1. BRAND MANAGEMENT
Department of Mgt. Studies
Christ College of Engg. & Tech.
Mobile: +91 99443 42433
3. BRAND = “MIND SET”
4. What is a brand?
• B - Business pushing profile
• R - Recognizing ability
• A - Assurance
• N - Need fulfillment
• D - Differentiation
• Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol,
design or some combination that identifies
the products of a firm.
• Brand are a means of differentiating a
company’s products and services from
those of its competitors.
• Branding is the process of creating an
image in someone’s mind.
6. A name, a term
A symbol, a sign
“A name, term, sign, symbol or any other feature that identifies
one seller’s product or service as distinct from those of other
sellers” - The American Marketing Association
• American Marketing Association
– “name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a
combination of them intended to identify the
goods and services of one seller or group of
sellers and to differentiate them from those of
9. Brands versus Products
• Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol,
design or some combination that
identifies the products of a firm.
• A product is anything we can offer to a
market for attention, acquisition, use, or
consumption that might satisfy a need or
10. Brands versus Products
15. Six Levels of Brand
• A seller’s promise to deliver a specific set of
features and services consistently to the
16. • Attributes
– Expensive, well-built, well engineered,
durable, high prestige automobiles
– Functional benefit – durable
– Emotional benefit
– High Performance
– Safety and Prestige
17. • Culture
– Represents German Culture: High
Performance, Safety and Prestige
– A no non-sense boss (person), a reigning lion
(animal) or an austere place (object)
– Suggests the kind of the user.
18. Types of Brands
• There are three classifications of brands,
one for each type of company that brands
• National brands (manufacturers)
• Private distributor brands (wholesalers
• Generic brands
19. Types of Brands
• National brands are owned and
initiated by national manufacturers
or by companies that provide
services, such as:
20. Types of Brands
• Private distributor brands are
developed and owned by wholesalers and
retailers. The manufacturer’s name does
not appear on the product, for example:
• Wal-Mart’s George
• Radio Shack
• Private brands are popular with retailers
because they usually carry higher gross
margins and thus are more profitable for
the seller than manufacturer brands.
21. Types of Brands
• Generic brands are products that do
not carry a company identity. They are
generally sold in supermarkets and
• Companies that manufacture and sell
generic brands do not heavily advertise
or promote these products, and therefore
they can pass on savings to customers.
22. BRAND IMAGE
• A mental image that reflects the way
consumers perceive a brand.
• A unique set of associations in the minds of
customers concerning what a brand stands for
and the implied promises the brand makes.
23. Brand relationships
framed by marketers
in the mind of customers
the actual image of the
firm in customers’ minds
A new definition based on Brand relationships: Brand is created in
continuously developing brand relationships where the customer forms a
differentiating image of a product or service based on all kinds of brand
contacts that the customer is exposed to.
24. The importance of image
– Image communicates expectations
– Image is a filter influencing perceptions of the
performance of the firm
– Image is a function of expectations and
– Image has an internal impact on employees
25. Image and Identity
Other sources of
Sending Media Receiving
26. Company image vs. Brand image
Brand image = the image of a good or service which is formed
in the customer’s mind
Company image = the valued customers, potential customers,
lost customers and other groups of people connect with the
The two concepts are slightly different
Ex: The French national railway company:
Brand image: one can travel easily and safely by train in France
Company image: very paternalistic and “old fashioned” company
27. • BRAND IMAGEBRAND IMAGE is a unique set of associationsis a unique set of associations
in the minds of customers concerning what ain the minds of customers concerning what a
brand stands for and the implied promises thebrand stands for and the implied promises the
brand makes.brand makes.
• BRAND IDENTITYBRAND IDENTITY is the strategic goal for theis the strategic goal for the
unique set of associations that a brand shouldunique set of associations that a brand should
stand for. These associations also imply astand for. These associations also imply a
potential promise to customers.potential promise to customers.
• PERCEPTION GAPPERCEPTION GAP..
28. Appy Fizz: Cool Drink To Hang
Brand: Appy Fizz
Company: Parle Agro
Appy was launched as an apple drink in
tetra pack after the mega success of
Frooti. But Appy was not that
successful compared to Frooti. Then
we saw the new avatar of Appy in Appy
Fizz. Appy changed in to nectar based
drink. Appy was launched with a new
29. Boost: Is the Secret of our Energy
Company: Glaxo Smithkline
Boost is one of the major players in
the Rs 1400 crore Indian Health
Food Drink (HFD) market. Glaxo
rules the Indian HFD market with
a share of around 64%.
