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  • 1. BRAND MANAGEMENT ANANDA KUMAR Department of Mgt. Studies Christ College of Engg. & Tech. Puducherry, India. Mobile: +91 99443 42433 E-mail:
  • 2. ?
  • 3. BRAND = “MIND SET”
  • 4. What is a brand? • B - Business pushing profile • R - Recognizing ability • A - Assurance • N - Need fulfillment • D - Differentiation
  • 5. BRAND • Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, design or some combination that identifies the products of a firm. • Brand are a means of differentiating a company’s products and services from those of its competitors. • Branding is the process of creating an image in someone’s mind.
  • 6. A name, a term A symbol, a sign “A name, term, sign, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller’s product or service as distinct from those of other sellers” - The American Marketing Association
  • 7. DEFINITION • American Marketing Association – “name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition”
  • 8. Why brand? • Identification. • Repeat purchase. • Assurance of quality. • Image. • Differentiation. • Legal protection
  • 9. Brands versus Products • Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, design or some combination that identifies the products of a firm. • A product is anything we can offer to a market for attention, acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a need or want.
  • 10. Brands versus Products Product Brand Coffee Nescafe
  • 11. Product Companies Brands Shampoo HUL, P&G, Colgate Palmolive, Laboratories Garnier, Cavin Care, Nyle, Ayur, Chik, Biotique, Lotus, Emami, LG, Amway,etc. Sunsilk, Organics, Clinic, All Clear, Lux, Pantene, Head & Shoulders, Optima, Halo, Palmolive, Ultra Doux, nyle, Ayur, Chik, Meera, Biotique, Fructis, Rejoice, Elvive, Emami, LG, Amway, Himalaya
  • 12. Product Companies Brands Motorcycle Bajaj Auto, Hero honda, Royal Enfield Motors, TVS, Suzuki, Escorts Yamaha, LML, Kinetic Engineering. Eliminator, Caliber, Boxer, CBZ, CD100, Passion, Splendor, Glamour, Street, Bullet, Fiero, Yamaha, Samurai, CT100, Crux, Pleasure, Shine, Karizma, Platina, Discover, Gladiator.
  • 13. Product Companies Brands Television Samsung, Sony, National Panasonic, BPL, Videocon, Onida, LG, Thomson, Philips, Akai, Aiwa, Toshiba, Sansui, Sharp, Hitachi. Tantus, Plano, Hiltron, Metallica, Trinitron, Wega, Tau, Opera, Sophia, Tango, Giga, Plasma, Matrix, Studio, Prima, Emperor, Neptune.
  • 14. Product Companies Brands Toothpaste HLL, Colgate Palmolive, Glaxo, Smithkline, Balsara, Parle, Amway, Geoffrey Manners, Himalaya, Anchor, Ajanta, Dabur. Closeup, Pepsodent, Colgate, Colgate herbal, Colgate Active Salt, Colgate Fresh Stripes, Cibaca, Promise, Himalaya, Dabur Lal, Anchor, Ajanta, Smyle.
  • 15. Six Levels of Brand • A seller’s promise to deliver a specific set of features and services consistently to the buyers. –Attributes –Benefits –Values –Culture –Personality –User
  • 16. • Attributes – Expensive, well-built, well engineered, durable, high prestige automobiles • Benefits – Functional benefit – durable – Emotional benefit • Values – High Performance – Safety and Prestige
  • 17. • Culture – Represents German Culture: High Performance, Safety and Prestige • Personality – A no non-sense boss (person), a reigning lion (animal) or an austere place (object) • User – Suggests the kind of the user.
  • 18. Types of Brands • There are three classifications of brands, one for each type of company that brands its products: • National brands (manufacturers) • Private distributor brands (wholesalers and retailers) • Generic brands
  • 19. Types of Brands • National brands  are owned and initiated by national manufacturers or by companies that provide services, such as: • Hershey • Whirlpool • Ford
  • 20. Types of Brands • Private distributor brands  are developed and owned by wholesalers and retailers. The manufacturer’s name does not appear on the product, for example: • Wal-Mart’s George • Radio Shack • Private brands are popular with retailers because they usually carry higher gross margins and thus are more profitable for the seller than manufacturer brands.
  • 21. Types of Brands • Generic brands  are products that do not carry a company identity. They are generally sold in supermarkets and discount stores. • Companies that manufacture and sell generic brands do not heavily advertise or promote these products, and therefore they can pass on savings to customers.
  • 22. BRAND IMAGE • A mental image that reflects the way consumers perceive a brand. • A unique set of associations in the minds of customers concerning what a brand stands for and the implied promises the brand makes.
