What are flight instruments? ◦ Why do we need them? Instrument Layout The instruments, one-by-one. Conclusion
Instruments in the aircraft ◦ Gives information about the airplane’s flight situation ◦ Altimeter ◦ Attitude Indicator ◦ Turn Coordinator ◦ Heading Indicator ◦ Vertical Speed Indicator Used in particularly poor visibility ◦ i.e. clouds, or no outside visual reference points.
Provide the source of ambient air pressure ◦ Operates; Airspeed Indicator, VSI and Altimeter Takes impact air pressure from moving forward. ◦ Pressure is changed and thus the instruments are affected.
Measures the height of the aircraft ◦ Above a given pressure level Adjustable for local barometric readings ◦ Must be set correctly during pre-flight As the static-pressure drops, due to an increase in altitutde, capsules inside expand showing a high altiude reading. Non Standard pressure and temps affect it.
To set: Turn knob on bottom left To read: Big hand reads 100s of feet, while little hand reads 1000s, the really thin one is 10’s of thousands
Vertical Speed Indicator ◦ Indicates whether or not the aircraft is in level flight or not Shows two things ◦ Whether or not if you’re in a climb ◦ If so, the rate of said climb or descent. How to read: ◦ Up=climb ◦ Down=descent ◦ Read in 100s of feet/min
Measures aircraft speed (in knots) relative to surrounding air. To read: ◦ White arc-flap operating Range ◦ Green Arc- Normal operation ◦ Yellow Arc- Caution
Instruments that utilize the properties of gyroscopes ◦ turn coordinator ◦ heading indicator ◦ attitude indicator
Gives information on the rate and direction of the turn you’re in. ◦ Also show’s if turn is coordinated Pilot will use more or less rudder to correct How to read: ◦ The plane moves left for left And vice versa ◦ The ball shows if the plane is in a slip or not ◦ 2 minutes to make a 360 turn.
Artificial Horizon ◦ Relationship of mini airplane to horizon, the real relationship of airplane to horizon. Shows how level wings are, and if there’s a climb or not. Throughout flight, ball will move and show pitch attitude and degrees of bank. How to read: ◦ Blue is sky, brown is ground. Numbers are degrees of attitude ◦ Top hashes are degrees of bank.
Heading Gryo ◦ Principle direction instrument used in flight ◦ Not affected by banks, speed changes etc ◦ NOT MAGNETIC How to read: ◦ Just like a compass. ◦ Front of aircraft is the direction
There’s two types of instruments ◦ Gyro and Pitot-Static Instruments help in VFR conditions Known as the 6 pack Know these like back of hand One step closer to getting in that plane and flying it.