FORESTS PPt. by, Robin D. Seamon
What are forests? <ul><li>Land covered with trees, plants, shrubs, & animals </li></ul><ul><li>Before man’s clearing of fo...
<ul><li>Importance: </li></ul><ul><li>Food:   hunting & gathering (prehistoric people were part of the forest: lived in ha...
 
<ul><li>LAYERS: </li></ul><ul><li>Canopy:  </li></ul><ul><li>produces the most food, birds, roof </li></ul><ul><li>Tallest...
<ul><li>Understory: </li></ul><ul><li>Trees grow in the shade of the canopy. </li></ul><ul><li>Food and shelter for the an...
<ul><li>Shrub layer: </li></ul><ul><li>Many woody stems, short </li></ul><ul><li>Birds & insects </li></ul>
<ul><li>Herb layer:  </li></ul><ul><li>Soft stems: Ferns & grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Animals hide & live here </li></ul>
<ul><li>5. Forest Floor: </li></ul><ul><li>Moss & wastes of </li></ul><ul><li>plants & animals </li></ul><ul><li>Earthworm...
<ul><li>KINDS of FORESTS: </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate forest:  has a warm season & a cold season (wolves, bear, chipmunks,...
<ul><li>Temperate  evergreen  forest:  warm/cold season but milder winters, heavy rain, near coast, NW America.  Evergreen...
<ul><li>Boreal forest:  </li></ul><ul><li>very cold, short growing season,  </li></ul><ul><li>“ boreal” means NORTH </li><...
<ul><li>Tropical Forests:  near equator, warm </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical rain forest : </li></ul><ul><li>warm & wet all ye...
<ul><li>Temperate rain forests:   </li></ul><ul><li>near equator:  lots of rain, milder winters </li></ul><ul><li>Many  de...
<ul><li>Forest Succession:   </li></ul><ul><li>Primary succession :  bare rock gradually turns into a small ecosystem with...
Nature Trail  LINK
Poison Ivy X http://www.jmgkids.us/media/PoisonIvyVine.jpg
<ul><li>Foresters : since pine is more valuable, foresters use controlled fires from letting forest climax, </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Animal survival: </li></ul><ul><li>Niche:  special place in ecosystem that organism lives </li></ul><ul><li>Predat...
 
camouflage
Hawk moth mimicry Viceroy  Monarch
<ul><li>CYCLES: </li></ul><ul><li>Cycling of Energy :  Food Chain— </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Carbon CYCLE *  photosynthesis :  plants use carbon dioxide from air to make sugars & breathe out oxygen *  Animals get ca...
Carbon Cycle ENVIRONMENT LESSON 1 (Jag Jam) INTERNET ANIMATION 1: Greenhouse effect INTERNET ANIMATION 2: Water Cycle INTE...
CYCLES To/From soil: Nitrogen, phosphorous, Potassium To/From atmosphere: Oxygen, carbon, carbon dioxide, methane Carbon C...
Cycling of chemicals:   NITROGEN CYCLE *  decomposers : bacteria, earthworms, insects break down wastes & dead material:  ...
Nitrogen Cycle http://www.ucar.edu/news/backgrounders/nitrogen.shtml INTERNET ANIMATION 3: Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle  GAME LINK
Temperate Forest
<ul><li>Estimating Populations:  Mark-recapture method </li></ul><ul><li>“ Capturing the Wild Bean” </li></ul><ul><li>Scie...
Survival Zone:  Foraging for food  (not saved) Surviving  Mountain Predators  (not saved) Man vs. Wild:  Bare Hands Fishin...
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Woodland notes Notes on different types of forests, including niches, succession, and soil/atmospheric cycling: oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, & water cycles with video links.

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Notes on different types of forests, including niches, succession, and soil/atmospheric cycling: oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, & water cycles with video links.

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Woodland notes Notes on different types of forests, including niches, succession, and soil/atmospheric cycling: oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, & water cycles with video links.