  • 23. Brand relationships Brand identity framed by marketers Brand image in the mind of customers Brand the actual image of the firm in customers’ minds Brand relationships Branding process FIRM CUSTOMERSINTERACTIONS A new definition based on Brand relationships: Brand is created in continuously developing brand relationships where the customer forms a differentiating image of a product or service based on all kinds of brand contacts that the customer is exposed to.
  • 24. The importance of image – Image communicates expectations – Image is a filter influencing perceptions of the performance of the firm – Image is a function of expectations and experiences – Image has an internal impact on employees
  • 25. Image and Identity Brand identity Other sources of Inspiration •Mimicry •Opportunity •idealism Signals transmitted Brand image Sending Media Receiving Competition And Noise
  • 26. Company image vs. Brand image Brand image = the image of a good or service which is formed in the customer’s mind Company image = the valued customers, potential customers, lost customers and other groups of people connect with the organization The two concepts are slightly different Ex: The French national railway company: Brand image: one can travel easily and safely by train in France Company image: very paternalistic and “old fashioned” company
  • 27. • BRAND IMAGEBRAND IMAGE is a unique set of associationsis a unique set of associations in the minds of customers concerning what ain the minds of customers concerning what a brand stands for and the implied promises thebrand stands for and the implied promises the brand makes.brand makes. • BRAND IDENTITYBRAND IDENTITY is the strategic goal for theis the strategic goal for the unique set of associations that a brand shouldunique set of associations that a brand should stand for. These associations also imply astand for. These associations also imply a potential promise to customers.potential promise to customers. • PERCEPTION GAPPERCEPTION GAP..
  • 28. Appy Fizz: Cool Drink To Hang Around Brand: Appy Fizz Company: Parle Agro Appy was launched as an apple drink in tetra pack after the mega success of Frooti. But Appy was not that successful compared to Frooti. Then we saw the new avatar of Appy in Appy Fizz. Appy changed in to nectar based drink. Appy was launched with a new bottle.
  • 29. Boost: Is the Secret of our Energy Brand: Boost Company: Glaxo Smithkline Beecham Boost is one of the major players in the Rs 1400 crore Indian Health Food Drink (HFD) market. Glaxo rules the Indian HFD market with a share of around 64%.
  • 30. The Top 25 Global Brands Image Power Brand Share of Mind Esteem 1 Coca-Cola 1 6 2 Sony 4 1 3 Mercedes-Benz 12 2 4 Kodak 5 9 5 Disney 8 5 6 Nestle 7 14 7 Toyota 6 23 8 McDonalds 2 85 9 IBM 20 4 10 Pepsi Cola 3 92
  • 31. Image Power Brand Share of Mind Esteem 11 Rolls Royce 23 3 12 Honda 9 22 13 Panasonic 17 10 14 Levi’s 16 8 15 Kleenex 13 14 16 Ford 10 24 17 Volkswagen 11 26 18 Kellogg’s 14 30 19 Porsche 27 11 20 Polaroid 15 44 21 BMW 32 12 22 Colgate 21 51 23 Seiko 33 15 24 Nescafe 19 64 25 Canon 35 17
  • 32. BRAND EQUITY Brand equity is a set of assets (and liabilities) linked to a brand’s name and symbol that adds to (or subtracts from) the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or that firm’s customers.
  • 33. BRAND EQUITY Brand Equity consists of differential attributes underpinning a brand which gives increased value to the firms balance sheet. - Chernatony and McDonald Brand Equity is a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand, its name and symbol, that add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or services to a firms customers - David Aaker
  • 34. Why Manage Brand Equity? •Presence of a brand in consumers mind •Influence on their buying behaviour •Effects on brands market position and financial result •Financial value of the brand as a immaterial assets of the company.
  • 35. Brand Equity Management • Brand Image • Consistency • Customer Equity • R & D Investment
  • 36. Strong brands establish a long-lasting place in short-lived markets Value Time Brand Lifecycle Product Why is a Brand Worth Building?Why is a Brand Worth Building?
  • 37. Components of Brand Equity Brand Equity Brand Awareness Brand Associations Perceived Quality Brand Loyalty
  • 38. Brand equity • Comprises of – Brand Awareness – Brand Acceptability – Brand Preference – Brand Loyalty
  • 39. Brand Equity & Image Assessment
  • 40. BRAND IDENTITY what Brand Identity is not? Just brand Just Just Physical Just Outsider Image Positioning Attributes of Perception product
  • 41. BRAND IDENTITY • Every individual has its own identity. An individual for some values, he has some aspirations, ambition. He would like others to perceive him in a particular manner. • Brand identity creates a bond between the customer and the brand. • Brand identity is much more comprehensive than brand positioning which communicates to the consumer relevant values of the brand.
