memory leaks Reference to the key obj held weakly Key must be an object No iterators methods
  • 54. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping / Calling API improvements Proxies
  • 55. Module ! module “ads” { export function register(ad) { return ad; } } ! import {register} from “ads”; var app = { doIt: function() { register({}); } } export app; app.js lib/ads.js
  • 56. ! module “widget” {…} module “widget/button” {…} module “widget/text” {…} ! ! import ‘lib/ad’ as c; import { meth as method } from ‘a'; ! ! export default class {}; // Ad.js import Ad from ‘ad'; // app.js
  • 57. Loader API System.load('http://json.org/modules/json2.js', function(JSON) { alert(JSON.stringify([0, {a: true}])); }); System.import Configure module loading
  • 58. Class / Subclass! class Animal { constructor(name) { this.name = name; } toString() { return “This is: ” + this.name; } } class Cat extends Animal { constructor(name, ownerName) { super.constructor(name); this.ownerName = ownerName; } ! toString() { return super.toString() + “ owned by ” + this.ownerName; } }
  • 59. ! function Animal(name) { this.name = name; } ! Animal.prototype.toString = function() { return “This is: ” + this.name; }; ! function Cat(name, ownerName) { Animal.call(this, name); this.ownerName = ownerName; } ! Cat.prototype = Object.create(Animal.prototype); Cat.prototype.constructor = Cat; Cat.prototype.parent = Animal; ! Cat.prototype.toString = function() { return Animal.prototype.toString.call(this) + “ owned by ” + this.ownerName; }
  • 60. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping / Calling API improvements Proxies
  • 61. String methods startsWith() endsWith() contains() …
  • 62. Number methods Number.isInteger(num) Number.isNaN(num) Number.isFinite(num) …
  • 63. Array methods var divs = document.querySelectorAll("div"); Array.from(divs); ! // [<div></div>, </div></div>] ! Array.of(10, 11); ! // [10, 11] ! !
  • 64. var array = [“a”, “b”, “c”]; ! for (let [index, el] of array.entries()) { console.log(index, el); // 0 “a” // 1 “b” // 2 “c” } ! for (let index of array.keys()) { console.log(index); } ! for (let el of array.values()) { console.log(el); } !
  • 65. Object methods Object.setPrototypeOf(obj, proto) Object.assign(obj, mixin) Object.is(value1, value2)
  • 66. var object = { method() { return “a”; } } object.method(); // “a” !
  • 67. var object = { method() { return “a”; } } object.method(); // “a” ! function f(x, y) { return {x: x, y: y};} function f(x, y) { return {x, y}; } =
  • 68. Math methods Math.log2() Math.log10() Math.sinh() Math.cosh() …
  • 69. Generators & Iteration Summary Functions Collections Modularity Scoping API improvements Proxies
  • 70. Proxies var obj = {num: 1}; ! obj = Proxy(obj, { set: function (target, property, value) { target[property] = value + 1; } }); ! obj.num = 2 // [[Set]] console.log(obj.num); // 3
  • 71. Proxies function createDefensiveObject(target) { return new Proxy(target, { get: function(target, property) { if (property in target) { return target[property]; } else { throw new ReferenceError(); } } }); } ! var obj = createDefensiveObject({name: “Seb”}); console.log(obj.lastname); //ReferenceError http://www.nczonline.net/blog/2014/04/22/creating-defensive-objects-with-es6-proxies/
  • 72. Generators & Iteration Recap Functions Collections Modularity Scoping / Calling API improvements Proxies
  • 73. Promises Symbols Generator Expressions Quasi-literals (template-strings)
  • 74. Tools Traceur compiler (Google) es6-transpiler es6-module-transpiler (Square) es6-shim defs.js
  • 75. http://wiki.ecmascript.org/doku.php https://people.mozilla.org/~jorendorff/es6-draft.html http://kangax.github.io/compat-table/es6/ http://esdiscuss.org/ @sebarmeli Sebastiano Armeli