Computer Science &
Music
Sean Bechhofer
University of Manchester
!
@seanbechhofer
!
Animation 14 Awards Day,July 2014
Computer Science
isn't just about
Computers
Name That
Tune!
Name That
Tune!
Name That
Tune!
Name That
Tune!
Name That
Tune!
Track 1
Track 2
Cool! How
does it work?
How would
you describe
me?
Tall
48
48
Scottish
Tall
Tall
48
Scottish
Computer Scientist
48
Scottish
Computer Scientist
Guitarist
Tall
48
Scottish
Computer Scientist
Guitarist
Tall
Manchester (City)
Tall
48
Scottish
Computer Scientist
Guitarist
Scuba Diver
Manchester (City)
48
Scottish
Computer Scientist
Guitarist
Tall
Manchester (City)
Scuba Diver
Tall
48
Scottish
Computer Scientist
Guitarist
Scuba Diver
Features
Manchester (City)
These features allow
us to identify people.
We can do the same
with sound or music
Feature Extraction
We can analyse a piece of music to find out
what sounds are happening at different
times
!
Low frequenci...
Signature
Computer
Music Files
mp3?
“Motion Picture
Experts Group Phase
1 Audio Layer III”
Let's stick with mp3...
Sound = Waves
Turning waves into numbers
-4,0,4,7,6,3,0,-1,1,3,4,3,-1,-5,-8,-7,-5,-1,0,-2,-4,-5,-4
Numbers!
0000000 49 44 33 03 00 00 00 04 1b 55 54 4c 45 4e 00 00!
0000010 00 0f 40 00 01 ff fe 33 00 30 00 35 00 30 00 31!...
Lots of Numbers!
Over 44,000 samples per second
for high quality audio
That's 31.5 MB for a 3-minute song
Only 250 songs o...
Lots of Numbers!
Over 44,000 samples per second
for high quality audio
That's 31.5 MB for a 3-minute song
Only 250 songs o...
Throw some
numbers
away!
High Quality
Low Quality
What's in the
picture?
Another
volunteer!
Lossy Encoding
My nm s Sn nd m Cmptr Scntst t th nvrsty f
Mnchstr.
!
lk t ply th gtr.lk t g scb dvng nd shrks r my
fvrt nm...
Lossy Encoding
My name is Sean and I'm a Computer
Scientist at the University of Manchester.
!
I like to play the guitar.I...
Lossy Encoding
Original = 170 letters,New = 111 letters
!
65% smaller!
!
Imagine if we had to pay £1 per letter!
!So this ...
Lossy Encoding
ae i ea a I a oue iei a e Uiei o aee.
I ie o a e uia.I ie o o ua ii a a ae aouie aia.
53 letters
Lossy Encoding
My name is Sean and I'm a Computer
Scientist at the University of Manchester.
!
I like to play the guitar.I...
Good
FastCheap
Trade Offs: Pick Any Two!
Everyday Encoding
r u gng to the gig?
I <3 daft punk!
not if i c u first :-)
yeah shld be gr8
me 2! c u l8r
lol ;-)
How high can
you hear?
How high?
1.Everybody stand up!
2.You will hear a tone play.
3.When you can no longer hear
the tone,sit down!
Thisisanexpe...
Spot the Difference!
Perceptual
Encoding
Fewer Numbers
0000000 49 44 33 03 00 00 00 04 1b 55 54 4c 45 4e 00 00!
0000010 00 0f 40 00 01 ff fe 33 00 30 00 35 00 30 0...
High Quality
mp3
“It's hard to make predictions,
particularly about the future.”
Niels Bohr (1885-1962)
Mark Zuckerberg
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
0 350 700 1050 1400
1230
1056
845
608
360
145
58
12
6
1
Million Monthly ...
If you liked
that,you'll
like this!
Listens
Popularity
One Direction
Metallica
Daft Punk
Popularity
One Direction
Metallica
Daft Punk 3.4 million listeners
2.5 million listeners
0.7 million listeners
Popularity
One Direction
Metallica
Daft Punk
233 million listens
2.5 million listeners
173 million listens
3.4 million lis...
This works for
lots of stuff!
Inside
&
Outside
Mona Lisa
Leonardo da Vinci
1503-1505
Louvre Museum
Who's like
me?
Friends?
Patterns
Patterns
Patterns
Computer Science isn't just about
Computers
We can't predict what the impact of
new technologies will be
Sharks are great!...
Thank you!
Thebestwaytopredictthefuture
istoinventit
—Alan Kay
Image Credits
• Daft Punk: https://www.flickr.com/photos/caesarsebastian/1031975612/
• Red Army: https://www.flickr.com/ph...
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
Animation 14: Computer Science and Music
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Animation 14: Computer Science and Music