30. The Top 25 Global Brands
1 Coca-Cola 1 6
2 Sony 4 1
3 Mercedes-Benz 12 2
4 Kodak 5 9
5 Disney 8 5
6 Nestle 7 14
7 Toyota 6 23
8 McDonalds 2 85
9 IBM 20 4
10 Pepsi Cola 3 92
32. BRAND EQUITY
Brand equity is a set of assets (and liabilities) linked to a
brand’s name and symbol that adds to (or subtracts
from) the value provided by a product or service to a firm
and/or that firm’s customers.
33. BRAND EQUITY
Brand Equity consists of differential attributes
underpinning a brand which gives increased value to
the firms balance sheet. - Chernatony and McDonald
Brand Equity is a set of brand assets and liabilities
linked to a brand, its name and symbol, that add to or
subtract from the value provided by a product or
services to a firms customers - David Aaker
34. Why Manage Brand Equity?
•Presence of a brand in consumers mind
•Influence on their buying behaviour
•Effects on brands market position and
•Financial value of the brand as a
immaterial assets of the company.
35. Brand Equity Management
• Brand Image
• Customer Equity
• R & D Investment
36. Strong brands establish a long-lasting place in short-lived markets
Why is a Brand Worth Building?Why is a Brand Worth Building?
40. BRAND IDENTITY
what Brand Identity is not?
Just brand Just Just Physical Just
Image Positioning Attributes of Perception
41. BRAND IDENTITY
• Every individual has its own identity. An
individual for some values, he has some
aspirations, ambition. He would like others to
perceive him in a particular manner.
• Brand identity creates a bond between the
customer and the brand.
• Brand identity is much more comprehensive
than brand positioning which communicates to
the consumer relevant values of the brand.
42. BRAND IDENTITY
• Brand identity is the sum of the brand
expressed as a product, organization, person and
symbol – AAKER
44. Brand identity prism and three-tier pyramid
An exterior tangible facet communicating physical
specificities, colour, form and brand qualities. Physique
is the starting point of branding and therefore it forms the
An internal intangible facet which forms the character,
soul and brand personality which are relevant for
45. 3. Culture
An internal intangible facet to integrate the brand into the
organization which is essential in differentiating brands.
An exterior facet with tangible and intangible areas, and
defines the behaviour that indentifies the brand - the way
the brand connect to its customers.
46. 5. Reflection
An external intangible facet reflecting the customer as
he or she wishes to be seen as a result of using a brand.
So called: the target outward's mirror.
An external intangible facet reflecting the customer
attitude towards the brand. These inner thoughts
connect personal inner relationship with the brand. So
called: the target internal mirror
47. PARAMETERS REMARKS BRAND NAME
Physique Physical attributes Tata Sumo-strong
Personality Human traits attributed to
Sunsilk - Faminine
Culture Rites, rituals, values Dabur
Relationship Bonding created by a
Reflection Image of its buyers Colgate
Self-Image How a customer
perceives himself in
relation to the brand
48. AAKERS FRAMEWORK
Brand as a Brand as Brand as Brand as
Product organisation Person Symbol
Product Scope organization attributes Personality Visual Image
Product Attributes Brand Customer Heritage
49. Factors affecting Brand identity
Loyalty of customers is an indication of how good the
identity is. Low loyalty points to the need for developing
an attractive identity.
Identity should be consistent all over the market.
Inconsistency requires product identity management.
Addition of new products and services also requires
Competitor’s identities do affect our own identity.
A changed customer profile requires changes in
When a company enters new markets. It must
review its existing identity.
