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Presentation 07 - Animal Transport and Circulation
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Presentation 07 - Animal Transport and Circulation

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  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Functions of a transport/circulatory system
    • Invertebrate circulation
      • Diffusion
      • Aided by gastrovascular cavity
      • Water vascular system
      • Open circulatory system
      • Closed circulatory system
    • Vertebrate circulation
      • Fishes
      • Amphibians
      • Reptiles
      • Birds
      • Mammals
        • Pathway of blood
        • Cardiac cycle
        • Maintenance of heartbeat
        • Principles governing blood circulation
        • Lymphatic system
        • Blood composition and function
        • Cardiovascular disease
  • 3.
    • Transports materials
      • Nutrients from digested food
      • Respiratory gases: CO 2 and O 2
      • Waste materials: toxins and nitrogenous wastes
      • Antibodies
      • Hormones
      • Enzymes
    • Immune functions
    • Maintains homeostasis
      • Blood pH
      • Heat transport
  • 4.  
  • 5.
    • Gastrovascular cavity in simple invertebrates
    • Cnidarians (e.g. Hydra ) and flatworms (e.g. planarians)
    • No system required
    • Single opening: exchange of materials with the environment
    • Central cavity for digestion and distribution of substances throughout the body
    • Body walls two cell layers thick  materials undergo diffusion
  • 6.
    • Water vascular system in echinoderms
    • multi-purpose: locomotion, food and waste transport, respiration
    • movement of muscles pump water into canals
    • closed system of canals connecting tube feet
    • madreporite  ring canal  radial and lateral canal  tube feet  ampullae
  • 7.
    • Open circulatory system
    • Phylum Arthropoda, Phylum Mollusca (with one exception)
    • hemolymph
    • heart(s)  sinuses  ostia  heart(s)
    • diffusion from sinuses to organs
    • often serve a support purpose
    • disadvantage: loss of pressure in sinuses
    • insects: well-developed respiratory systems, O 2 not transported through the blood
  • 8.
    • Closed circulatory system or cardiovascular system
    • cephalopods, annelids, vertebrates
    • presence of blood vessels
    • advantages
      • rapid flow
      • may direct blood to specific tissues
      • blood cells and large molecules remain within vessels
      • can support higher levels of metabolic activity
  • 9.
    • Heart
      • Atrium
      • Ventricle
    • Blood vessels
      • Arteries
      • Arterioles
      • Capillaries and capillary beds
      • Venules
      • Veins
    • Blood
  • 10.
    • FISHES
    • Single-circulation
    • Fish heart
      • 2-chambered
        • atrium and ventricle
    • African lungfish heart
      • 3-chambered
        • 2 atria
          • LA: O 2 -rich blood
          • RA: O 2 -poor blood
          • spiral fold
        • partially divided ventricle
  • 11.
    • Amphibians
    • Pulmocutaneous and systemic circulation are partly separated
    • Amphibian heart
      • 1 ventricle
      • 2 atria:
          • LA: O 2 -rich blood
          • RA: O 2 -poor blood
    • advantage: oxygen-rich blood reaches the body’s organs faster
    • disadvantage: some mixing of O 2 -rich and poor blood occurs
  • 12.
    • Reptiles
    • Reptilian heart
      • 3-chambers (crocodilians have 4)
        • 2 atria
        • 1 ventricle (2 in crocodiles and alligators)
          • partially divided, decreases mixing
  • 13.
    • Birds and Mammals
    • 4 chambered heart:
      • 2 atria
      • 2 ventricles
    • full separation of pulmonary and systemic circuits
    • Advantages
      • no mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
      • gas exchange is maximized
      • pulmonary and systemic circuits operate at different pressures
    • Importance
    • Endothermic  high nutrient and O 2 demands in tissues
    • Numerous vessels  great deal of resistance, so requires high pressure
  • 14.
    • R side of heart:
      • pulmonary circuit
    • L side of heart:
      • systemic circuit
    • one way valves:
      • atrioventricular valves
      • semilunar valves
  • 15.
    • right atrium receives O 2 -poor blood from superior and inferior venae cavae
    • from right atrium into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve
    • pumped into the pulmonary artery through the pulmonary semilunar valve to lungs
    • O 2 -rich blood from lungs is returned to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins
    • enters the left ventricle via the mitral or bicuspid valve
    • exits the left ventricle into the aorta via the aortic semilunar valve
    • circulated to body tissues

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