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Future of Renewables Cyprus presentation by Dr. Poullikkas in the context of Energy Workshop with specific outlook on Cyprus

Future of Renewables Cyprus presentation by Dr. Poullikkas in the context of Energy Workshop with specific outlook on Cyprus

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    Future of Renewables Cyprus - Poullikkas_CyI_14Oct2011 Future of Renewables Cyprus - Poullikkas_CyI_14Oct2011 Presentation Transcript

    • Future sustainable power generation technologies Dr. Andreas Poullikkas Electricity Authority of Cyprus Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 0
    • Contents•  Future energy systems•  Carbon capture and storage•  Nuclear energy•  Renewable energy sources•  Future energy economics•  Conclusions Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 1
    • Future energy systems Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 2
    • Future energy systemsEU energy system today* (coal, oil, nuclear) (natural gas)* Poullikkas A., 2009, Introduction to Power Generation Technologies, ISBN: 978-1-60876-472-3 Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 3
    • Future energy systemsEU energy system in 2020-30* (coal, oil, natural gas) (coal, oil, nuclear, natural gas)* Poullikkas A., 2009, Introduction to Power Generation Technologies, ISBN: 978-1-60876-472-3 Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 4
    • Future energy systemsEU energy system in 2040-50* (coal, nuclear, natural gas) (coal, nuclear, natural gas)* Poullikkas A., 2009, Introduction to Power Generation Technologies, ISBN: 978-1-60876-472-3 Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 5
    • Future energy systems Today Tomorrow: CCS, RES, DG and hydrogen storage, smartgrids Plug in vehicles Source: EC, 2007. Future power system Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 6
    • Future energy systemsMain ingredients of futuresustainable electric systems – Large scale integration of renewable energy sources – Distributed generation – Carbon capture and storage water acid gas gas removal and shift cleaning gas cooling CO2 compression – Smartgrids steam turbine generator syngas ~ – Electric vehicles CO/H2 steam gasifier steam – Storage devices O2 Air exhaust condenser heat coal separat. separat. recovery – Hydrogen unit steam pump generat. generat. N2 combustion feed chamber water compressor generator ~ turbine Development of new sustainable technologies air inlet and infrastructure Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 7
    • Carbon Capture and Storage Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 8
    • Carbon capture and storageEvolution of novel electricity generation technologies aiming to reduceCO2 emissions combined with carbon capture and storage (CCS)* !* Poullikkas A., 2009, Introduction to Power Generation Technologies, ISBN: 978-1-60876-472-3 Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 9
    • Carbon capture and storage generatorPulverized coal technology steam turbine ~with CCS*•  Rankine cycle steam CO2 compression•  Efficiency –  27-32 % CO2 amine scrubber condenser•  Capital cost fuel –  1894–2578 US$/kW pump* Hadjipaschalis I., Christou C., Poullikkas A., 2008, feed water “Assessment of future sustainable power technologies with carbon capture and storage”, International Journal of boiler Emerging Electric Power Systems Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 10
    • Carbon capture and storage generator steamNatural gas combined cycle CO compression turbine ~ 2 steamwith post CCS* CO2 amine scrubber•  Brayton – Rankine cycle exhaust condenser heat•  Efficiency recovery steam pump fuel generator combustion chamber feed –  38-45 % water compressor generator•  Capital cost ~ –  909–1261 US$/kW turbine * Hadjipaschalis I., Christou C., Poullikkas A., 2008, “Assessment of future sustainable power technologies with air carbon capture and storage”, International Journal of inlet Emerging Electric Power Systems Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 11
    • Carbon capture and storage water acid gas gas removal andIGCC technology with CCS* shift cleaning gas cooling CO2 compression•  Emerging technology steam generator turbine syngas ~ CO/H2•  Efficiency steam gasifier steam –  29-34 % O2 exhaust condenser Air heat coal separat. recovery•  Capital cost unit N2 steam generat. pump combustion feed chamber water compressor –  1414–2270 US$/kW generator ~* Christou C., Hadjipaschalis I., Poullikkas A., 2008, “Assessment of Integrated Gasification Combined turbine Cycle technology competitiveness”, Renewable and air Sustainable Energy Reviews inlet Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 12
    • Carbon capture and storage acid gas water gas removal and shift cleaningNatural gas combined gas cooling CO2 compressioncycle with pre CCS* steam generator turbine ~ syngas•  Brayton-Rankine cycle CO/H2 steam reformer steam•  Efficiency O2 exhaust –  40-43 % air separ. heat condenser recovery natural unit steam pump generat.•  Capital cost gas N2 combustion feed chamber water compressor –  1190–1450 US$/kW generator ~* Poullikkas A., Hadjipaschalis I., Christou C., 2009, turbine“The cost of integration of zero emission power plants – A aircase study for the island of Cyprus”, Energy Policy inlet Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 13
    • Carbon capture and storageCO2 emissions 1000 896CO2 environmental indicator (g/kWh) 900 825 800 700 600 500 403 400 300 200 107 110 100 48 51 0 Pulverized Pulverized IGCC IGCC with Natural gas Natural gas Natural gas coal coal with CCS CCS combined combined combined cycle with cycle with pre-cycle post- combustion combustion CCS CCS* Hadjipaschalis I., Christou C., Poullikkas A., 2008,“Assessment of future sustainable power technologies with carbon capture and storage”, International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems. Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 14