50. Aaker’s Brand Identity Planning Model
• David A. Aaker, a marketing professor at the University
of California at Berkeley
• author of the popular Building Strong Brands (1996)
• has developed a comprehensive brand identity
• Aaker advises brand strategists to consider the brand
as: 1) a product; 2) an organization; 3) a person; and 4)
• brand identity consists of a core identity and an
51. The hart of the model contains the brand essence, core
identity and extended identity
1. The brand essence
The brand essence captures the brand values and vision
in an ambivalent timeless identity statement. Aaker sees
this as the internal magnet that keeps the core identity
2. The core identity
The core identity represents the essence of the brand
and contains the associations that are most likely to
remain constant over time. Ultimately, as a result the
core identity elements make the brand sustainable,
unique and valuable
52. 3. The extended brand identity
The extended brand identity fulfils a completeness and
texture role to funnel the ambivalent core identity into a
consistent direction of the brand. Where core elements
are timeless, the extended identity contains elements
that do not belong to the timeless foundation of the
brand identity (Aaker, 1996:85-89).
53. 1. Brand as a product
The product related attributes will by nature have an
important influence on brand identity due to the fact that
they are linked to user requirements and product
experience. Aaker addressed six dimensions within this
54. 2. Brand as an organization
By looking at the brand as an organization, brand
managers are forced to shift their perspective from
product to organization attributes. These are less
tangible and more subjective. Attributes as CRM,
innovation, perceived quality, visibility and presence can
contribute significantly towards value propositions and
customer relationships. Aaker addressed two
dimensions within this group (Aaker, 2000:82&118).
55. 3. Brand as a person
Brand as a person is a perspective as if the brand was a
human being. Brand personality is a very distinctive
brand element and extensively used in many brand
equity models. For that reason it is described in next
paragraph 2.3.4. Aaker addressed two dimensions
within this group.
56. 4. Brand as a symbol
Brand as a symbol can capture almost anything that
represents the brand. A strong symbol can fulfill an
important and even a dominate role in brand strategy.
Symbols are very strong if they involve a recognizable,
meaningful and trustful metaphor. Aaker addressed two
dimensions/three types within this group.
57. UNIT 2
58. Brand Architecture
• An organizing structure of a brand portfolio that
specifies the brand roles and relationship among the
• Brand architecture is a discipline involving more than
marketing, involving both financial and technical analysis
of positioning of brand elements in the overall portfolio.
• Brand architecture directly affects market valuation
• The brand architecture is defined by six dimensions:
brand portfolio, portfolio roles, market context roles, the
brand portfolio structure, brand scope, and portfolio
59. Aaker’s Brand Architecture
•Brand hierarchy trees
Includes all the brands & subbrands
attached to product-market offerings,
including co-brands with other firms.
60. Brand Portfolio
The Brand Portfolio is the set of all brands and brand lines that
a particular firm offers for sale to buyers in a particular category.
Includes all the brands & subbrands attached to product-
market offerings, including co-brands with other firms.
61. Product-Market Context Roles
Identify the brands and sub brands with
substantial driver responsibility. How much equity
do they have? How strong is each one's link to
customers? Which brands need active
management and brand building?
Identify the sub brands and scale them on the
driver-descriptive sub brand spectrum. Given that
appraisal, are they all receiving an appropriate
amount of resources and management?
62. Brand Portfolio Structure
Portray the brand portfolio structure by one of
more of the following methods:
Show a grouping of brands using logical
descriptors such as segment, product type,
application, or channel.
Diagram all the brand hierarchy trees.
Specify the product/market range and
potential range of all the major driver and
63. Branding Hierarchy Trees
64. Portfolio Graphics
Visual representations across brands and
- Product design
65. Dimension Action Item
BrandPortfolio Inventoryexistingbrands andsubbrands.
Identifybrands playingstrategic roles (cash-cow,
Product-Market Context Roles
Lookat use of endorsers andsubbrands, branded
benefits, co-brands, anddriver brands
BrandPortfolio Structure Create brandgroupingor hierarchytree.
Layout a sample of the waythat the brands are
67. 1. Monolithic
Where the corporate name is used on all
products and services offered by the company.
For example, Sony use its corporate name for all
Where all sub-brands are linked to the corporate
brand by means of either a verbal or visual
For example, Tata Indica, Tata Safari.
69. 3. Free Standing
Where the corporate brand operates merely as a
holding company, and each product or service is
individually branded for its target market.
For Example, HUL using Lux for Soap, Clinic Plus
for Shampoo etc.
70. Managing Brand Systems
• There was a time, not too long ago, when most
brands were singular symbols that stood for
discrete products or services.
• Hewlett-Packard (HP) stood for test
equipment, Miller stood for a specific beer,
Cadillac stood for a certain kind of automobile,
and AT&T represented telephone service.