  • 42. BRAND IDENTITY • Brand identity is the sum of the brand expressed as a product, organization, person and symbol – AAKER
  • 44. Brand identity prism and three-tier pyramid (Kapferer) 1. Physique An exterior tangible facet communicating physical specificities, colour, form and brand qualities. Physique is the starting point of branding and therefore it forms the brands backbone. 2. Personality An internal intangible facet which forms the character, soul and brand personality which are relevant for brands.
  • 45. 3. Culture An internal intangible facet to integrate the brand into the organization which is essential in differentiating brands. 4. Relationship An exterior facet with tangible and intangible areas, and defines the behaviour that indentifies the brand - the way the brand connect to its customers.
  • 46. 5. Reflection An external intangible facet reflecting the customer as he or she wishes to be seen as a result of using a brand. So called: the target outward's mirror. 6. Self-image An external intangible facet reflecting the customer attitude towards the brand. These inner thoughts connect personal inner relationship with the brand. So called: the target internal mirror
  • 47. PARAMETERS REMARKS BRAND NAME Physique Physical attributes Tata Sumo-strong Personality Human traits attributed to a brand Sunsilk - Faminine Culture Rites, rituals, values Dabur Relationship Bonding created by a brand LIC Reflection Image of its buyers Colgate Self-Image How a customer perceives himself in relation to the brand Mercedes benz
  • 48. AAKERS FRAMEWORK BRAND IDENTITY Brand as a Brand as Brand as Brand as Product organisation Person Symbol Product Scope organization attributes Personality Visual Image Product Attributes Brand Customer Heritage Relationship
  • 49. Factors affecting Brand identity  Loyalty of customers is an indication of how good the identity is. Low loyalty points to the need for developing an attractive identity.  Identity should be consistent all over the market. Inconsistency requires product identity management.  Addition of new products and services also requires identity management.  Competitor’s identities do affect our own identity.  A changed customer profile requires changes in identity.  When a company enters new markets. It must review its existing identity.
  • 50. Aaker’s Brand Identity Planning Model • David A. Aaker, a marketing professor at the University of California at Berkeley • author of the popular Building Strong Brands (1996) • has developed a comprehensive brand identity planning model • Aaker advises brand strategists to consider the brand as: 1) a product; 2) an organization; 3) a person; and 4) a symbol • brand identity consists of a core identity and an extended identity
  • 51. The hart of the model contains the brand essence, core identity and extended identity 1. The brand essence The brand essence captures the brand values and vision in an ambivalent timeless identity statement. Aaker sees this as the internal magnet that keeps the core identity element connected 2. The core identity The core identity represents the essence of the brand and contains the associations that are most likely to remain constant over time. Ultimately, as a result the core identity elements make the brand sustainable, unique and valuable
  • 52. 3. The extended brand identity The extended brand identity fulfils a completeness and texture role to funnel the ambivalent core identity into a consistent direction of the brand. Where core elements are timeless, the extended identity contains elements that do not belong to the timeless foundation of the brand identity (Aaker, 1996:85-89).
  • 53. 1. Brand as a product The product related attributes will by nature have an important influence on brand identity due to the fact that they are linked to user requirements and product experience. Aaker addressed six dimensions within this group
  • 54. 2. Brand as an organization By looking at the brand as an organization, brand managers are forced to shift their perspective from product to organization attributes. These are less tangible and more subjective. Attributes as CRM, innovation, perceived quality, visibility and presence can contribute significantly towards value propositions and customer relationships. Aaker addressed two dimensions within this group (Aaker, 2000:82&118).
  • 55. 3. Brand as a person Brand as a person is a perspective as if the brand was a human being. Brand personality is a very distinctive brand element and extensively used in many brand equity models. For that reason it is described in next paragraph 2.3.4. Aaker addressed two dimensions within this group.
  • 56. 4. Brand as a symbol Brand as a symbol can capture almost anything that represents the brand. A strong symbol can fulfill an important and even a dominate role in brand strategy. Symbols are very strong if they involve a recognizable, meaningful and trustful metaphor. Aaker addressed two dimensions/three types within this group.
  • 57. UNIT 2
  • 58. Brand Architecture • An organizing structure of a brand portfolio that specifies the brand roles and relationship among the brands. • Brand architecture is a discipline involving more than marketing, involving both financial and technical analysis of positioning of brand elements in the overall portfolio. • Brand architecture directly affects market valuation • The brand architecture is defined by six dimensions: brand portfolio, portfolio roles, market context roles, the brand portfolio structure, brand scope, and portfolio graphics.