  1. 1. FORESTS PPt. by, Robin D. Seamon
  2. 2. What are forests? <ul><li>Land covered with trees, plants, shrubs, & animals </li></ul><ul><li>Before man’s clearing of forests, 60% of Earth was forest. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, only 30% remains forested. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Importance: </li></ul><ul><li>Food: hunting & gathering (prehistoric people were part of the forest: lived in harmony with it.) </li></ul><ul><li>Products: lumber, paper, furniture, rubber </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental value: </li></ul><ul><li>Trees soak up water </li></ul><ul><li>Water filters through the soil & becomes ground water. </li></ul><ul><li>Renews air/atmosphere: gives Oxygen, takes in Carbon Dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Home to many animals & plants </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoyment </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>LAYERS: </li></ul><ul><li>Canopy: </li></ul><ul><li>produces the most food, birds, roof </li></ul><ul><li>Tallest trees, some climbing vines </li></ul><ul><li>Epiphytes : grow on other plants, food from the air </li></ul><ul><li>Full sunlight </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Understory: </li></ul><ul><li>Trees grow in the shade of the canopy. </li></ul><ul><li>Food and shelter for the animals </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Shrub layer: </li></ul><ul><li>Many woody stems, short </li></ul><ul><li>Birds & insects </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Herb layer: </li></ul><ul><li>Soft stems: Ferns & grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Animals hide & live here </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>5. Forest Floor: </li></ul><ul><li>Moss & wastes of </li></ul><ul><li>plants & animals </li></ul><ul><li>Earthworms, fungi, insects, </li></ul><ul><li>Recycles </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>KINDS of FORESTS: </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate forest: has a warm season & a cold season (wolves, bear, chipmunks, bear, racoon, deer…) </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate deciduous forest: warm/cold season, trees lose leaves in winter, dense understory, shrub & herb layers grow before leaves are out; mixed with evergreens(US!!) </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Temperate evergreen forest: warm/cold season but milder winters, heavy rain, near coast, NW America. Evergreen trees—pines & conifers </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Boreal forest: </li></ul><ul><li>very cold, short growing season, </li></ul><ul><li>“ boreal” means NORTH </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as: Taiga : 1 uneven layer of trees, needle leaf evergreens (spruce, fir, pine), mosses & lichen thick, little shrub layer, small mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Beavers, hares, caribou, </li></ul><ul><li>fox, moose, wolves, bear </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Tropical Forests: near equator, warm </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical rain forest : </li></ul><ul><li>warm & wet all year: </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon Rainforest is the biggest, </li></ul><ul><li>great DIVERSITY, tree diversity: 100 species of trees in 1 square mile, </li></ul><ul><li>many vines & </li></ul><ul><li>epiphytes </li></ul><ul><li>Most animals live in the canopy (most sun) </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Temperate rain forests: </li></ul><ul><li>near equator: lots of rain, milder winters </li></ul><ul><li>Many deciduous trees (lose leaves) as well as conifers </li></ul><ul><li>Canopy 100ft. High </li></ul><ul><li>bamboo, palms in shrub layer </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Forest Succession: </li></ul><ul><li>Primary succession : bare rock gradually turns into a small ecosystem with soil & living things </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary succession : unused land gradually turns back into what it originally was (an ecosystem) before a disturbance or other land clearing </li></ul><ul><li>Grassy meadow (grasses with pine seedlings) </li></ul><ul><li>Evergreen forest (pines & cedars 1 st trees because they need full sunlight) </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous evergreen (as old pines die, deciduous trees grow) </li></ul><ul><li>Wholly deciduous forest (Climax) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Nature Trail LINK
