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This power point presentation reports a research made by Marco Tulio Artunduaga Cuellar a part of a Master Degree program in English Didactics which general objective is "to enhance linguistic competence by addressing grammar in the context of writing". For this twenty two students of the third semester of an English Licenciatura program of Amazonia University were

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  2. 2. WRITE IT RIGHT AND DO IT WELL <ul><li>Magister </li></ul><ul><li>Marco Tulio Artunduaga Cuellar </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  3. 3. <ul><li>DIAGNOSTIC STAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of students whose participation in class, academic and communicative performance was affected due to their low level of grammatical competence. </li></ul><ul><li>Observation using different instruments </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  4. 4. Instruments <ul><li>Teaching journals </li></ul><ul><li>Field notes recording form </li></ul><ul><li>First survey to students </li></ul><ul><li>Class observation checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Second survey to students </li></ul><ul><li>Survey to English teachers </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  5. 5. DEFICIENCIES EVIDENCED 01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com CATEGORIES SUBCATEGORIES FREQUENCY TEACHING STRATEGIES Grammatical analysis 15 Communicative Activities 7 Error correction 27 SKILLS Writing 11 LINGUISTIC COMPETENCES Grammatical competence 198 TOTAL FREQUENCY 258
  6. 6. PROBLEM <ul><li>Difficulties in grammatical competence cause in learners abandonment of ideas, language switch and long periods of hesitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammatical difficulties also hinder writing as errors make it difficult to understand what is being expressed. </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  7. 7. RESEARCH QUESTION <ul><li>What aspects of linguistic competence are enhanced when grammar is addressed in the context of writing? </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  8. 8. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES <ul><li>GENERAL OBJECTIVE: </li></ul><ul><li>To enhance linguistic competence by addressing grammar in the context of writing. </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce grammatical inaccuracy in oral and written production </li></ul><ul><li>To produce accurate and logical expressions while interacting in the foreign language </li></ul><ul><li>To create coherent and well structured written texts to show the logical and chronological sequence of events </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  9. 9. <ul><li>THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK. </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE? </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINING LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINING GRAMMATICAL COMPETENCE </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS GRAMMAR? </li></ul><ul><li>ERROR ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>TREATMENT OF ERRORS </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO TEACH GRAMMAR </li></ul><ul><li>HOW TO TEACH WRITING </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  10. 10. <ul><li>RESEARCH METHODOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>1. TYPE OF RESEARCH: </li></ul><ul><li>Action Research </li></ul><ul><li>2. PARTICIPANTS: </li></ul><ul><li>T wenty two students of the third semester of an English Licenciatura program of a public university in Florencia Caquetá, taking Morphosyntax I during the second semester of 2008. </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  11. 11. <ul><li>3. RESEARCH STAGES </li></ul><ul><li>3.1 Diagnostic Stage </li></ul><ul><li>3.2 Action Stage: </li></ul><ul><li>3.2.1 First stage: Plan </li></ul><ul><li>3.2.2 Second stage: Action (Implementation) </li></ul><ul><li>3.2.3 Third stage: Observation (Monitoring) </li></ul><ul><li>3.2.4 Fourth stage: Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>3.3 Evaluation </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  12. 12. PROPOSAL <ul><li>FIRST STAGE: PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of contents and syllabus design . </li></ul><ul><li>SECOND STAGE: IMPLEMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>Use of correction codes and error analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Application of writing activities </li></ul><ul><li>(Process-genre Approach) </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  13. 13. 01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com PLANNING DRAFTING EDITING FINAL VERSION? FINAL VERSION
  14. 14. <ul><li>THIRD STAGE: OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneously with the implementation phase. </li></ul><ul><li>Checklists of students oral and written performance </li></ul><ul><li>Self assessment questionnaire </li></ul><ul><li>Rubrics for assessing grammatical competence. </li></ul><ul><li>Field notes </li></ul><ul><li>Observation format of class developmentm </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  15. 15. FINDINGS 01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com Before After In the first composition and first drafts of texts students made many mistakes regarding: Vocabulary: learners tended to employ a lot of made-up vocabulary especially in the form of words similar to one in Spanish as in “students are inconform” (unhappy); “he met danger as pirates and tempest” (storms). Other lexical difficulties included: The use of verbs instead of nouns as in he listened a shoot. (shot). The use of some verbs instead of others as in they have scare. ( are scared). The use of a noun instead of other as in I give you my friends. (friendship). The use of words with similar meaning but different usage as in they were scared than the two ships crash. (that) After the implementation of the project significant improvement was seen in the following aspects: Students gain awareness in the appropriate use of vocabulary according to the context , for this the use of the dictionary was a skill students developed. As a result of this no more “invented” words are found.