• The fragmentation of mass markets has
created multiple consumer contexts that often
cry for identify modifications.
71. • Companies sometimes have extended brands
into product areas that are not clearly related.
• Many firms now have a confusing combination
of brands involving complex interrelationships.
• As a result, companies often find themselves
struggling to manage a number of different
brand identities in several different situations
and for a variety of audiences.
73. Brands System Objectives
1. Exploit commonalities to generate
2. Reduce brand identity damage
3. Achieve clarity of product offerings
4. Facilitate change and adaptation
75. The Endorser Role
• a brand provides support and credibility to the
driver brand’s claims.
• the primary role for these endorsers is to
reassure the customer that the product will
deliver the promised functional benefits
because the company behind the brand is a
substantial, successful organization that would
only be associated with a strong product.
76. • the corporate brand usually represents an
organization with people, culture, values
and programs, it is well suited to support a
driver brand, and thus it often plays the
– Gillette is an endorser for Sensor razors
– HP is an endorser for the Laser Jet printer
77. Driver Roles
• a driver brand is a brand that drives the
purchase decision; its identity represents what
the customer primarily expects to receive from
78. Sub Brand Roles
• A subbrand is a brand that distinguishes a part
of the product line within the brand system.
• The subbrand is always be consistent with and
support the parent brand’s identity.
• The subbrand should add value by fulfilling one
or more of the following tasks
– Describe offerings
– Structure and clarify offerings
– Augment or modify the identity
– Exploit market opportunities extension strategy by
qualifying or modifying the parent brand.
– Facilitate a horizontal or vertical
79. Strategic Brands
• Attempting to support and grow all brands is
80. Branding Benefits
• A problem facing many brands is that their
identity is difficult to communicate because it
lacks distinctiveness, credibility, or
81. Silver Bullets
• A silver bullet is a subbrand or branded benefit
that is employed as a vehicle for changing or
supporting the brand image of a parent brand.
• The images of corporate brand names in the
high-tech world were influenced by key
– The Sony Walkman supports the innovative
neatness identity that is central to Sony.
82. Brand Leveraging
• A brand leveraging strategy uses the power of
an existing brand name to support a company’s
entry into a new, but related, product category.
• Brand leveraging communicates valuable
product information to consumers about new
• Leveraging the brand up or down in the exiting
product class is another option that often is
strategically necessary but has significant risks.
83. Advantages of brand Leveraging
• More products mean greater shelf space for the
brand and more opportunities to make a sale.
• The cost of introducing a brand-leveraged
product is greater than introducing an
independent new product due to a much
smaller investment in brand development and
advertising designed to gain brand recognition.
84. • A full line permits coordination of product
• A greater number of products increase
efficiency of manufacturing facilities and raw
86. • Introduction of additional items in the same
product category under the same brand name:
new flavors, forms, colors, sizes, etc.
• A line extension is a new version of the product
within the same product class.
• A company introduces a brand line extension
by using an established product’s brand name
to launch a new, slightly different item in the
same product category.
• More than half of all new products introduced
each year are brand line extensions.
87. Colgate Dental Cream
Colgate Cibaca Top
Line Extension - Colgate
88. • Improve brand image (VAIO from Sony)
• Reduce risk perceived by customers
• Increase the probability of gaining distribution
• Increase efficiency of promotional expenditures
(Brand is already known. Focus on product in
marketing communications e.g. Dettol)
Line Extension Advantages
89. • Reduce costs of introductory and follow-up
• Avoid cost of developing a new brand
• Allow for packaging and labeling efficiencies
• Permit consumer variety seeking
Line Extension Advantages
90. • More buyers are turning from prestige and
luxury to lower to lower-cost brands that deliver
acceptable quality and features.
• The firms adopt a branding strategy that will
accommodate downscale versions without
weakening the brand.
Moving the Brand Down
91. • A brand may be a leader in volume and market
share, with the enviable advantages of economies
of scale and retail clout.
• Here the price has been squeezed by retailers and
consumer, especially from below by both price
brands and store brands.
• An attractive growth segment often emerges at the
very high end of the market.
• This segment enjoys much higher margins, and it
also provides interest and even newsworthy
developments in what might be a somewhat tried
Moving the Brand Up
92. • Brand extension is one of the new product
development strategies which can reduce financial
risk by using the parent brand name
• Another way to leverage a brand with extensions is
to use it to enter and create advantage in another
• Brand extension or brand stretching is a marketing
strategy in which a firm marketing a product with a
well- developed image uses the same brand name
in a different product category.
