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The  Musculo skeletal  System Support, Protection, Movement and Locomotion
<ul><li>Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of posture </li></ul><ul><li>Heat production </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of ...
<ul><li>Forms from the mesoderm germ layer </li></ul><ul><li>Triploblasts   simplest: flatworms </li></ul><ul><li>Segment...
<ul><li>Vertebrate muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Invertebrate muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attache...
<ul><li>Motion produced by action of muscles on bones     levers </li></ul><ul><li>Tendons     attach muscles to bones (...
 
 
The muscle fiber is stimulated. Ca 2+  ions are released. Thin filaments move to middle of sarcomere. Muscle fiber contrac...
 
 
 
<ul><li>Cycle of contraction and relaxation generated from one stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>All or none response of muscle f...
<ul><li>Slow Twitch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More ATP from aerobic respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous extended...
 
 
<ul><li>Painful sensations caused by contraction/ </li></ul><ul><li>overshortening of muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </l...
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Presentation 13 - Muscular System

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Transcript of "Presentation 13 - Muscular System"

  1. 1. The Musculo skeletal System Support, Protection, Movement and Locomotion
  2. 2. <ul><li>Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of posture </li></ul><ul><li>Heat production </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of internal organs </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Forms from the mesoderm germ layer </li></ul><ul><li>Triploblasts  simplest: flatworms </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation  annelids, arthropods, vertebrates </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Vertebrate muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Invertebrate muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attached to bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Striated and voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardiac </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly branched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Striated and involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smooth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walls of hollow internal structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonstriated and involuntary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Striated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal or circular in shape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smooth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary movements </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Motion produced by action of muscles on bones  levers </li></ul><ul><li>Tendons  attach muscles to bones ( e.g. Achilles tendon ) </li></ul><ul><li>1 fixed point of attachment ( origin ) and 1 moving point of attachment ( insertion ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fascia  sheets that cover muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles work in antagonistic or opposing pairs </li></ul>
  6. 8. The muscle fiber is stimulated. Ca 2+ ions are released. Thin filaments move to middle of sarcomere. Muscle fiber contracts. Muscle tension increases.
  7. 12. <ul><li>Cycle of contraction and relaxation generated from one stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>All or none response of muscle fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Force Summation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing # and size of fibers contracting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing frequency at which action potentials are sent to muscle fibers </li></ul></ul>
  8. 13. <ul><li>Slow Twitch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More ATP from aerobic respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous extended contractions over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More myoglobin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fast Twitch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic metabolism (creatine phosphate and lactic acid fermentation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short bursts of speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatigue quickly </li></ul></ul>
  9. 16. <ul><li>Painful sensations caused by contraction/ </li></ul><ul><li>overshortening of muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperflexion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate oxygenation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low amount of electrolytes in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing intake of water and electrolytes </li></ul></ul>
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