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Plants2- Plant Parts, functions, & tropisms
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Plants2- Plant Parts, functions, & tropisms

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  • 1. Plants 2: Plant Parts PPt. by, Robin D. Seamon
  • 2. SEEDS: PPt. by, Robin D. Seamon
  • 3. SEEDS: Activities •Seed tasting LAB: mango, pomegranite, coconut, avocado, kiwi •Seed Hunt LAB: •Seed Dissection LAB: •Seed Planting: •Seed Experiments:
  • 4. •Seeds: seeds are made by the plant so that the plant can reproduce itself (make more.) •Have lots of stored energy in them for the young plant to start life. That’s why animals eat them. •Germination: the process of a seed sprouting into a young plant. •To germinate, some need digestion, some need cold, some need warmth, some need fire, all need water.
  • 5. •Roots grow down geotropism (following gravity) •Stem grows up phototropism (following light) •They travel by wind, sticking to animal fur, in water, and by being eaten by animals/people •We eat some seeds •There are two types of angiosperm seeds: Monocots, Dicots VIDEO: HSW seed dispersal
  • 6. COTYLEDONS: 1.Monocots have one cotyledon, (corn, rice, wheat, grasses) 2.Dicots have 2 cotyledons (bean plant, roses, cacti)
  • 7. Seed Parts 1.Seed coat 2.Cotyledons (food) 3.Small plant embryo
  • 8. Label the type of seed & its 3 parts. 1.Seed coat 2.Cotyledons (food) 3.Small plant embryo •Gymnosperm seed •Dicot seed •Monocot seed
  • 9. SEED GERMINATION STEPS: 1.Water soaks into the seed coat 2.Seed coat splits 3.Root grows down 4.Small embryo grows up, taking cotyledons with them 5.Cotyledons turn GREEN with sunlight (photosynthesis) VIDEO: Germination of a Seed 1.5 min
  • 10. Germination of a Seed
  • 11. Plant Reproduction PPT. by, Robin D. Seamon
  • 12. How does a plant reproduce itself? 1.Asexual Reproduction: (produces exact copies of itself, off of itself) 2.Sexual Reproduction: (sperm & egg combine) • Flower makes a seed that germinates SporesCuttings GraftingBulbs/ Tubers
  • 13. FLOWERS
  • 14. FLOWER: Activity •Flower dissection •Petal Dying •Flower Hunt
  • 15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flower
  • 16. •Flowers make the seed for the plant •The bright color & good smell attract insects •Insects drink the sweet nectar for food •While doing so, they rub the pollen & unknowingly take it to another flower! (pollination) •After pollination, the plant loses its flower & starts working on the seed •Angiosperms create a tasty fruit to surround the seed to trick an animal into eating it. The animal will pass the seed later with a little fertilizer… ADVANCE
  • 17. BACK http://onenezz.blogspot.com/2011/12/capti on-mothballing.html http://gardeningsoul.blogspot.c om/2011/09/accidental- pollinators.html
  • 18. BACK
  • 19. http://www.flickr.com/photos/22887580@N06/2513212265/
  • 20. Pollination: process by which an insect carries pollen from the male part of the flower to the female part of the flower. This allows the flower to make a seed. WATCH ANIMATION LINK HSW: Video honeybees 4 min
  • 21. Flower Parts •Petals: brightly colored to attract insects •Pistil: female part; •Stigma: sticky top part of the pistil •Ovary: inside the pistil; it has the egg (female part of the flower) •Stamen: filament & anther •Anther: top of the stamen; has the pollen grains (male part of the flower) •Sepal: green covering of the bud DIAGRAM LINK
  • 22. • Pollen from the anther (male part) is taken to the stigma of the pistil (female part.) • Pollen creates a pollen tube down the style into the ovary of the pistil where the eggs are located. • When pollen meets the egg, fertilization has happened and seeds begin to form. • In angiosperms, the ovaries swell, creating a juicy fruit on the outside of seeds.