• Ex- TATA- STEEL, TCS , TELECOM, TEA, WATCHES,
HOTELS, POWER, MOTORS
BrandName Product Category
94. Brand Extension
95. • Co-branding is a brand management
tactic that brings together.
• The objective of co-branding is to develop
• marketing leverage.
• A co-branding strategy combines one or
more brands in the manufacture of a
product or in the delivery of a service. It
can also happen when two or more
retailers share the same location.
96. • The set of brands will form a system. The
challenge is to manage the brand system to
achieve synergy and clarity and to fully develop
and exploit the potential of each brand.
• A place to begin this management process is to
conduct a brand systems audit. The audit
provides a way to cycle through the brand
systems concepts and relationships.
Brand Systems Audit
97. UNIT 3
98. • People have measurable personalities that can
be used to predict their behaviour.
• Brand personality is the way a brand speaks
• Brand Personality is a set of human
characteristics associated with a brand.
• Gender, age, socio-economic class,
psychographic, emotional etc.
• Based on the premise that brands can have
personalities in much the same way as
99. • Brand personality is seen as a valuable factor
in increasing brand engagement and brand
• Brand personality is generally understood as
the distinguishing characteristics of the brand.
Just like people, all brands have a personality
to some degree.
• In certain cases, its highly emotional and
vibrant; in other cases, its understated or barely
noticeable. Because brand personality is
100. • Generally, it's expressed in personal or
character terms - trustworthy, energetic,
assertive, arrogant, friendly, helpful, and so on.
101. Marlboro is ‘masculine’ while
Virginia Slims is ‘feminine’
102. IBM is ‘older’ while Apple is
103. India Today is ‘old-fashioned’
while Outlook is ‘trendier’
104. Coke is ‘conforming’ while Pepsi
107. • Down-to-earth, family oriented, genuine, old-
fashioned (Sincerity). This might describe
brands like Hallmark, Kodak, and even Coke.
The relationship might be similar to one that
exists with a well-liked and respected member
of the family.
• Spirited, young, up-to-date, outgoing
(Excitement). In the soft drink category, Pepsi
fits this mold more than Coke. Especially on a
weekend evening, it might be enjoyable to have
a friend who has these personality
108. • Accomplished, influential, competent
(Competence). Perhaps Hewlett-Packard and
the Wall Street Journal might fit this profile.
Think of a relationship with a person whom you
respect for their accomplishments, such as a
teacher, minister or business leader; perhaps
that is what a relationship between a business
computer and its customer should be like.
• Pretentious, wealthy, (Sophistication). For
some, this would be BMW, Mercedes. The
relationship could be similar to one with a
powerful boss or a rich relative.
109. • Athletic and outdoorsy (Ruggedness). Nike
(versus LA Gear), Marlboro (versus Virginia
Slims), are examples. When planning an
outing, a friend with outdoorsy interests would
110. Why Use Brand Personality
1. Enriching Understanding
Example: Microsoft provides insight into the
nature of the relationship between Microsoft
and its customers.
2. Contributing to a Differentiating Identity
3. Guiding the Communication Effort
4. Creating Brand Equity
111. BRAND PERSONALITY:
How it creates Brand Equity
112. The Self-Expression Model
The premise of the self-expression model is
that for certain groups of customers, some
brands become vehicles to express a part of
People express their own or idealized identity
in a variety of ways, such as job choice, friends,
attitudes, opinions, activities, and lifestyles.
Brands that people like, admire, discuss, buy,
and use also provide a vehicle for self-
113. If the brand has a strong personality, that can
be hypothesized to play a key role in the self-
The purchase and use of a branded product –
whether it is Apple, Black Berry, Nike –
provides a vehicle for expressing a personality
Some people may find themselves
uncomfortable when an activity is pursued or a
brand is used that is not true to their actual or
114. The self-expression is always shows which
brand that ‘fits’ can create comfort and
satisfaction and can make people feel more
115. How the Brands Helps to Express
1. Feelings Engendered by the Brand
2. The Brand as a Badge
3. The Brand becomes part of the Self
116. 1. Feelings Engendered by the Brand
It is the set of feelings and emotions
attached to a brand personality.
