Presentation 04 - Bioenergetics And Digestion in Lower Forms
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Presentation 04 - Bioenergetics And Digestion in Lower Forms

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Bioenergetics

Bioenergetics
Digestion in Lower Forms

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  • gastrovascular
  • Esophagus – no sphincter valve, two-way contraction of esophagus muscles Rumen and reticulum – low partition, intermix, main fermentation vat teeming with microorganisms (before exposing to gastric juices) Omasum – filter pump to sort food (absorption) Abomasum – true stomach (gastric juices)

Presentation 04 - Bioenergetics And Digestion in Lower Forms Presentation 04 - Bioenergetics And Digestion in Lower Forms Presentation Transcript

  • Bioenergetics and Digestion
  • We’ll be discussing
    • Trends and Various Strategies Used by Organisms to Process Food
    • Process of Digestion in Man
    • Disorders of the Human Digestive System
  • Core Concepts
    • Nutritional requirements
      • Animals are heterotrophs that require food for fuel, carbon skeletons, and essential nutrients.
      • Metabolic rate provides clues to an animal’s bioenergetic strategy.
    •   Evolutionary adaptations of feeding mechanisms and digestive systems
      • Diverse feeding adaptations have evolved among animals.
      • Structural adaptations of digestive systems are often associated with diet.
      • Symbiotic microorganisms help nourish many vertebrates.
    •   Overview of food processing
      • The four main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination.
      • Digestion occurs in specialized compartments.
      • The oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus initiate food processing.
      • The stomach stores food and performs preliminary digestion.
      • The small intestine is the major organ of digestion and absorption.
      • Reclaiming water is a major function of the large intestine.
      • Hormones regulate digestion.
      • Reclaiming water is a major function of the large intestine.
    • Nutrition and disorders of the human digestive system
      • A healthful diet provides both fuel and building materials.
      • Nutritional disorders damage health.
  • Keywords
    • absorption
    • alimentary canal
    • amebocytes
    • anorexia
    • bile
    • bolus
    • brush border
    • bulimia
    • cecum
    • chyme
    • complete digestive tract
    • crop
    • digestion
    • duodenum
    • elimination
    • endocytosis
    • enzyme
    • esophagus
    • essential nutrient
    • extracellular digestion
    • filter feeders
    • gallbladder
    • gastrovascular cavity
    • gizzard
    • heterotroph
    • ileum
    • incomplete digestive tract
    • ingestion
    • intracellular digestion
    • jejunum
    • large intestine
    • liver
    • malnutrition
    • microvilli
    • minerals
    • nutrition
    • obesity
    • pancreas
    • peptic ulcers
    • peristalsis
    • phagocytosis
    • pharynx
    • salivary glands
    • small intestine
    • sphincters
    • stomach
    • undernutrition
    • vesicles
    • villus
    • vitamins
  •  
  • Bioenergetics of an animal
    • Food
      • Fuel
      • C-skeletons
      • essential nutrients
    • ATP
      • resting metabolism
      • activity
      • temperature regulation
    • Excess for biosynthesis
    • 85-90% of energy from food is lost as heat
  • Metabolic rates
    • Metabolism
      • Anabolism
      • Catabolism
    • Resting/ Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
      • energy/unit mass/hr
    • Size and relative metabolic rate are inversely proportional
  • Do plants have digestive systems?
    • Carnivorous plants with primitive digestive systems
    • Habitats with N-poor soils
    • Adaptation: occasionally feed on animals
    Pitcher plant – Heliamphora nutans Flypaper trap – Pinguicula gigantea Sundew– Drosera capensis Venus fly trap– Dionaea muscipula
  • Evolution of digestion
    • Different types depending on diet and lifestyle
    • All must accomplish
      • Ingestion
      • Digestion
          • Mechanical breakdown
          • Chemical breakdown
      • Absorption
      • Elimination
    • Digestion occurs in specialized compartments
  • Intracellular digestion (evolved in single-celled protists, retained in simplest animals)
    • PROTISTS
    • Paramecium
  • Intracellular digestion (Protists, Porifera)
    • SPONGES
  • Extracellular digestion
    • FUNGI
    • Sedentary heterotrophs living in or on food supply
    • Saprotroph/parasites
    • No internal cavity  release digestive enzymes
    Image from http://www.aber.ac.uk/fungi/graffeg/decomp/digestion-by-hypha.jpg
  • Extracellular and intracellular digestion Incomplete digestive system
    • CNIDARIANS
    • Hydra
    Image from http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/genbio/digesthydra.jpg
  • Extracellular and intracellular digestion Incomplete digestive system
    • PLATYHELMINTHES
    • Planaria
  • Extracellular digestion Animals with complete digestive systems
    • NEMATODA to VERTEBRATES
    • Earthworms
    • 20 cm long with ~ 100 segments
      • 1 st – mouth
      • Last – anus
    • Eats its way through soil
  • Feeding adaptations for ingestion
  • Comparison of vertebrate digestive systems
  • Mammalian digestion General plan ACCESSORY DIGESTIVE ORGANS Organs of the GI tract
  • Comparison of mammalian digestive systems (Diet plays an important role in the length and structure)
  •