  • 23. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flower
  • 24. PARTS OF A F L O W E R BACK
  • 25. POLLINATION Play Activity 2 Play Activity 1
  • 26. Flower fertilization: http://stockimages1.co.uk/customer-life-cycles- and-how-to-extend-them-using-three-simple- steps
  • 27. Dissection Dissect your flower and label the following parts. Male parts BLUE Stamen Anther pollen Female parts RED Pistil Stigma Ovary: Egg OTHER: Sepals Petals
  • 28. Venus Fly Trap HSW video (2.5 min)
  • 29. ROOTS: PPt. by, Robin D. Seamon
  • 30. ROOTS: Activity •Root Hunt Lab •Grow a potato •Grow seeds in a bag •Carrot Top growing •Root a cutting in water
  • 31. ROOTS: •hold the plant in the ground (anchor) •Stop erosion •Take in water & minerals for the plant •Parts of a root: Root cap: thin covering, protects root tip Root hairs: threadlike parts of cells on surface of root Phloem: path that food from leaves take down the plant to roots Xylem: path that water & minerals take up the plant Cortex: stores food in roots & stems
  • 32. Taproot Grows straight down with a few side branches Fibrous Root Grows more shallow, ‘hairy’; many fine- branching roots foxtail dandelion
  • 33. Tuber: modified plant structure enlarged to hold nutrients •stem tuber, (onion) •root tuber, (sweet potato) •potato tuber (potato)
  • 34. •Bulbs: underground shoot that stores food; roots grow underneath (stem tuber) Buttress Roots grow from the trunk for added support Epiphyte: strangler Fig •Special kinds of ‘roots’: Link
  • 35. Mangrove roots grow negative geotropism (up!) and then back down. Prop Roots (adventitious roots) help hold the plant up in wet soils
  • 36. See LINK
  • 37. In the Garden: (Special roots & stems)
  • 38. Carrots and Beetroot Carrots and beetroot are thickened tap roots which have very few lateral roots. Both are biennials i.e. they only grow for two years. In the first year they store food manufactured by their leaves in their tap root, and in the second year they use the stored food to produce flowers (called bolting). We harvest the carrots or beetroots before they bolt.
  • 39. Ginger Ginger is a rhizome - a type of stem which grows horizontally just under the surface of the ground. Leaves grow from buds at the nodes on the stem. The stem is thick and fleshy and stores reserve food for the plant.
  • 40. Potatoes This is likely to trick many people. Potatoes are not roots but underground storage stems which are formed when the growth point of an underground stem, a  rhizome, almost stops lengthening and increases greatly in thickness. This forms an underground storage organ which stores large quantities of starch.
  • 41. Sweet Potatoes Sweet potatoes are the greatly thickened roots of the fibrous root system of the sweet potato plant which contain reserves of starch.
  • 42. Onions and Garlic Onions and garlic are bulbs. A bulb is an underground storage organ which consists of a very short stem on which fleshy bases of the leaves store food for the plant.