  • 59. Aaker’s Brand Architecture Brand Architecture Brand Portfolio Brand-Market Context Roles •Endorser/Subbrands •Benefit brands •Co-brands •Driver roles Portfolio Roles •Strategic brands Brand Portfolio Structure •Brand Groupings •Brand hierarchy trees •Brand range Portfolio Graphics •Logo •Visual presentation Includes all the brands & subbrands attached to product-market offerings, including co-brands with other firms.
  • 60. Brand Portfolio  The Brand Portfolio is the set of all brands and brand lines that a particular firm offers for sale to buyers in a particular category.  Includes all the brands & subbrands attached to product- market offerings, including co-brands with other firms.
  • 61. Product-Market Context Roles  Identify the brands and sub brands with substantial driver responsibility. How much equity do they have? How strong is each one's link to customers? Which brands need active management and brand building?  Identify the sub brands and scale them on the driver-descriptive sub brand spectrum. Given that appraisal, are they all receiving an appropriate amount of resources and management?
  • 62. Brand Portfolio Structure Portray the brand portfolio structure by one of more of the following methods:  Show a grouping of brands using logical descriptors such as segment, product type, application, or channel.  Diagram all the brand hierarchy trees.  Specify the product/market range and potential range of all the major driver and endorser brands.
  • 63. Branding Hierarchy Trees Colgate Toothpaste Colgate Mouthrinse Colgate Classic Diamond Heads The wild ones Colgate Toothbrush Colgate Dental Floss Plus Precision
  • 64. Portfolio Graphics Visual representations across brands and contexts: - Logo - Packages - Symbols - Product design
  • 65. Dimension Action Item BrandPortfolio Inventoryexistingbrands andsubbrands. Portfolio Roles Identifybrands playingstrategic roles (cash-cow, etc.) Product-Market Context Roles Lookat use of endorsers andsubbrands, branded benefits, co-brands, anddriver brands BrandPortfolio Structure Create brandgroupingor hierarchytree. Portfolio Graphics Layout a sample of the waythat the brands are presentedvisually.
  • 66. Types of Brand Architecture 1. Monolithic 2. Endorsed 3. Free Standing
  • 67. 1. Monolithic  Where the corporate name is used on all products and services offered by the company.  For example, Sony use its corporate name for all product categories. 2.Endorsed  Where all sub-brands are linked to the corporate brand by means of either a verbal or visual endorsement. For example, Tata Indica, Tata Safari.
  • 68. CADBURY’S Cadbury’s Perk Cadbury’s Crackle Cadbury’s Picnic Cadbury’s Five Star Cadbury’s Dairy Milk
  • 69. 3. Free Standing  Where the corporate brand operates merely as a holding company, and each product or service is individually branded for its target market.  For Example, HUL using Lux for Soap, Clinic Plus for Shampoo etc.
  • 70. Managing Brand Systems • There was a time, not too long ago, when most brands were singular symbols that stood for discrete products or services. • Hewlett-Packard (HP) stood for test equipment, Miller stood for a specific beer, Cadillac stood for a certain kind of automobile, and AT&T represented telephone service. • The fragmentation of mass markets has created multiple consumer contexts that often cry for identify modifications.
  • 71. • Companies sometimes have extended brands into product areas that are not clearly related. • Many firms now have a confusing combination of brands involving complex interrelationships. • As a result, companies often find themselves struggling to manage a number of different brand identities in several different situations and for a variety of audiences.
  • 72. HP LaserJet LaserJet’s Resolution Enhancement TestJet HP VidJet Pro DesignJetDeskJet Software Test equipment Hardware features
  • 73. Brands System Objectives 1. Exploit commonalities to generate synergy 2. Reduce brand identity damage 3. Achieve clarity of product offerings 4. Facilitate change and adaptation
  • 74. BRAND ROLES Brand Roles Endorser Branded Benefits • Features • Components • Service programs Silver Bullets Driver Sub brand Roles • Describe offerings • Structure & Clarify offerings • Augment/modify brand identity • Exploit market opportunities • Support extensions Strategic Brands
  • 75. The Endorser Role • a brand provides support and credibility to the driver brand’s claims. • the primary role for these endorsers is to reassure the customer that the product will deliver the promised functional benefits because the company behind the brand is a substantial, successful organization that would only be associated with a strong product.
  • 76. • the corporate brand usually represents an organization with people, culture, values and programs, it is well suited to support a driver brand, and thus it often plays the endorser role. • Eg. – Gillette is an endorser for Sensor razors – HP is an endorser for the Laser Jet printer series.