  16. 16. 01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com Before After Punctuation and capitalization: the majority of the learners did not employ any punctuation in their papers and occasionally only periods were used at the end of a long sentence . Only a few learners employed commas and none of them used the appropriate punctuation to indicate quotations, exclamations or questions. Similarly, no capitalization rules were applied for proper nouns or after a period or question mark or at the beginning of a sentence . Word Order: Problems in the organization of subjects and verbs as in “the boat where was travelling Robinson”. As well as errors in the order of adjectives and nouns as in “other problem is the register very expensive” Sentences are shorter as a result of employing more punctuation such as commas and question marks . A better command of capitalization was noticed in proper nouns and initial letters in a sentence as well as in words after a period or question mark . Learners pay more attention to syntax in sentences and reduced errors in subject - verb and noun – adjective organization. Many students show an enhancement in the appropriate selection and use of words such as prepositions, pronouns and articles , even though there are still some omissions in the use of prepositions such as “about, for, and of” and conjunctions such as “as”.
  17. 17. 01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com Before After Omissions and unnecessary words: Learners had the tendency to avoid using pronouns, articles, prepositions as in “Is important to recognize the problems”, “we find solutions for the benefit of English students”. The opposite case was also evident and there were many times when words and phrases especially pronouns, articles and prepositions were unnecessarily used as in “it is that’s why we as English students are affected”, “this accident it is now a myth”, Verb Forms: Students did not consider employing the appropriate verb forms and auxiliaries according to tense and number as in “the English program have much difficulty”, “one morning Robinson was waited Friday who went out to hunt for lunch.” And “Robinson don’t pay attention to the parents,” Students showed a better comprehension and use of verb forms depending on the person and number and also the use of auxiliaries . However this improvement did not correspond with a better employ of verb tenses. In general terms learners take more time planning and revising their written productions and are more careful editors not only of their own papers but also of their classmates’ . As a consequence of this longer time invested in the composition process, the students’ dedication help them achieve a more fruitful performance in text length and quality and also in the aesthetic factor which is noticed in handwriting, organization and general presentation of papers. Students also benefit from the process by recognizing and producing different texts considering the qualities of narrative and descriptive genres
  18. 18. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>1. Aspects of English learning enhanced from addressing grammar in the context of writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation. </li></ul><ul><li>Word order. </li></ul><ul><li>Omissions. </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalization. </li></ul><ul><li>Unnecessary words. </li></ul><ul><li>Verb forms. </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  19. 19. <ul><li>2. The treatment of errors and their impact on grammar and writing. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a fact that any attempt to develop grammar has to face the reality of errors as natural indicators of the evolution of the language acquisition process. Fearing the identification, treatment or correction of errors with the hope that accuracy will naturally develop can be a two-edged sword. It is true that some learners have the capacity to monitor their linguistic progress but the opposite is certainly true and avoiding any form of error treatment can be the most direct way to allow fossilization . </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  20. 20. <ul><li>3. The teaching strategies and the development of contents. </li></ul><ul><li>The contents of the course evolved from word grammar to sentence grammar and finally text grammar. </li></ul><ul><li>A strategy that works well in dealing with those topics is involving students in investigating and studying the theoretical aspects of a grammar topic by themselves as an extra curricular assignment. </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  21. 21. <ul><li>4. The needs of the students and the English program in general. </li></ul><ul><li>As suggested by Scott Thornbury (1999) giving a lot of prominence to grammar or no prominence at all should be a decision we the teachers make based on our learners’ level, needs, interests, expectations and learning styles. Considering all these factors is the only way in which we can make a consciously informed choice. </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  22. 22. <ul><li>5. Issues for further research </li></ul><ul><li>Considering the limitations of this study with respect to how grammatical competence is evidenced in oral production, research in this area is required. It is clear that an enhancement of grammar in writing does not transfer to an improvement in speaking . </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  23. 