Wetlands:  notes on different wetland types, and organisms' adaptations to surviving there, reasons to save with video links
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notes on different wetland types, and organisms' adaptations to surviving there, reasons to save with video links

notes on different wetland types, and organisms' adaptations to surviving there, reasons to save with video links

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Wetlands: notes on different wetland types, and organisms' adaptations to surviving there, reasons to save with video links Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Wetlands PPt. by, Robin D. Seamon http://water.epa.gov/type/wetlands/types_index.cfm
  • 2. Abiotic factors Water Soil Light Temperature Biotic factors Mangroves Algae Birds Turtles fish Name some abiotic factors & some biotic factors that affect life in the wetland ecosystem.
  • 3.
    • Salt Marshes: SALTWATER
    • -Atlantic &Gulf coasts
    • -open areas filled with seas of grasses
    • -calm spots away from wind (bays, inlets)
    • -LOTS of wildlife
    http://connecticutwatertrails.com/img64.jpg
  • 4. Mangrove Swamps: SALTWATER -tropical fresh & saltwater -Florida -migrating stop for birds -oysters, mangrove crabs, fish, herons, egrets, storks
  • 5.
    • Swamp: FRESH WATER
    • -slow-moving streams/rivers
    • -wet during growing season, dry during summer
    • -inches to feet of water
    • -huge trees & shrubs
  • 6. Marsh: FRESH WATER -perennial grasses, NO trees -wet areas, -muskrats important -migratory birds need http://baytrail.abag.ca.gov/vtour/map4/access/Alameda1/B10_FreshwaterMarsh.JPG
  • 7.
    • Bogs: FRESHWATER
    • -Lots of peat (40 ft or more!)
    • - colder regions b/c little water flows in or out
    • -too much rain or snow
    http://www.tehrantimes.com/News/10248/09_PEAT.jpg
  • 8.
    • Wetlands and Wildlife:
    • Migration : between winter & summer homes, birds “refuel”(egrets, herons, geese, sandpipers, plovers)
    • Natural Nurseries: hatch & hide!
    • Habitat & breeding grounds: animals live here and breed esp. (WATERFOWL, moose, frogs, raccoon, turtles, opossum, snakes, insects, fish)
    • Rare species: 1/2 US endangered species live here: (wood stork, nail kites, whooping cranes, American crocodile)
  • 9.
    • Plant Life:
    • Emergents: plants that grow out of the water
    rice
  • 10.
    • Plant Life:
    • Floating plants: float on the surface, roots floating as well
  • 11.
    • Plant Life:
    • Submergents: grow under the water
  • 12.
    • Wetlands and People:
    • SPONGE: soil is like a sponge. It soaks up excess water & release it later into surrounding habitat during dry weather!
    • Flood buster: soaks in water and reduces flood damage
    • Erosion control
    • Filters water: filters pollutants, protecting our drinking water
    • Unlike other habitats wetlands DIRECTLY improve the habitats surrounding it.
  • 13.
    • -WETLANDS ARE IN TROUBLE!
    • -290,000+ acres wetlands lost each year
    • -50% gone over past 200 yrs
    • -people drain them for farms & cities
    • Everglades : one of largest in the world, in S. Florida (once covered most of it): NOW: Everglades Nat’l Park
    http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_SgPmQd1IziM/TUnHvyEZl9I/AAAAAAAAAxE/AtTN39bNhJ4/s1600/wetlands.jpg
  • 14.
    • Estimating Populations: Mark-recapture method
    • “ Capturing the Wild Bean”
    • Scientists study groups of organisms in an area to determine population to see if a population is outgrowing its carrying capacity or if they’re becoming endangered. Biologists use the mark-recapture method to count.
    • Materials: lab sheet & pencil; paper bag with teacher-counted beans in it
    • Procedure & Observations :
    • Prepare data table:
    • 2. Reach into the bag & remove a handful of beans
    • 3. Count the number of beans you have ‘captured.’ Record on data sheet for 1 st capture.
    • 4. Use the permanent marker to mark each bean you have just counted. Allow to dry completely, put back in bag.
    • 5. Shake bag. ‘Capture’ another handful. Record recapture.
    • 6. Count number of beans with marks from first capture. Record in marked recapture.
    • 7. Calculate estimation of total number of beans in bag: Record estimate in table
    • Number in recapture X number marked beans = estimated population
    • number of marked in recapture
    • Gently pour all beans onto table. Calculate actual total population . Record in actual population.
    • Results:
    • Compare your data. How close was your estimate to the actual number of beans?
    Actual total population Calculated estimate of population Number of marked animals in recapture Total number of animals in recapture Number of animals In 1 st capture
  • 15.
    • Prairie Potholes: 5.3 million acres remain (WAS 17 million) in US N. Dakota, S. Dakota, Minnesota
    • - 33,000 acres destroyed each year
  • 16.
    • Great Lakes: marshes along Great Lakes have decreased by 90 %
  • 17.
    • California wetlands: 450,000 acres left of its original 5 million acres.
  • 18.
    • Lower Mississippi Valley: 15% bottomland hardwood wetlands are left
  • 19.
    • To Help:
    • Local zoning laws
    • National reserves
    • Write your legislators
    • (lack support and money, so rules are poorly enforced!)
    • Federal Migratory bird Stamp Program (Duck Stamp program)
    • Clean Water Act section 404
  • 20. WETLANDS Organism examples: Primary Producers : cattail, wild rice, smooth cord grass, sweet flag, blue iris, switch grass Primary Consumers : meadow voles, mice, rabbits, aquatic macroinvertebrates, deer, fish, waterfowl Secondary Consumers : birds of prey, snakes, foxes, fish, humans Tertiary Consumers: turkey vultures, ravens, crabs, humans Decomposers : fungi, bacteria
  • 21. WETLANDS
  • 22. How to survive ‘sink holes’ Man vs.Wild How to use your Shoelaces Man vs. Wild Water Compass Man vs. Wild Man vs. Wild: Surviving with Bear Man vs. Wild: Sawgrass
  • 23. Works Cited: PHOTOS
    • Wetlands collage
    • Bird
    • Salt marsh
    • Mangrove swamp
    • Freshwater marsh
    • Freshwater bogs
    • FL everglades & satellite image
    • Prairie Potholes
    • Great lakes
    • Ca.
    • Mississippi