  • 77. Driver Roles • a driver brand is a brand that drives the purchase decision; its identity represents what the customer primarily expects to receive from winning strategy.
  • 78. Sub Brand Roles • A subbrand is a brand that distinguishes a part of the product line within the brand system. • The subbrand is always be consistent with and support the parent brand’s identity. • The subbrand should add value by fulfilling one or more of the following tasks – Describe offerings – Structure and clarify offerings – Augment or modify the identity – Exploit market opportunities extension strategy by qualifying or modifying the parent brand. – Facilitate a horizontal or vertical
  • 79. Strategic Brands • Attempting to support and grow all brands is tempting.
  • 80. Branding Benefits • A problem facing many brands is that their identity is difficult to communicate because it lacks distinctiveness, credibility, or memorability.
  • 81. Silver Bullets • A silver bullet is a subbrand or branded benefit that is employed as a vehicle for changing or supporting the brand image of a parent brand. • The images of corporate brand names in the high-tech world were influenced by key products. • Eg; – The Sony Walkman supports the innovative neatness identity that is central to Sony.
  • 82. Brand Leveraging • A brand leveraging strategy uses the power of an existing brand name to support a company’s entry into a new, but related, product category. • Brand leveraging communicates valuable product information to consumers about new products. • Leveraging the brand up or down in the exiting product class is another option that often is strategically necessary but has significant risks.
  • 83. Advantages of brand Leveraging • More products mean greater shelf space for the brand and more opportunities to make a sale. • The cost of introducing a brand-leveraged product is greater than introducing an independent new product due to a much smaller investment in brand development and advertising designed to gain brand recognition.
  • 84. • A full line permits coordination of product offerings. • A greater number of products increase efficiency of manufacturing facilities and raw materials.
  • 85. Leveraging the Brand Line Extensions In existing Product Class Co-Branding Brand Extensions In different Product Classes Stretching the Brand Vertically In existing Product Class Stretching Down Stretching Up
  • 86. • Introduction of additional items in the same product category under the same brand name: new flavors, forms, colors, sizes, etc. • A line extension is a new version of the product within the same product class. • A company introduces a brand line extension by using an established product’s brand name to launch a new, slightly different item in the same product category. • More than half of all new products introduced each year are brand line extensions. Line Extensions
  • 87. Colgate Dental Cream Colgate Gel Colgate Cibaca Top Colgate Total Colgate Active Line Extension - Colgate
  • 88. • Improve brand image (VAIO from Sony) • Reduce risk perceived by customers • Increase the probability of gaining distribution and trial • Increase efficiency of promotional expenditures (Brand is already known. Focus on product in marketing communications e.g. Dettol) Line Extension Advantages
  • 89. • Reduce costs of introductory and follow-up marketing programs • Avoid cost of developing a new brand • Allow for packaging and labeling efficiencies • Permit consumer variety seeking Line Extension Advantages
  • 90. • More buyers are turning from prestige and luxury to lower to lower-cost brands that deliver acceptable quality and features. • The firms adopt a branding strategy that will accommodate downscale versions without weakening the brand. Moving the Brand Down
  • 91. • A brand may be a leader in volume and market share, with the enviable advantages of economies of scale and retail clout. • Here the price has been squeezed by retailers and consumer, especially from below by both price brands and store brands. • An attractive growth segment often emerges at the very high end of the market. • This segment enjoys much higher margins, and it also provides interest and even newsworthy developments in what might be a somewhat tried category. Moving the Brand Up
  • 92. • Brand extension is one of the new product development strategies which can reduce financial risk by using the parent brand name • Another way to leverage a brand with extensions is to use it to enter and create advantage in another product category. • Brand extension or brand stretching is a marketing strategy in which a firm marketing a product with a well- developed image uses the same brand name in a different product category. • Ex- TATA- STEEL, TCS , TELECOM, TEA, WATCHES, HOTELS, POWER, MOTORS Brand Extension
  • 93. Brand Extension New BrandName Product Category Line Extension Existing Brand Extension
  • 94. Brand Extension
  • 95. • Co-branding is a brand management tactic that brings together. • The objective of co-branding is to develop • marketing leverage. • A co-branding strategy combines one or more brands in the manufacture of a product or in the delivery of a service. It can also happen when two or more retailers share the same location. Co-branding