23. BIBLIOGRAPHY <ul><li>BARDOVI HARLIG, Kathleen. “Tense and Aspect in Context” in: Functional Approaches to Written Text. (2007) 1 st June 2007. ‹http://exchanges.state.gov/education/engteaching/pubs/BR/functionalsec5- 15.htm› </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>BATSTONE, Rob. Grammar. Oxford: Oxford U P, 1995. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>BOWERS SIPE, Rebecca. Grammar Matters. In English Journal 95.5 (2006): 15-17. Research Library Core. ProQuest.. 25 Sep. 2007 <http://www.proquest.com/> </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  24. 24. <ul><li>CELCE MURCIA, Marianne. “Describing and Teaching English Grammar with Reference to Written Discourse” Functional Approaches to Written Text. (2007) 1 st June 2007 ‹http://exchanges.state.gov/education/engteaching/pubs/BR/functionalsec5_14.htm› </li></ul><ul><li>Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P. 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>DEAN BROWN, James. Understanding Research in Second Language Learning. United Kingdom: Cambridge U P, 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>English Journal. What is Your most Compelling Reason for Teaching Grammar? English journal; May 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>FRIES, C. C. The structure: Making Automatic the use of the Devices of form and arrangement. In English Teaching Extracts. Ed. Donn Byrne. London: Longman, 1977. </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  25. 25. <ul><li>FRISBY, A. W. “The Place of Grammar.” English Teaching Extracts. Ed. Donn Byrne London: Longman, 1977. </li></ul><ul><li>HARMER, Jeremy. How to Teach Writing. England: Pearson Education Limited, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>HEDGE, Tricia. Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Oxford: Oxford U.P. 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>KING, H.V. “Oral Grammar Drills.” English Teaching Extracts. Ed. Donn Byrne. London: Longman, 1977. </li></ul><ul><li>LARSEN-FREEMAN, Diane. Teaching Grammar. In Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Ed. Marianne Celce Murcia. United States: Heinle and Heinle, 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>LITTLE, David. Words and their properties: Arguments for a lexical approach to pedagogical Grammar. In Perspectives on Pedagogical Grammar. Ed. Terrence Odlin. Cambridge: Cambridge U P, 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>MASTER, Peter. The effect of systematic instruction on learning the English article system. In Perspectives on Pedagogical Grammar. Ed. Terrence Odlin. Cambridge: Cambridge U P, 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  26. 26. <ul><li>NUNAN, David. Research Methods in Language Learning. United Kingdom: Cambridge U P, 1992. </li></ul><ul><li>ODLIN, Terrence. Perspectives on Pedagogical Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge U P, 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>RINVOLUCRI, Mario. Awareness activities for teaching structures. In ELT documents. 113- Humanistic approaches: an empirical view. London: The British Council, 1982. </li></ul><ul><li>RUTHERFORD, William, and Michael Sharwood Smith. Grammar and Second Language Teaching: A Book of readings. In TESOL QUARTERLY, 26 (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>SAVIGNON, Sandra J. Communicative Language Teaching for the Twenty-First Century. In Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. United States: Heinle and Heinle, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>SESNAN, Barry. How to Teach English. Oxford: Oxford U P, 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>SHAFER, Gregory and SWINDLE Stephenie and JOSEPH Nancy. &quot;What activity do you recommend for teaching grammar? &quot; English Journal 92.3 (2003): 28-30. Research Library Core. ProQuest. </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com
  27. 27. <ul><li>TELLO RUEDA, Yined. Developing Pragmatic competence in a Foreign Language. In Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal. 8 (2006) : 169 – 182 </li></ul><ul><li>THORNBURY, Scott. How to Teach Grammar. England: Pearson Education limited, 1999  </li></ul><ul><li>WESTNEY, Paul. “Rules and Pedagogical Grammar.” Perspectives on Pedagogical Grammar. Ed. Terrence Odlin. Cambridge: Cambridge U P, 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>YAN, Guo. A process Genre Model for Teaching Writing. In Forum English Teaching. Volume 43. Number 3. 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>YIP, Virginia. “Grammatical consciousness-raising and learnability.” Perspectives on Pedagogical Grammar. Ed. Terrence Odlin. Cambridge: Cambridge U P, 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>What Is Your Most Compelling Reason for Teaching Grammar? &quot; English Journal 95.5 (2006): 18-21. Research Library Core. ProQuest.. 25 Sep. 2007 <http://www.proquest.com/> </li></ul><ul><li>W SMITH, Michael and WILHELM Jeff. &quot;What Research Tells Us about Teaching Grammar. &quot; Voices From the Middle 13.4 (2006): 40-43. ProQuest Education Journals. ProQuest.. 25 Sep. 2007 <http://www.proquest.com/> Proquest Education Journals </li></ul>01/26/10 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com