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Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals
Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals
Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals
Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals
Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals
Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals
Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals
Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals
Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals
Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals
Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals
Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals
Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals
Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals
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Presentation 19 - Chemical Signals In Animals

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Key concepts
    • Hormones are compounds produced in one part of the body and transported to another location to produce specific responses; small amount s can induce substantial responses.
    • Chemical signals produced by the body are mostly produced by glands .
    • Hormones either affect a target effector organ directly or via the signal transduction pathway .
    • Effects of hormones vary depending on whether they bind to a receptor in the plasma membrane or within the nucleus of a cell.
    • Action of hormones is controlled by feedback mechanisms .
    • Hormones are classified by mode of transport or through chemical composition .
    • Diseases in the endocrine system occur when levels of hormones released are at an abnormal level or when receptors of that particular hormone are damaged.
  • 3. Endocrine system
    • Hormone-secreting cells
    • Chemical signals secreted into body fluids, eliciting responses in target cells
    • Functions with NS in maintaining homeostasis
    • Effects are slower and longer-lasting
  • 4. Maintenance of Homeostasis by the ES and NS
    • Neurosecretory cells – nerve cells that secrete hormones into bloodstream (eg. epinephrine )
    • Feedback regulation
      • Positive feedback
        • Suckling  release of oxytocin  milk secretion
      • Negative feedback
        • Control of blood calcium and glucose levels
  • 5. Invertebrate Endocrine Systems
    • Hydra –control method of reproduction
    • Mollusks –controls egg-laying
    • Arthropods – extensive endocrine systems for molting and maturity
      • Ecdysone  molting and promotion of adult features
      • Brain hormone (BH)  regulates production of ecdysone
      • Juvenile hormone (JH)  retention of larval characteristics
  • 6. Chemical signals and their modes of action most peptides, proteins and glycoproteins steroids and thyroid hormones
  • 7. Importance of signal transduction pathways
    • 1) Different pathways in different cells  different responses to the same signal
    • 2) Amplification of the single signal allows small amounts of hormones to have a large effect
  • 8. Vertebrate endocrine systems
    • Hypothalamus integrates endocrine and nervous functions
    • Neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus produce trophic/tropic hormones
      • Stored and secreted by posterior pituitary
      • Affect anterior pituitary’s release of own hormones
  • 9. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 10. Table 45.1 (continued ) Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 11. Feedback control loops: a closer look
    • Regulation of thyroid hormones
    • Regulation of glucose in the blood
  • 12. Hormones and the female reproductive cycle
  • 13. Hormones control the reproductive cycle of human females
  • 14. Performance-enhancing drugs

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