  • 96. • The set of brands will form a system. The challenge is to manage the brand system to achieve synergy and clarity and to fully develop and exploit the potential of each brand. • A place to begin this management process is to conduct a brand systems audit. The audit provides a way to cycle through the brand systems concepts and relationships. Brand Systems Audit
  • 97. UNIT 3
  • 98. • People have measurable personalities that can be used to predict their behaviour. • Brand personality is the way a brand speaks and behaves. • Brand Personality is a set of human characteristics associated with a brand. • Gender, age, socio-economic class, psychographic, emotional etc. • Based on the premise that brands can have personalities in much the same way as humans. Brand Personality
  • 99. • Brand personality is seen as a valuable factor in increasing brand engagement and brand attachment. • Brand personality is generally understood as the distinguishing characteristics of the brand. Just like people, all brands have a personality to some degree. • In certain cases, its highly emotional and vibrant; in other cases, its understated or barely noticeable. Because brand personality is intangible Brand Personality
  • 100. • Generally, it's expressed in personal or character terms - trustworthy, energetic, assertive, arrogant, friendly, helpful, and so on. Brand Personality
  • 101. Marlboro is ‘masculine’ while Virginia Slims is ‘feminine’
  • 102. IBM is ‘older’ while Apple is ‘younger’
  • 103. India Today is ‘old-fashioned’ while Outlook is ‘trendier’
  • 104. Coke is ‘conforming’ while Pepsi is ‘irreverent’
  • 105. 5 Dimensions of Brand Personality (Jennifer Aaker) [BPS] Brand Personality Sincerity Ruggedness Sophistication Competence Excitement
  • 106. • Sincerity (down-to-earth, honest, wholesome, cheerful) • Excitement (daring, spirited, imaginative, up -to-date) • Competence (reliable, intelligent, successful) • Sophistication (upper class, charming) • Ruggedness (outdoorsy, tough)
  • 107. • Down-to-earth, family oriented, genuine, old- fashioned (Sincerity). This might describe brands like Hallmark, Kodak, and even Coke. The relationship might be similar to one that exists with a well-liked and respected member of the family. • Spirited, young, up-to-date, outgoing (Excitement). In the soft drink category, Pepsi fits this mold more than Coke. Especially on a weekend evening, it might be enjoyable to have a friend who has these personality characteristics.
  • 108. • Accomplished, influential, competent (Competence). Perhaps Hewlett-Packard and the Wall Street Journal might fit this profile. Think of a relationship with a person whom you respect for their accomplishments, such as a teacher, minister or business leader; perhaps that is what a relationship between a business computer and its customer should be like. • Pretentious, wealthy, (Sophistication). For some, this would be BMW, Mercedes. The relationship could be similar to one with a powerful boss or a rich relative.
  • 109. • Athletic and outdoorsy (Ruggedness). Nike (versus LA Gear), Marlboro (versus Virginia Slims), are examples. When planning an outing, a friend with outdoorsy interests would be welcome.
  • 110. Why Use Brand Personality 1. Enriching Understanding  Example: Microsoft provides insight into the nature of the relationship between Microsoft and its customers. 2. Contributing to a Differentiating Identity 3. Guiding the Communication Effort 4. Creating Brand Equity
  • 111. BRAND PERSONALITY: How it creates Brand Equity Self-Expression Model Functional Benefit Representation Model Relationship Basis Model
  • 112. The Self-Expression Model  The premise of the self-expression model is that for certain groups of customers, some brands become vehicles to express a part of their self-identity.  People express their own or idealized identity in a variety of ways, such as job choice, friends, attitudes, opinions, activities, and lifestyles.  Brands that people like, admire, discuss, buy, and use also provide a vehicle for self- expression.
  • 113.  If the brand has a strong personality, that can be hypothesized to play a key role in the self- expression process. The purchase and use of a branded product – whether it is Apple, Black Berry, Nike – provides a vehicle for expressing a personality and lifestyle.  Some people may find themselves uncomfortable when an activity is pursued or a brand is used that is not true to their actual or ideal self.
  • 114. The self-expression is always shows which brand that ‘fits’ can create comfort and satisfaction and can make people feel more fulfilled.
  • 115. How the Brands Helps to Express a Personality 1. Feelings Engendered by the Brand Personality 2. The Brand as a Badge 3. The Brand becomes part of the Self
  • 116. 1. Feelings Engendered by the Brand Personality  It is the set of feelings and emotions attached to a brand personality.  A warm person will be most fulfilled when a warm feeling occurs; similarly, an aggressive person will seek out contexts where aggression is accepted.
  • 117. 2. The Brand as a Badge The presence of a brand can serve to define a person with respect to others, and when social identity is involved, what is expressed can be very important to the individual. Thus product categories such as autos, cosmetics, and clothes lend themselves to personality expression because their use occurs in a social context with relatively high involvement.