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Slides from a keynote talk at the University of Manchester UK Schools Computer Animation Competition in July 2014.

http://animation14.cs.manchester.ac.uk/festival/

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Animation 14: Computer Science and Music

  1. 1. Computer Science & Music Sean Bechhofer University of Manchester ! @seanbechhofer ! Animation 14 Awards Day,July 2014
  2. 2. Computer Science isn't just about Computers
  3. 3. Name That Tune!
  4. 4. Name That Tune!
  5. 5. Name That Tune!
  6. 6. Name That Tune!
  7. 7. Name That Tune!
  8. 8. Track 1
  9. 9. Track 2
  10. 10. Cool! How does it work?
  11. 11. How would you describe me?
  12. 12. Tall 48
  13. 13. 48 Scottish Tall
  14. 14. Tall 48 Scottish Computer Scientist
  15. 15. 48 Scottish Computer Scientist Guitarist Tall
  16. 16. 48 Scottish Computer Scientist Guitarist Tall Manchester (City)
  17. 17. Tall 48 Scottish Computer Scientist Guitarist Scuba Diver Manchester (City)
  18. 18. 48 Scottish Computer Scientist Guitarist Tall Manchester (City) Scuba Diver
  19. 19. Tall 48 Scottish Computer Scientist Guitarist Scuba Diver Features Manchester (City)
  20. 20. These features allow us to identify people. We can do the same with sound or music
  21. 21. Feature Extraction We can analyse a piece of music to find out what sounds are happening at different times ! Low frequencies: e.g.Bass Mid frequencies: e.g.Vocals High frequencies: e.g.Cymbals This gives us a Spectrogram
  22. 22. Signature
  23. 23. Computer Music Files
  24. 24. mp3?
  25. 25. “Motion Picture Experts Group Phase 1 Audio Layer III” Let's stick with mp3...
  26. 26. Sound = Waves
  27. 27. Turning waves into numbers -4,0,4,7,6,3,0,-1,1,3,4,3,-1,-5,-8,-7,-5,-1,0,-2,-4,-5,-4
  28. 28. Numbers! 0000000 49 44 33 03 00 00 00 04 1b 55 54 4c 45 4e 00 00! 0000010 00 0f 40 00 01 ff fe 33 00 30 00 35 00 30 00 31! 0000020 00 33 00 41 50 49 43 00 01 02 9e 00 00 00 69 6d! 0000030 61 67 65 2f 6a 70 65 67 00 03 00 ff d8 ff e0 00! 0000040 10 4a 46 49 46 00 01 01 00 00 01 00 01 00 00 ff! 0000050 db 00 43 00 05 03 04 04 04 03 05 04 04 04 05 05! 0000060 05 06 07 0c 08 07 07 07 07 0f 0b 0b 09 0c 11 0f! 0000070 12 12 11 0f 11 11 13 16 1c 17 13 14 1a 15 11 11! 0000080 18 21 18 1a 1d 1d 1f 1f 1f 13 17 22 24 22 1e 24! 0000090 1c 1e 1f 1e ff db 00 43 01 05 05 05 07 06 07 0e! 00000a0 08 08 0e 1e 14 11 14 1e 1e 1e 1e 1e 1e 1e 1e 1e!
  29. 29. Lots of Numbers! Over 44,000 samples per second for high quality audio That's 31.5 MB for a 3-minute song Only 250 songs on an 8Gb music player.
  30. 30. Lots of Numbers! Over 44,000 samples per second for high quality audio That's 31.5 MB for a 3-minute song Only 250 songs on an 8Gb music player.
  31. 31. Throw some numbers away!
  32. 32. High Quality
  33. 33. Low Quality
  34. 34. What's in the picture?
  35. 35. Another volunteer!
  36. 36. Lossy Encoding My nm s Sn nd m Cmptr Scntst t th nvrsty f Mnchstr. ! lk t ply th gtr.lk t g scb dvng nd shrks r my fvrt nmls. 111 letters
  37. 37. Lossy Encoding My name is Sean and I'm a Computer Scientist at the University of Manchester. ! I like to play the guitar.I like to go scuba diving and sharks are my favourite animals. 170 letters
  38. 38. Lossy Encoding Original = 170 letters,New = 111 letters ! 65% smaller! ! Imagine if we had to pay £1 per letter! !So this is“cheaper”,but we might need some extra effort to read it
  39. 39. Lossy Encoding ae i ea a I a oue iei a e Uiei o aee. I ie o a e uia.I ie o o ua ii a a ae aouie aia. 53 letters
  40. 40. Lossy Encoding My name is Sean and I'm a Computer Scientist at the University of Manchester. ! I like to play the guitar.I like to go scuba diving and sharks are my favourite animals. 170 letters
  41. 41. Good FastCheap Trade Offs: Pick Any Two!
