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Types of Variables
Types of Variables
Types of Variables
Types of Variables
Types of Variables
Types of Variables
Types of Variables
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Types of Variables

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  • 1. Types of variables
  • 2. Variables <ul><li>Can assume only one value </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable factor that can take any value while under observation/study </li></ul>Constants
  • 3.  
  • 4. Types of variables Based on cause and effect <ul><li>Independent/ manipulated (IV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ cause” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent/ responding (DV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ effect”/”observed” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extraneous/ constant (EV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>other variables kept constant </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Types of variables Based on the value of the variable <ul><li>Continuous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with fractional /decimal values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discontinuous/ discrete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>whole number values, no fractions </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Types of variables Based on the scale of measurements <ul><li>Nominal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>qualitative description, name </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ordinal/ranking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>order or sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mutually-exclusive classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>arbitrary zero point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>true zero point </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>Pineapple ( Ananas comosus ) contains bromelain extract, an aqueous protease enzyme that has been found to have anti-metastatic activity, low toxicology and have no side effects. Crude extracts were obtained from from a 1:1 ratio of distilled deionized water and filtered pineapple juice precipitated with saturated ammonium sulfate . Varying concentrations at 0%, 1%, 10%, and 100% of distilled deionized water and the extract were used to treat live acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells cultured in fetal bovine serum for 24 hours . The cytotoxic efficiencies were obtained as indicated by the permeation of blue trypan dye of cell membranes of unviable cells. The 1% extract yielded a higher number of dead cells than total number of cells than the culture media. The 10% extract showed signs of contamination, and the 100% showed cell eruptions and bloated cells. </li></ul>

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