  16. 17. Poison Ivy X http://www.jmgkids.us/media/PoisonIvyVine.jpg
  17. 18. <ul><li>Foresters : since pine is more valuable, foresters use controlled fires from letting forest climax, </li></ul><ul><li>Plant new trees </li></ul><ul><li>Stewards </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>trees cleared for farms & cities, logging, industrial pollution kills, acid rain </li></ul><ul><li>Severe in tropical areas: 50 million acres of rf destroyed each year </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Animal survival: </li></ul><ul><li>Niche: special place in ecosystem that organism lives </li></ul><ul><li>Predator/ prey </li></ul><ul><li>Protective coloration : colors blend in with the surroundings to hide </li></ul><ul><li>Camouflage : color & shape blend in with surroundings to hide </li></ul><ul><li>Mimicry : looking like a poisonous animal so you won’t get eaten. </li></ul>
  19. 21. camouflage
  20. 22. Hawk moth mimicry Viceroy Monarch
  21. 23. <ul><li>CYCLES: </li></ul><ul><li>Cycling of Energy : Food Chain— </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary consumers/predators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*remember RULES </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Carbon CYCLE * photosynthesis : plants use carbon dioxide from air to make sugars & breathe out oxygen * Animals get carbon & energy from plants * Respiration: ‘breathing’ animals break down sugars to release carbon dioxide back into the air H 2 O O 2 CO 2 = + + C 6 H 10 O 2 H 2 O +
  23. 25. Carbon Cycle ENVIRONMENT LESSON 1 (Jag Jam) INTERNET ANIMATION 1: Greenhouse effect INTERNET ANIMATION 2: Water Cycle INTERNET ANIMATION 3: Carbon Cycle
  24. 26. CYCLES To/From soil: Nitrogen, phosphorous, Potassium To/From atmosphere: Oxygen, carbon, carbon dioxide, methane Carbon Cycles ONLINE GAME
  25. 27. Cycling of chemicals: NITROGEN CYCLE * decomposers : bacteria, earthworms, insects break down wastes & dead material: puts Nitrogen in soil * nitrogen fixation : bacteria in soil & on plant roots convert Nitrogen in the soil into a useable form for plants * Lightning causes some nitrogen fixation * Soil roots of plants take in nutrients * Animals get Nitrogen from plants
  26. 28. Nitrogen Cycle http://www.ucar.edu/news/backgrounders/nitrogen.shtml INTERNET ANIMATION 3: Cycle
  27. 29. Nitrogen Cycle GAME LINK
  28. 30. Temperate Forest
  29. 31. <ul><li>Estimating Populations: Mark-recapture method </li></ul><ul><li>“ Capturing the Wild Bean” </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists study groups of organisms in an area to determine population to see if a population is outgrowing its carrying capacity or if they’re becoming endangered. Biologists use the mark-recapture method to count. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: lab sheet & pencil; paper bag with teacher-counted beans in it </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure & Observations : </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare data table: </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reach into the bag & remove a handful of beans </li></ul><ul><li>3. Count the number of beans you have ‘captured.’ Record on data sheet for 1 st capture. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Use the permanent marker to mark each bean you have just counted. Allow to dry completely, put back in bag. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Shake bag. ‘Capture’ another handful. Record recapture. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Count number of beans with marks from first capture. Record in marked recapture. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Calculate estimation of total number of beans in bag: Record estimate in table </li></ul><ul><li>Number in recapture X number marked beans = estimated population </li></ul><ul><li>number of marked in recapture </li></ul><ul><li>Gently pour all beans onto table. Calculate actual total population . Record in actual population. </li></ul><ul><li>Results: </li></ul><ul><li>Compare your data. How close was your estimate to the actual number of beans? </li></ul>Actual total population Calculated estimate of population Number of marked animals in recapture Total number of animals in recapture Number of animals In 1 st capture
  30. 32. Survival Zone: Foraging for food (not saved) Surviving Mountain Predators (not saved) Man vs. Wild: Bare Hands Fishing (not saved) Man vs. Wild: Larvae Lunch (not saved)

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