  42. 42. Everyday Encoding r u gng to the gig? I <3 daft punk! not if i c u first :-) yeah shld be gr8 me 2! c u l8r lol ;-)
  43. 43. How high can you hear?
  44. 44. How high? 1.Everybody stand up! 2.You will hear a tone play. 3.When you can no longer hear the tone,sit down! Thisisanexperiment,notacompetition—no cheating!
  45. 45. Spot the Difference!
  46. 46. Perceptual Encoding
  47. 47. Fewer Numbers 0000000 49 44 33 03 00 00 00 04 1b 55 54 4c 45 4e 00 00! 0000010 00 0f 40 00 01 ff fe 33 00 30 00 35 00 30 00 31! 0000020 00 33 00 41 50 49 43 00 01 02 9e 00 00 00 69 6d! 0000030 61 67 65 2f 6a 70 65 67 00 03 00 ff d8 ff e0 00! 0000040 10 4a 46 49 46 00 01 01 00 00 01 00 01 00 00 ff! 0000050 db 00 43 00 05 03 04 04 04 03 05 04 04 04 05 05! 0000060 05 06 07 0c 08 07 07 07 07 0f 0b 0b 09 0c 11 0f! 0000070 12 12 11 0f 11 11 13 16 1c 17 13 14 1a 15 11 11! 0000080 18 21 18 1a 1d 1d 1f 1f 1f 13 17 22 24 22 1e 24! 0000090 1c 1e 1f 1e ff db 00 43 01 05 05 05 07 06 07 0e! 00000a0 08 08 0e 1e 14 11 14 1e 1e 1e 1e 1e 1e 1e 1e 1e!
  48. 48. High Quality
  49. 49. mp3
  50. 50. “It's hard to make predictions, particularly about the future.” Niels Bohr (1885-1962)
  51. 51. Mark Zuckerberg
  52. 52. 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 0 350 700 1050 1400 1230 1056 845 608 360 145 58 12 6 1 Million Monthly users
  53. 53. If you liked that,you'll like this!
  54. 54. Listens
  55. 55. Popularity One Direction Metallica Daft Punk
  56. 56. Popularity One Direction Metallica Daft Punk 3.4 million listeners 2.5 million listeners 0.7 million listeners
  57. 57. Popularity One Direction Metallica Daft Punk 233 million listens 2.5 million listeners 173 million listens 3.4 million listeners 36 million listens 0.7 million listeners ?
  58. 58. This works for lots of stuff!
  59. 59. Inside & Outside
  60. 60. Mona Lisa Leonardo da Vinci 1503-1505 Louvre Museum
  61. 61. Who's like me?
  62. 62. Friends?
  63. 63. Patterns
  64. 64. Patterns
  65. 65. Patterns
  66. 66. Computer Science isn't just about Computers We can't predict what the impact of new technologies will be Sharks are great! Eat lots of broccoli! Things to Remember
  67. 67. Thank you! Thebestwaytopredictthefuture istoinventit —Alan Kay
  68. 68. Image Credits • Daft Punk: https://www.flickr.com/photos/caesarsebastian/1031975612/ • Red Army: https://www.flickr.com/photos/patsemchism/345981835 • Constellation: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ursa_major_constellation_map.png • Great Wave: Public domain,Katsushika Hokusai ( 飾北斎) • Etihad: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:City_Of_Manc_Stadium.jpg • Hammerhead Shark: https://www.flickr.com/photos/barrypeters/4242623174/ • Oceanic White Tip: https://www.flickr.com/photos/michaelaston/2062803551 • Ear: https://www.flickr.com/photos/tbisaacs/3911558890/ • Fraunhofer: http://www.mp3-history.com/ • Niels Bohr: http://www.clipartsfree.net/clipart/89-niels-bohr-clipart.html • Mark Zuckerberg: http://www.fotopedia.com/items/flickr-2326586665 • Cassette Tapes: https://www.flickr.com/photos/cass_ette/4571540478 • One Direction: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:One_Direction_at_the_Logies_Awards_2012.jpg • Metallica: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Metallica_London_2008-09-15_Kirk_and_James.jpg • CD Rack: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CD_rack.JPG • Books: https://www.flickr.com/photos/meeli/2854849909 • Beans: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:No_name_sans_nom_beans_feves.jpg • Video Games: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Videogameretaildisplay.jpg • Broccoli: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Basket_of_broccoli_in_Singapore_market.jpg • Mona Lisa: Public Domain • Other Images: Sean Bechhofer

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