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Prehistory 1: Geologic Timeline-  Notes on the geologic & life history of Earth from Precambrian to the present Cenozoic Era
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Prehistory 1: Geologic Timeline- Notes on the geologic & life history of Earth from Precambrian to the present Cenozoic Era

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Notes on the geologic & life history of Earth from Precambrian to the present Cenozoic Era

Notes on the geologic & life history of Earth from Precambrian to the present Cenozoic Era

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  • 1. Prehistory 1: GeologicTime ppt. by Robin D. Seamon Resource: TEXTBOOK: Prentice Hall Earth Science notes http://home.earthlink.net/~tranqbase/images/fossils.jpg
  • 2. HIGHLIGHTS: •Earth: 4.5 billion years old •¾ of the geologic timeline holds life •Life forms changed Earth’s chemistry •Catastrophes affected the evolution of life- extinctions •New weedy species thrives & takes over after an extinction
  • 3. Geologic Time Scale Geologic Timeline in Excel LINK
  • 4. EXTINCTIONS: widespread & rapid decreases in amount of life on Earth. 5 major Extinctions: 65 mya K-PgExtinction 75%extinct (killed dinosaurs) Mammals & birdssurvive 200 mya Triassic-Jurassicextinction event 75% extinct Dinos& birds survive 251 mya Permian-Triassic extinction event 95% lifeextinct “Great Dying” Archosaurssurvive 375mya Devonianextinction 70%extinct Marine life changed 450mya Ordovician- Silurianextinction 70%extinct X 2 2 events
  • 5. Mass extinctions: •Long-term stress compounded by short-term shock (2 things) POSSIBLE CAUSES •Flood basalt events (LIP) •Sea level falls •Impact events (asteroid/comet) •Sustained & significant global cooling •Sustained & significant global warming •Anoxic events: (lack of O in oceans-warming) •Oceanic overturn (disruption of thermohalinecirculation)
  • 6. •Plate tectonics •Initiate/end Ice Ages •Change ocean & wind patterns •Close off or open land bridges •Decrease continental shelf •Arid interior •OTHER: •New disease •Out-competition •Man-made extinction of species
  • 7. EFFECTS & RECOVERY •Weedy species-species that can quickly adapt to the environment; becomes dominate •Reproduce quickly •Disperse widely •Live in a variety of habitats •Establish populations in strange places •Resist eradication once established •5-10 million years before re-diversification
  • 8. Precambrian Era: Vast and Puzzling 4.5 Billion years ago to the Cambrian Period 3.4 bya: microscopic bacteria Atmosphere: water vapor, CO2 , Nitrogen, NO OXYGEN Ozone layer protects from UV Later, primary plants evolved, used photosynthesis which created oxygen Oxygen accumulates 2.5 bya
  • 9. Precambrian Era: Vast and Puzzling Fossils: * stromatolites: layered mounds and columns of calcium carbonate (material deposited by algae) * chert: hard sedimentary rocks holding these fossils 600 mya1stmulti-celled animals EXTINCTION
  • 10. Remnants of Precambrian Rocks
  • 11. After Precambrian Era, time is divided into 3 other eras: * Paleozoic Era (Invertebrates Fish Amphibians) * Mesozoic Era * Cenozoic Era
  • 12. Early Paleozoic Era: Life Evolves 540 mya Divided into 6 time periods: * Cambrian Period * Ordovician Period * Silurian Period * Devonian Period * Carboniferous Period * Permian Period Paleozoic Era LIFE EVOLVES early life began in the seas shells, trilobites
  • 13. Early Paleozoic Era: Life Evolves Land masses: * First:Gondwana( S. Amer, Africa, Australia, Antarctica, Asia) MAP *Then another mass is raised:Laurasia(N. Amer, Eurasia) MAP * Then in Permian Period, there was: Pangea (all continents together) MAP ADVANCE
  • 14. BACK
  • 15. Cambrian Period: “Age of Invertebrates” first organisms with shells, trilobites dominate Ordovician Period: first fish Silurian Period: “Age of Fishes” first land plants Devonian Period: fish dominate, first insect fossils Carboniferous Period:“Age of Amphibians” amphibians abundant, large coal swamps, Permian Period: extinction trilobites & other marine animals; first reptiles Periods of the Paleozoic Era ppt LINK ppt LINK ppt LINK
  • 16. Late Paleozoic Era At the end of the Paleozoic Era, (400mya) plants adapted to water’s edge to inland Amphibians diversified Greatest of 5 mass extinctions (Climate became seasonal) ADVANCE
  • 17. Silurian Period BACK
  • 18. BACK Ordovician Period
  • 19. Armor-Plated Fish BACK
  • 20. Model of a Pennsylvanian Coal Swamp BACK
  • 21. Permian Period Reptiles ADVANCE
  • 22. Mesozoic Era: “Age of Reptiles” 350 mya Divided into 3 time periods: * Triassic Period * Jurassic Period * Cretaceous Period Dinosaurswere land-dwelling reptiles that were dominate during Mesozoic Era Major event: breakup of Pangea
  • 23. Mesozoic Era: “Age of Reptiles” Life: * gymnosperms * Canadian Rockies formed * shelled egg: adaptation favoring land birth IMPORTANT EVOLUTIONARY STEP * Reptiles dominate ADVANCE
  • 24. BACK
  • 25. The Flying Reptile Pteranodon ADVANCE
  • 26. Fossil Skull of an Extinct Crocodile
  • 27. Periods of the Mesozoic Era Triassic Period “Age of Reptiles” Dinosaurs dominate Jurassic Period First birds, dinosaurs dominate Cretaceous Period First angiosperms(flowering plants) ADVANCE
  • 28. Jurassic Period BACK
  • 29. Cretaceous Period
  • 30. MASS EXTINCTION!!! K-PgBoundary-Earth struck by 6-mile wide asteroid, resulting in mass extinction: 65 mya End of the Mesozoic Era: Badlands, SD
  • 31. Cenozoic Era: “Age of Mammals” 65 mya Considered the “Age of Mammals” Divided into two periods * Tertiary Period * Quaternary Period Plate movement led to much mountain building, volcanism, earthquakes
  • 32. Cenozoic Era: “Age of Mammals” Angiosperms replace gymnosperms as dominate land plants Mammals (animals that bear live young, maintain steady body temperature) replace reptiles as dominate animal adaptations such as insulating body hair, more efficient heart & lungs, allow mammals to lead more active lives
  • 33. Fossils from La Brea Tar Pits
  • 34. Cenozoic Era: “Age of Mammals” Life Large mammals & extinction: * In N. America, mastodon & mammoth (huge relatives of elephant), saber-toothed cats, giant beavers, large ground sloths, horses, camels, giant bison become extinct ???? WHY???
  • 35. Cenozoic Era: “Age of Mammals” Mastadon Wooly mammoth
  • 36. Cenozoic Era: “Age of Mammals” Saber-toothed tiger Giant ground sloth
  • 37. Cenozoic Era: Human Ancestors 2 mya –10mya humans?
  • 38. Reader’s Theater: North American History Character LINK Script LINK
  • 39. LAB: Geologic Beaded Timeline
  • 40. LAB Activity: Group Timeline Project Precambrian Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic Cambrian Your timeline should include in pictures and words the following: (use color) Time ( -) Era _____________, “Age of _________” Period GeologyAtmosphere & weather*New adaptationsplants, animalsExtinctions?
  • 41. COMPUTER LAB Activity: Geologic Timeline in Excel LINK
  • 42. RESOURCE: TEXTBOOK: Prentice Hall Earth Science notes 6thgrade