  • 118. 3. The Brand becomes part of the Self The ultimate personality expression occurs when a brand becomes an extension or an integral part of the self. The potential to create this oneness with some people can represent a significant opportunity for a brand.
  • 119. The Relationship Basis Model • Some people may never aspire to have the personality of a competent leader but would like to have a relationship with one, especially if they need a banker or a lawyer. • Here how the relationship basis model works, consider the personality types of people with whom you have relationships and the nature of those relationships.
  • 120. • The model is study about the relationship between the brand-as-person and the customer, which is analogous to the relationship between two people. • In this model, the brand personality provides depth, feelings and liking to the relationship.
  • 121. Brand Relationship Quality 1. Behavioural interdependence 2. Personal Commitment 3. Love and Passion 4. Nostalgic Connection 5. Self-concept Connection 6. Intimacy 7. Partner quality
  • 122. The Functional Benefit Representation Model • A brand personality can play a more indirect role by being a vehicle for representing and cueing functional benefits and brand attributes. • The premises create a personality that implies a functional benefit than to communicate directly that such a benefit exists.
  • 124. Degree to which a particular brand is associated with the general product category in the mind of the consumer (share of mind). Often a consumer will ask for a product by the specific brand name rather than the general For example, many restaurant customers may request Coca-Cola when they want a soft drink.
  • 125. Brand Associatio n Brand Associatio n QualitativeQualitative QuantitativeQuantitative GenericGeneric AbsoluteAbsolute PositivePositive NegativeNegative RelativeRelative TYPES OF BRAND ASSOCIATION
  • 126.  Qualitative eg. does not gives protect as HAMAM does.  Relative eg. cleans all the dandruff.  Absolute eg. some little TIDE plus enough to clean all the cloth stains.  Quantitative eg. After using of BMW.
  • 127.  Negative eg. powder fades colored clothes  Positive eg. has a good taste.  Generic eg. Chocolate means only a CADBURY.
  • 128. HELPS FROM BRAND ASSOCIATION 1. Basis for Extensions eg. launched toilet soaps for kids. Then They Introduced Talc, oil etc., POWER was introduced as the first detergent for cloth .Then introduced both soap. 2. Differentiate eg. EUREKA FORBE (Water purifier )cleans all germs but others are not. 3. Wide Reason to choose Eg.
  • 129. 4. Illcit Feelings eg. helps me look younger eg. is common for all Age It would not be embarrassing if I have it. 5. Evoke Favorable Attitude
  • 130. FORMS OF BRAND ASSOSIATION Product Category Competitors Eg. (MORTEIN MAT) twelve hour red mat versus normal eight-hour Eg. For when we get Head Ache or Cold.
  • 131. Celebrity Personality Eg. Sachin for secret of my energy Amitabh bachhan for Price Price is used to segment appeal value based on affordability And heterogeneity in the marketplace. Mostly it is the lower Economy pricing that can be exploited. Eg. Sunflower Oil : Aurola, Goldwinner Detergents : Power, Rin, Toothpast : Babool, Colgate
  • 132. Place of Orgin Eg. Dargiling/Assam for great quality TEA. France for Fashion, perfume. Italy for Shoes, Leather goods Germany for Beer and Automobiles
  • 133. HOW TO MEASURE BRAND ASSOCIATION o Stimulus material available. o Language used and its appropriateness among target respondents. o Research technique(s) used. o Update new concept to the product. o Communication skills of respondents. o Keep on watching the competitors new updates. o Compare our products with competitor products.
  • 134. o Keep on watching the competitors new updates. o Compare our products with competitor products.
  • 135. Branding Strategies • Some branding strategies used to meet sales and company objectives are: • Brand extensions • Brand licensing • Mixed branding • Co-branding
  • 136. Brand Extension • Brand extension  is a branding strategy that uses an existing brand name to promote a new or improved product in a company’s product line. • This strategy’s risk is overextending a product line and diluting the brand with too many products.
  • 137. Brand Licensing • Brand licensing  involves a legal licensing agreement for which the licensing company receives a fee, such as a royalty, in return for allowing another company to use its brand/brand mark/trade character.
  • 138. Mixed Brands • Some manufacturers and retailers use a mixed-brand  strategy to sell products. They offer a combination of manufacturer, private distributor, and generic brands. For example, a manufacturer of a national brand might agree to make a product for sale under another company’s brand. • It enables a business to maintain brand loyalty through its national brand and reach several different target markets through private brands.
  • 139. Co-Branding • A co-branding  strategy combines one or more brands in the manufacture of a product or in the delivery of a service. It can also happen when two or more retailers share the same location.
