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Hugo grotius and immanuel kant and pierre- GROUP 4


Hugo Grotius and Immanuel Kant and pierre

Hugo Grotius and Immanuel Kant and pierre

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  • 2. Jurist and Diplomat in Dutch Republic
  • 3. April 10, 1583,  Delft, Netherlands : Leiden University o he began writing skilful elegies in Latin. o In 1598, at the tender age of fifteen, he accompanied the leading Dutch politician of the day, Johan van Oldenbarnevelt on an embassy to the royal court of France. o“the miracle of Holland.” o Latin historiographer to chronicle their history over Dominicus Baudius,
  • 4. : - Law degree from the University of Orléans - The Dutch East India Company (V.O.C.) and Prince Maurice of Nassau. - Attorney General of Holland
  • 6. De Indis and Mare Liberum De Imperio Summarum Potestatum circa Sacra On The Truth of the Christian Religion
  • 7. Concept of Natural Law Arminian controversy, arrest and exile   Decretum pro pace ecclesiarum (1613-14)   Governmental theory of atonement
  • 9. April 22, 1724 Königsberg, East Prussia oProtestant religious group of Pietists : -Saint George's Hospital School -Collegium Fredericianum -University of Königsberg •philosophy, mathematics, and the natural sciences. IMPORTANT WORKS: "General Natural History and Theory of the Heavens" in 1755. Kant concluded the origin of the solar system was a result of the gravitational (having to do with the force exerted between bodies of matter) connection of atoms (the smallest pieces of matter). He became a PRIVATE TUTOR.
  • 11. "General Natural History and Theory of the Critical Heavens" in 1755 Philosophy He is also a Lecturer. He finally achieved a professorship at moral philosophy epistemolog y Königsberg Non empiricist critique of rationalist philosophy
  • 12. Kant is also known for his three formulation of moral imperative and they are: 1. FIRST FORMULATION (formula of universal law) This formulation in principle has as its supreme law the creed "Always act according to that maxim whose universality as a law you can at the same time will" and is the "only condition under which a will can never come into conflict with itself
  • 13. 2. SECOND FORMULATION (Formula of the End in Itself) •The principle dictates that you act with reference to every rational being (whether yourself or another) so that it is an end in itself in your maxim", meaning that the rational being is "the basis of all maxims of action" and "must be treated never as a mere means but as the supreme limiting condition in the use of all means, as an end at the same time.
  • 14. 3. THIRD FORMULATION (Formula of Autonomy) •is a synthesis of the first two and says "that all maxims which stem from autonomous legislation ought to harmonize with a possible realm of ends as with a realm of nature”.
  • 15. Kant and the Religion Kant and the concept of Freedom Kant and the concept of Freedom Aesthetic philosophy of Kant Political philosophy of Kant
  • 16. •The reality of the idea of God can only be proved by means of the idea of freedom, and hence only with a practical purpose and therefore there is a god.
  • 17. Kant and the Religion •kant saw Christianity as natural and based on reason and morality. He also saw that the Bible should be seen as a source of natural morality no matter whether there is/was any truth behind the supernatural factor, meaning that it is not necessary to know whether the supernatural part of Christianity has any truth to abide by and use the core Christian moral code.
  • 18. •transcendental idea of freedom, which as a psychological concept is "mainly empirical" and refers to "the question whether we must admit a power of spontaneously beginning a series of successive things or states" as a real ground of necessity in regard to causality and and the practical concept of freedom as the independence of our will from the "coercion" or "necessitation through sensuous impulses". Kant and the concept of Freedom Kant and the concept of Freedom He identify the 3 functions of freedom namely: • a.) to be free • b.) to be comprehensible as free •c.) to be morally evaluated.
  • 19. •He states that beauty is not a property of an artwork or natural phenomenon, but is instead a consciousness of the pleasure that attends the 'free play' of the imagination and the understanding. Aesthetic philosophy of Kant
  • 20. •Immanuel Kant believes in republican government and international organization but not in democracy (direct democracy) and he stated that, , "...democracy is, properly speaking, necessarily a despotism, because it establishes an executive power in which 'all' decide for or even against one who does not agree; that is, 'all,' who are not quite all, decide, and this is a contradiction of the general will with itself and with freedom. Political philosophy of Kant
  • 22. Getting to know Pierre Gassendi: • • • • a French philosopher a Priest an Empiricist Perhaps best known in history of philosophy for his disputes with Descartes, his relations with other major figures, including Kepler and Galileo.
  • 23. Three strands of Gassendi's philosophy which are quite notable: •He was responsible for making atomism respectable in European intellectual circles of the 17th century. •Rejection of Aristotelian philosophy. •Advocated a moderate skepticism
  • 24. Writing s: 1624 - Publishes first part of his crtitique of Aristotelianism Exercitationes Paradoxicae Adversus Aristoteleos. 1644 - Publishes Disquisi tio Metaphysica, his answer to Descartes.
  • 26. THANK YOU! Prepared by: Ambrocio, Russel John Anareta, Jireh Balatucan, Crystal Ibanez, Marlon Rosauro, Whillard Suniel, Mercy