A warm person will be most fulfilled when a
warm feeling occurs; similarly, an aggressive
person will seek out contexts where aggression
117. 2. The Brand as a Badge
The presence of a brand can serve to define
a person with respect to others, and when
social identity is involved, what is expressed
can be very important to the individual.
Thus product categories such as autos,
cosmetics, and clothes lend themselves to
personality expression because their use
occurs in a social context with relatively high
118. 3. The Brand becomes part of the Self
The ultimate personality expression occurs
when a brand becomes an extension or an
integral part of the self.
The potential to create this oneness with
some people can represent a significant
opportunity for a brand.
119. The Relationship Basis Model
• Some people may never aspire to have the
personality of a competent leader but would like
to have a relationship with one, especially if
they need a banker or a lawyer.
• Here how the relationship basis model works,
consider the personality types of people with
whom you have relationships and the nature of
120. • The model is study about the relationship
between the brand-as-person and the
customer, which is analogous to the
relationship between two people.
• In this model, the brand personality provides
depth, feelings and liking to the relationship.
121. Brand Relationship Quality
1. Behavioural interdependence
2. Personal Commitment
3. Love and Passion
4. Nostalgic Connection
5. Self-concept Connection
7. Partner quality
122. The Functional Benefit
• A brand personality can play a more indirect
role by being a vehicle for representing and
cueing functional benefits and brand attributes.
• The premises create a personality that implies
a functional benefit than to communicate
directly that such a benefit exists.
123. BRAND ASSOCIATION
124. Degree to which a particular brand is associated with the general
product category in the mind of the consumer (share of mind). Often
a consumer will ask for a product by the specific brand name rather
than the general
For example, many restaurant customers may request Coca-Cola
when they want a soft drink.
TYPES OF BRAND ASSOCIATION
eg. does not gives protect as
eg. cleans all the dandruff.
eg. some little TIDE plus enough to
clean all the cloth stains.
eg. After using of BMW.
eg. powder fades colored clothes
eg. has a good taste.
eg. Chocolate means only a CADBURY.
128. HELPS FROM BRAND ASSOCIATION
1. Basis for Extensions
eg. launched toilet soaps for kids. Then
They Introduced Talc, oil etc.,
POWER was introduced as the first detergent for
cloth .Then introduced both soap.
eg. EUREKA FORBE (Water purifier )cleans all germs
but others are not.
3. Wide Reason to choose
129. 4. Illcit Feelings
eg. helps me look younger
eg. is common for all Age
It would not be embarrassing if I have it.
5. Evoke Favorable Attitude
130. FORMS OF BRAND ASSOSIATION
Eg. (MORTEIN MAT) twelve hour red mat
versus normal eight-hour
Eg. For when we get Head Ache or Cold.
131. Celebrity Personality
Eg. Sachin for secret of my energy
Amitabh bachhan for
Price is used to segment appeal value based on affordability
And heterogeneity in the marketplace. Mostly it is the lower
Economy pricing that can be exploited.
Eg. Sunflower Oil : Aurola, Goldwinner
Detergents : Power, Rin,
Toothpast : Babool, Colgate
132. Place of Orgin
Eg. Dargiling/Assam for great quality TEA.
France for Fashion, perfume.
Italy for Shoes, Leather goods
Germany for Beer and Automobiles
133. HOW TO MEASURE BRAND ASSOCIATION
o Stimulus material available.
o Language used and its appropriateness among target respondents.
o Research technique(s) used.
o Update new concept to the product.
o Communication skills of respondents.
o Keep on watching the competitors new updates.
o Compare our products with competitor products.
134. o Keep on watching the competitors new updates.
o Compare our products with competitor products.
135. Branding Strategies
• Some branding strategies used to meet
sales and company objectives are:
• Brand extensions
• Brand licensing
• Mixed branding
136. Brand Extension
• Brand extension is a branding
strategy that uses an existing brand
name to promote a new or improved
product in a company’s product line.
• This strategy’s risk is overextending a
product line and diluting the brand with
too many products.