    • Carbon capture and storageElectricity unit cost* (including transportation and storage costs) 12 11 10.56 Electricity unit cost (USc/kWh) 10 9 8.19 8 7.30 7.52 7 6 5.51 5.06 5.14 5 4 3 2 1 0 Pulverized Pulverized IGCC IGCC with Natural gas Natural gas Natural gas coal coal with CCS combined combined combined CCS cycle cycle with cycle with post- pre- combustion combustion CCS CCS* Hadjipaschalis I., Christou C., Poullikkas A., 2008,“Assessment of future sustainable power technologies with carbon capture and storage”, International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems. Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 15
    • Nuclear energyEnergy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 16
    • Nuclear energyNuclear fission CONTAINMENT VESSELRankine cyclePWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) STEAM GENERATOR(generation II reactors)* NUCLEAR REACTOR TURBINENuclear fuel HP LPEfficiency ~ 40%-42%Widely used (accident?)Future reactors; generation III CONDENSER Secondaryand generation IV Primary loop pump* Poullikkas A., 2000, “Two phase flow performance of loop pump nuclear reactor cooling pumps”, Progress in Nuclear Energy ! Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 17
    • Nuclear energyITER experiment (350MWe)*•  Nuclear fusion•  Need to achieve and maintain a temperature in the order of 100 millions of degrees Celsius•  Type of nuclear fusion reactor Tokamak•  The reaction is suspended in the middle of an evacuated vessel by means of magnetic fields* Poullikkas A., 2009, Introduction to Power Generation Technologies, ISBN: 978-1-60876-472-3 ! Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 18
    • Renewable Energy Sources Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 19
    • Renewable energy sourcesTechnological status of RES technologies Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 20
    • Renewable energy sourcesRenewables growth: Electricity projections by 2020Source: EC Renewable Energy Road Map, 2007 Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 21
    • Renewable energy sources Storage devices* •  Flywheel •  Capacitors •  Batteries •  Pumped hydro, etc •  Hydrogen storage* Hadjipaschalis I., Poullikkas A., Efthimiou V., 2009, “Overview of current and future energy storage technologies for electric power applications”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 22
    • Renewable energy sourcesThe Super Smart Grid after 2050 (may allow for 100% RES) Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 23
    • Renewable energy sourcesGEMASOLAR CSP: Molten salt solar tower Ability to store hot salt allows molten salt Towers to run at high capacity factors 565°C Cold Salt Hot Salt Heliostat Field 288°C Steam Generator Condenser Conventional steam turbine & generator Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 24
    • Renewable energy sourcesGEMASOLAR output: 6-9 Sep 2011 Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 25
    • Renewable energy sources RES-E penetration cost by 2020* (for Cyprus) 2.75 2 Increase in electricity unit cost (€c/kWh) 2.50 ! COE = 0.001PRES"E + 0.0784PRES"E + 0.0036 2.25 2.00 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.00 0.75 0.50 0.25 0.00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 RES penetration (%)* Poullikkas A., Kourtis G., Hadjipaschalis I., 2011, “A hybrid model for the optimum integration of renewable technologies in power generation systems”, Energy Policy. Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 26
    • Renewable energy sourcesRES-E installed capacity at 16% penetration* (for Cyprus)* Poullikkas A., Kourtis G., Hadjipaschalis I., 2011, “A hybrid model for the optimum integration of renewable technologies in power generation systems”, Energy Policy. Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 27
    • Future Energy Economics Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 28
    • Future energy economicsPower generation cost (year 2010)* 2010) Figure 1: Power generation cost (year CO2 trading costPower generation cost (€c/kWh) O&M cost Fuel cost Capital cost Combined cycle with Wind Photovoltaics Concentrated solar natural gas power* Poullikkas A., 2010, “The cost of integration of renewable energy sources”, Accountancy Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 29
    • Future energy economicsPower generation cost (year cost (year 2020-30) Figure 2: Power generation 2020-30)* CO2 trading cost O&M cost Fully developed RES Power generation cost (€c/kWh) promotion mechanisms Fuel cost Capital cost Fully developed CCS systems and/or CO2 trading scheme Combined cycle with Wind Photovoltaics Concentrated solar natural gas power* Poullikkas A., 2010, “The cost of integration of renewable energy sources”, Accountancy Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 30
    • Future energy economics Figure 3: Power generation cost (year 2040-50) Power generation cost (year 2040-50)* Increased environmental CO2 trading cost costPower generation cost (€c/kWh) O&M cost Fuel cost Fully developed energy storage systems Capital cost Combined cycle with Wind Photovoltaics Concentrated solar natural gas power * Poullikkas A., 2010, “The cost of integration of renewable energy sources”, Accountancy Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 31
    • SummaryEnergy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 32
    • Summary•  Main ingredients of future sustainable electric systems –  Renewable energy sources –  Smartgirds –  Zero emission power plants –  Storage devices•  Integration of RES-E –  today: additional COE –  vision: competitive to conventional systems Energy Issues facing Cyprus – 14 October 2011, Nicosia, Cyprus 33