  • 140. Brand Strategies Brand Extension New BrandName Product Category Line Extension Existing Existing MultibrandsNew New Brands Cobranding
  • 141. Line Extensions Introduction of additional items in the same product category under the same brand name :new flavors, forms, colors, sizes, etc.
  • 142. Multibrands Introducing new brands into the same product category All are Lever Brothers products
  • 143. Cobranding Two or more well known brands are paired in a single offering
  • 144. Brand Extensions Using an existing brand name to launch new products in other categories
  • 145. Brand Extension Decisions • Does the brand fit the product class? • Does the brand add value to the offering in the new product class (i.e., the extension)? • Will the extension enhance the brand name and image?
  • 146. BRAND EXTENSIONS • Recognizing that one of their valuable assets is their brands, many firms have decided to leverage that asset by introducing a host of new products under some of their strongest brand names. Most new products are in fact line extensions.
  • 147. BRAND PORTFOLIOS Brand portfolios is the set of all brands & brand lines a particular firm offers for sale to buyers in a particular category. different brands may be designed & marketed to appeal to different market segments. Basic principles in designing a brand portfolios: a) to maximize market coverage b) to minimize brand overlap
  • 148. Brand Portfolio • Brand portfolio is set of all brands and brand lines of a particular firm offers for sale to buyers in a particular category. • To maximize the market coverage. • To minimize brand overlap.
  • 149. CO-BRANDING Also known as dual branding or brand bundling- in which two or more well known existing brands are combined into a joint product/ or marketed together in some fashion. FORMS OF CO- BRANDING 1. same company co- branding 2. joint venture co- branding 3. multiple sponsor co- branding 4. retail co- branding
  • 150. Brand Audits • Brand Audits are in-depth examination of the health of a brand and can be used to set strategic direction for the brand. It measures “where the brand has been”. • It consists of two steps: 1. Brand inventory 2. Brand exploratory
  • 151. Brand Hierarchy  A brand hierarchy is a useful means of graphically portraying a firm’s branding strategy by displaying the number and nature of common and distinctive brand elements across the firm’s products.  It’s based on the realization that we can brand a product in different ways depending on how many new and existing brand elements we use and how we combine them for any one product.
  • 152. ESPN ESPN 2 ESPN Classic ESPN ESPN News ESPN Today ESPN Now ESPN Desportes ESPN Interactive ESPN Magazine ESPN Radio ESPN Sports ESPN Books ESPN .com ESPN Music
  • 153. 5 levels of Customer • Will change brands, especially for price reasons (no Brand Loyalty) • Customer is satisfied. No reason to change brand. • Customer is satisfied and would incur costs by changing brand. • Customer values the brand and sees it as a friend. • Customer is devoted to the brand.
  • 154. High Brand Equity - Advantages • Reduced marketing costs. • Trade leverage with distributors and retailers- customer expect them to carry. • Can charge high price. • Easily launch extensions. • Defenses against price competition
  • 155. Strategic Brand Management Process Identify & Establish Brand Positioning and Values Grow & Sustain Brand Equity Measure & Interpret Brand Performance Plan & Implement Brand Marketing Programs
  • 156. Brand Tracking • Tracking studies involved information collected from consumers on a routine basis over time & provide valuable tactical insights into the short-term effectiveness of marketing programs and activities. It measures “where the brand is now”.
  • 157. Brand Valuation • Brand valuation is the estimation of total financial value of the brand. • The value associated with the product or services are communicated through the brand to the consumer. • It measures “How much worth of brand is”.
  • 158. Brand Strategy Decision – Line Extension – Brand Extension – Multi Brand – New Brand – Co - brands
  • 159. LINE EXTENSION existing brand name extended to new sizesexisting brand name extended to new sizes or flavors or technologyor flavors or technology
  • 162. Choosing a Brand Name • Product’s Benefits – Fair & Lovely • Product Qualities – action or color – Action 500 & Pepsi Blue • Easy to pronounce, recognize and remember – Tide • Distinctive - Kodak • Should not carry poor meanings in other countries and languages – NOVA means doesn’t go.
  • 163. -continued… • Brand – Repositioning Decision – Repositioning – No repositioning.
  • 164. • We can divide all definitions available on brand equity in to the following categories: • Cost based • Price based • Consumer based
  • 165. Online Products and Services • Online brands come in many different forms, with business models based on selling information, products, experiences and so on. • Online branding requires: To create awareness of what products or services the brand represent Why those products or services are unique and different Why consumers should buy the brand
  • 166. • Example:  amazon.com  alibaba.com  google  facebook
  • 167. THANK YOU