  • 43. STEM: PPt. by, Robin D. Seamon
  • 44. STEM: Activity •Stem Hunt Lab •Stem Rubbing •Flower Chains •Celery Dying •Tropism experiments
  • 45. •Woody stems & soft stems •Carry water & minerals up and food down •Hold the plant up (leaves & flowers) •A tree’s stem is called a trunk •Some grow underground (potato)
  • 46. TROPISMS: movement of a plant Positive tropism (moving toward the stimulus) Negative tropism (moving away from the stimulus) •Geotropism: all above ground plant parts grow away from gravity (up) roots go down •Phototropism- all stems bend towards the sunlight- •thigmotropism: response to physical contact- Vines: special kind of ‘climbing’ stem •Some grow along the ground (runners) like strawberries ADVANCE HSW Video: creeper plants/vines (1 ½ min)
  • 47. BACK http://cccmkc.edu.hk/~sbj-biology/AL%20BIO/Continuity%20of%20life%20growth %20and%20development/Tropism%20%28phototropism%29%20experiment.htm Phototropism
  • 48. BACK http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/102421/enlarge geotropism
  • 49. http://marksteinmetz.photoshelter.com/image/I0000kfPWbfKSAFE Thigmotropism BACK
  • 50. •Vine: A special kind of stem that grows up and sideways; it climbs BACK
  • 51. Runner A runner produces an identical plant to the mother BACK
  • 52. •Xylem: path that water & minerals take up the plant •Ploem: path that water & minerals take down the plant. •Cortex: stores food in roots & stems
  • 53. LEAVES: PPt. by, Robin D. Seamon
  • 54. LEAVES: Activity •Leaf Hunt Lab •Leaf rubbings •Leaf pressing •Leaf pounding
  • 55. PARTS OF A LEAF •Veins carry water & minerals to the leaf; carry the food the leaf makes away from the leaf •Blade the main part of the leaf •Petiole connects the leaf to the branch
  • 56. Vein Vein
  • 57. KINDS OF LEAVES: •Simple leaves: one leaf blade •Compound leaves: several symmetrical leaves •Turn colors in the Fall & fall off- •deciduous tree leaves will freeze in the winter, so as a precaution, trees take in all of the chlorophyl to store in the trunk & roots until spring •Leaves without green = color! •Needles: special kinds of leaves to conserve water •Make food for the plant ADVANCE
  • 58. Simple Leaves BACK
  • 59. BACK http://stavaressbi3u1.edublogs.org/2010/05/2 3/leaves/
  • 60. •Transpiration- process by which plants lose water through the leaves 99% water taken into roots are transpired out the leaves 2. Water through cortex of root to xylem & up stem 1. Water from soil into root hairs 3. Transpiration in leaves helps draw water up stem 4. Water moves up stem to veins to cells Transpiration film LINK
  • 61. •Respiration- process by which plants lose air (oxygen) & gain air (CO2) through the leaves •Guard cells close & open the stomata as needed
  • 62. •Photosynthesis- process by which plants turn sunlight into energy (food) http://www.grow-a-head.com/index/index.php? option=com_content&task=view&id=24&Itemid =62 HSW: video Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs (1 min) HSW: Photosynthesis Video 2.5 min
  • 63. 80 Hg 200.59 Mercury Atomic number (electron/proton pairs) Atomic weight symbol Element name Electron (-) nucleus Proton (+) Neutron
  • 64. 1. Chlorophyll absorbs light from the sun 2. Sun’s energy splits water molecule into hydrogen & oxygen 3. Hydrogen joins carbon dioxide to make food (sugar/glucose) 4. Sugar carried through the plant; oxygen is released into the air 6 6 6 H2O O2CO2 =+ + C6 H12 O6 PHOTOSYNTHESIS MOVE
  • 65. O OO C C C C C C O OO C C C C C C
  • 66. O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O H HH H H H H HH H H H
  • 67. PLANT LABS: 1. Leaves: Identify & graph your collection into journal; view & draw fern spores; Answer questions in Plant Journal. 2. Flowers: identify & draw 5 local spring flowers on white paper. Glue into journal. Roots: identify fibrous & taproots; draw 7 label root parts in journal; Answer questions in Plant Journal. 3. Seeds: seed dissection: label 3 parts of the seed into journal; observe pine nuts in pinecones-- sketch into journal; Answer questions in Plant Journal. 4. Stems: Compare three different types of bark. Notice the color & texture. How do the grains run? Is there a pattern? Create a bark rubbing with a dark crayon (rubbed sideways). Sketch the three specimens. Header:
  • 68. LAB: LEAVES RULES: BE GENTLE WITH THE LEAVES. They are fragile! • What kinds of leaves are in your envelope? ___________, ______________, _______________, _______________, ______________ • Write how many of each kind of leaves on the lines above. • Sketch one of the leaves, labeling the blade, veins, midriff, & petiole • What are the three processes performed by the leaves for the plant. _______________, ______________, _______________ • What is the difference between a simple leaf and a compound leaf? _____________________________________________________________ Header: Leaf Bank: oak, maple, dogwood, elm, beech, redbud, sweetgum
  • 69. GRAPHING: Create a graph showing the numbers of each type of leaf in your packet. Label the x and y axis. Create a key for the leaf types. TITLE: _______________ Y axis X axis () ( ) KEY:
  • 70. Vein Vein LABELING DIRECTIONS: Use your notes and the definitions below to label the following parts of a leaf. Vein: ribs that form the vessel system for carrying water and nutrients through the plant Midrib: the center or principle vein of a leaf Blade: broad, flat part of the leaf Petiole: the small leaf stem that attaches the leaf to the branches Stipules: leaf-like outgrowth at the base of a leaf Leaflet: the smaller parts of a whole compound leaf Alternate arrangement: arrangement of leaves where the leaves take turns on either side of the branch Opposite arrangement: arrangement of leaves where the leaves are directly opposite each other on the branch LEAF ARRANGEMENT LEAF PARTS Compound Leaf Simple Leaf
  • 71. LAB: SEEDS RULES: BE CAREFUL DISSECTING THE SEEDS. • What is the purpose of a seed? ______________________________________ • What is the process of a seed sprouting into a young plant? ________________ • How do seeds travel? _____________________________________________ • What is the difference between a monocot & a dicot? _____________________ ________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________ • Sketch the following parts of your dissected lima bean seeds: (seed coat, cotyledon, small embryo) • Name 5 seeds that we eat. __________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ Header:
  • 72. LAB: ROOTS RULES: BE GENTLE WITH THE ROOTS. They are wilting! • What is the purpose of a root for a plant? ____________________, __________________________________ • What part of the root carries water up the plant? _____________ • What part of the root carries water & nutrients down the plant? _____________ • Sketch & label the roots from your station into your journal. (root hairs, rootcap, fibrous root, taproot) • What is the difference between a fibrous root and a taproot? ________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ • Name some roots that we eat. ________________________ _________________________________________________ Header:
  • 73. LABELING DIRECTIONS: Use your notes and the definitions below to label the following parts of a root. Lateral root: root coming off the main root Primary root: main taproot
  • 74. LAB: STEM RULES: BE GENTLE WITH THE BARK SPECIMENS. • What is the purpose of a stem for a plant? ______________________________ • Compare three different types of bark. Notice the color & texture. How do the grains run? Is there a pattern? Sketch the three specimens. • What is a vine?___________________________________ • What is a runner? __________________________________ Header:
  • 75. LABELING DIRECTIONS: Use your notes and the definitions below to label the following parts of a stem . Auxillary bud: a bud coming from the side of a stem Terminal bud: a bud coming from the end of the stem Terminal bud scar: the ringed scar on the stem where last years terminal bud was Node: point on the stem where a leaf is or was attached Internode: space on the stem between nodes Petiole: the leaf stem that connects to the plant’s stem Blade: flat part of a leaf
  • 76. LAB: FLOWERS RULES: BE CAREFUL DISSECTING THE SEEDS. • What type of plants are classified as having flowers? __________________ • What is the purpose of a flower for a plant? ______________________________ • What type of reproduction uses a seed? (Circle one.) Asexual reproduction OR Sexual reproduction • Describe the process of fertilization in flowers. Write each step specifically. • Flower dissection: Header:
  • 77. Dissect your flower, sketch and label the following parts. Male parts BLUE Stamen Anther Pollen Female parts RED Pistil Stigma Ovary: Egg OTHER: Sepals Petals FLOWER Dissection
  • 78. Use the following words to label the parts of the flower: Sepals petals stigma anther stamen pistil Pollen grains Eggs (inside the ovary)
  • 79. Label the type of seed & its 3 parts. 1. Seed coat 2. Cotyledons (food) 3. Small plant embryo •Gymnosperm seed •Dicot seed •Monocot seed
  • 80. Sepal Pistil