137. Brand Licensing
• Brand licensing involves a legal
licensing agreement for which the
licensing company receives a fee, such as
a royalty, in return for allowing another
company to use its brand/brand
138. Mixed Brands
• Some manufacturers and retailers use a
mixed-brand strategy to sell products. They
offer a combination of manufacturer, private
distributor, and generic brands. For example, a
manufacturer of a national brand might agree
to make a product for sale under another
• It enables a business to maintain brand loyalty
through its national brand and reach several
different target markets through private
• A co-branding strategy combines
one or more brands in the
manufacture of a product or in the
delivery of a service. It can also
happen when two or more retailers
share the same location.
140. Brand Strategies
141. Line Extensions
Introduction of additional items in the same product
category under the same brand name :new flavors,
forms, colors, sizes, etc.
Introducing new brands into the same product category
All are Lever Brothers products
Two or more well known brands are paired in a single offering
144. Brand Extensions
Using an existing brand name to launch new products in
145. Brand Extension Decisions
• Does the brand fit the product class?
• Does the brand add value to the offering in
the new product class (i.e., the extension)?
• Will the extension enhance the brand name
146. BRAND EXTENSIONS
• Recognizing that one of their valuable
assets is their brands, many firms have
decided to leverage that asset by
introducing a host of new products under
some of their strongest brand names. Most
new products are in fact line extensions.
147. BRAND PORTFOLIOS
Brand portfolios is the set of all brands &
brand lines a particular firm offers for sale
to buyers in a particular category. different
brands may be designed & marketed to
appeal to different market segments.
Basic principles in designing a brand
a) to maximize market coverage
b) to minimize brand overlap
148. Brand Portfolio
• Brand portfolio is set of all brands and
brand lines of a particular firm offers for
sale to buyers in a particular category.
• To maximize the market coverage.
• To minimize brand overlap.
Also known as dual branding or brand bundling- in
which two or more well known existing brands are
combined into a joint product/ or marketed together in
FORMS OF CO- BRANDING
1. same company co- branding
2. joint venture co- branding
3. multiple sponsor co- branding
4. retail co- branding
150. Brand Audits
• Brand Audits are in-depth examination of
the health of a brand and can be used to set
strategic direction for the brand. It
measures “where the brand has been”.
• It consists of two steps:
1. Brand inventory
2. Brand exploratory
151. Brand Hierarchy
A brand hierarchy is a useful means of graphically
portraying a firm’s branding strategy by displaying the
number and nature of common and distinctive brand
elements across the firm’s products.
It’s based on the realization that we can brand a
product in different ways depending on how many new
and existing brand elements we use and how we
combine them for any one product.
153. 5 levels of Customer
• Will change brands, especially for price
reasons (no Brand Loyalty)
• Customer is satisfied. No reason to change
• Customer is satisfied and would incur costs by
• Customer values the brand and sees it as a
• Customer is devoted to the brand.
154. High Brand Equity - Advantages
• Reduced marketing costs.
• Trade leverage with distributors and retailers-
customer expect them to carry.
• Can charge high price.
• Easily launch extensions.
• Defenses against price competition
155. Strategic Brand Management
Identify & Establish
Grow & Sustain
Measure & Interpret
Plan & Implement
156. Brand Tracking
• Tracking studies involved information
collected from consumers on a routine basis
over time & provide valuable tactical insights
into the short-term effectiveness of marketing
programs and activities. It measures “where
the brand is now”.
157. Brand Valuation
• Brand valuation is the estimation of total
financial value of the brand.
• The value associated with the product or
services are communicated through the
brand to the consumer.
• It measures “How much worth of brand is”.
158. Brand Strategy Decision
– Line Extension
– Brand Extension
– Multi Brand
– New Brand
– Co - brands
159. LINE EXTENSION
existing brand name extended to new sizesexisting brand name extended to new sizes
or flavors or technologyor flavors or technology
160. BRAND EXTENSION
161. MULTI BRANDS
162. Choosing a Brand Name
• Product’s Benefits – Fair & Lovely
• Product Qualities – action or color
– Action 500 & Pepsi Blue
• Easy to pronounce, recognize and remember
• Distinctive - Kodak
• Should not carry poor meanings in other
countries and languages – NOVA means
164. • We can divide all definitions available on
brand equity in to the following categories:
• Cost based
• Price based
• Consumer based
165. Online Products and Services
• Online brands come in many different forms, with
business models based on selling information,
products, experiences and so on.
• Online branding requires:
To create awareness of what products or services the brand
Why those products or services are unique and different
Why consumers should buy the brand