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- 1. Physics 1 Energy PPT. by, Robin D. Seamon
- 2. <ul><li>MOTION </li></ul><ul><li>Position: the location of an object </li></ul><ul><li>Direction : N, S, E, W </li></ul><ul><li>Speed : distance over time (tells how fast it moved) </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: the soccer ball moved 20m east. </li></ul><ul><li>Did it move 20m in 2 sec? OR </li></ul><ul><li>Did it move 20m in 2 min? </li></ul><ul><li>Which is the slower speed? </li></ul>
- 3. <ul><li>How do you measure motion? </li></ul><ul><li>Stopwatch </li></ul><ul><li>Divide: distance time </li></ul>
- 4. <ul><li>QUESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>What is the speed of the golf ball that moves 35 m in 5 sec? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is a compass a useful tool to describe motion? </li></ul><ul><li>How can motion be described? </li></ul>
- 5. <ul><li>FORCE & MOTION </li></ul><ul><li>Force : a push or pull on an object </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of force you apply, determines how fast the object will move </li></ul><ul><li>If an object stops, speeds up, slows down, or changes direction, a force has been applied to it! </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: gravity, lift, thrust, friction </li></ul>
- 6. EXAMPLE: Forces on a Shark Thrust Lift Drag : air/water resistance
- 7. Describe the force the weight lifter is exerting on the bar. Are the forces balanced or unbalanced? PRACTICE LINK PRACTICE Q’s
- 8. Hydraulic Lift simulation Activity 1 Quiz 2
- 9. <ul><li>Energy & Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Energy: the ability to do work (joules) (amt. of E to lift an apple 1m) </li></ul><ul><li>Machine : something that replaces human effort </li></ul><ul><li>Friction : the force that slows down or stops motion </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity : the fore that pulls all objects on Earth toward the center of Earth (All objects have gravity; the larger the object, the stronger the gravitational pull) </li></ul>
- 10. <ul><li>Potential Energy : stored up Energy; energy ready to be used </li></ul><ul><li>Kinetic Energy : energy of motion; WORKING Energy mv 2 2 </li></ul><ul><li>M= mass kg; v= speed </li></ul>
- 11. <ul><li>FORMS of ENERGY: </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal energy : energy from the rapid movement of molecules, causing heat- high temp to low temp -moves faster at high temp </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical energy : Energy of motion & position -stays the same unless transfers to another object </li></ul>
- 12. <ul><li>Electrical energy : energy from moving electrons in atoms (negative charge around atoms) </li></ul><ul><li>Gravitational potential energy : potential energy an object has if it falls </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic Potential energy : potential energy of an object as it is forced to change shape, but has the ability to return to its normal shape. </li></ul>
- 13. <ul><li>Chemical energy : energy from the interaction of molecules </li></ul><ul><li>photosynthesis sugar forms by work of joining different atoms together in certain patterns: C 6 H 10 O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>burning wood releases E as heat </li></ul><ul><li>explosion rapid release of E </li></ul>Examples
- 14. <ul><li>Nuclear energy: energy that comes from changes in the nucleus of an atom </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fission break apart (power plants) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fusion put together (sun) 100,000,000 °C: H joins to form He </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 15. <ul><li>Light energy : energy from light; vibrations of electrically charged particles (NOTE: do not need air to transmit… can transmit through a vacuum as photons) </li></ul><ul><li>Sound energy : energy from sound waves; objects vibrate, transmitting some of the kinetic E to air around it, air particles vibrate & transmit E to your ear… YOU HEAR! </li></ul>
- 16. <ul><li>SIR ISAAC NEWTON: (1643-1727) </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematician & astronomer </li></ul><ul><li>NEWTON LINK BIOGRAPHY </li></ul><ul><li>Newton’s 1 st law of Motion : objects remain still or in motion until another force is applied to it (law of inertia) </li></ul><ul><li>Newton’s 2 nd law of Motion : acceleration happens when a force is acted on an object. The greater the mass of the object, the more force is needed to move it. (f=ma) </li></ul><ul><li>Newton’s 3 rd law of Motion : for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction </li></ul><ul><li>NEWTON LINK : explore the 3 laws </li></ul>http://www.mrdowling.com/601-newton.html
- 17. ENERGY CONVERSIONS: (changing from one form to another) Elastic potential Energy Chemical energy of food you eat: atoms rearrange to make energy for you Energy pyramid Light E > chemical E > we eat it > to kinetic E as we move & live Examples Pendulum
- 18. ENERGY CONVERSION LAB Make a list of 15-20 gadgets. Denote the source of E and into what kind of E it converts Kinetic & sound E Electrical E Blender Light & thermal E Electrical E Light bulb Electrical E Chemical E Battery Light & sound E Electrical E Alarm clock DESTINATION SOURCE GADGET
- 19. ENERGY CONVERSION LAB Make a list of 15-20 gadgets. Denote the source of E and into what kind of E it converts
- 20. ENERGY CONVERSION LAB Make a list of 15-20 gadgets. Denote the source of E and into what kind of E it converts
- 21. ENERGY CONVERSION LAB Make a list of 15-20 gadgets. Denote the source of E and into what kind of E it converts
- 22. ENERGY CONVERSION LAB Make a list of 15-20 gadgets. Denote the source of E and into what kind of E it converts
- 23. ENERGY CONVERSION LAB 2 Choose one daily activity that you do. Trace the Energy back as far as you can go. Soccer ball moves (mechanical Energy) > Kicking a soccer ball (mechanical Energy) > muscles move forward (mechanical Energy) > Energy goes to my muscles from food I eat > (chemical Energy) > the bacon I ate has Energy from the plants the pig ate (chemical Energy) > the plant has Energy from the sun (photosynthesis/light Energy) > the sun gives off light Energy from nuclear fusion > nuclear fusion comes from the combining of hydrogen atoms to make helium…
- 24. All machines require energy to work. Which source makes the most sense for the job? <ul><li>QUESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>What is needed to operate a machine? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a device that replaces human effort? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does a machine that lifts boxes off the ground need energy? </li></ul>
- 25. <ul><li>Unbalanced Forces & Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced Forces: forces that have equal measure & are balanced; net force of zero </li></ul><ul><li>Unbalanced Forces : forces in which one is greater (stronger) than the other, causing motion </li></ul>No motion Object moves left
- 26. <ul><li>What affects Motion? </li></ul><ul><li>Friction : a force that acts on an object to STOP the motion: ground, air, bumps </li></ul><ul><li>Inertia : the tendency of an object to remain still or in motion unless acted on by a force </li></ul><ul><li>Momentum : product of the mass and velocity of an object </li></ul>
- 27. <ul><li>MODELS: </li></ul><ul><li>Design : imagining and creating a best way to solve a problem </li></ul><ul><li>What are the limits? </li></ul><ul><li>What materials make sense? </li></ul><ul><li>Is space a limit? </li></ul><ul><li>Model : testing your design; replica; computer simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating: report your designs, drawings, & findings </li></ul>
- 28. Pulley : uses grooved wheels and a rope to raise, lower, or move a load Simple Machine: a tool that makes work easier
- 29. Lever : a stiff bar that rests on a middle support, used to lift or move loads. http://www.cool-science-projects.com/simple-machine-science-project.html
- 30. Wedge : has a slanted side that ends in a sharp edge. This tool concentrates the energy to that one edge/point
- 31. Wheel & axle: a wheel with a rod through its center that lifts or moves loads http://www.msnucleus.org/membership/html/k-6/as/technology/2/images/gear.gif
- 32. Inclined plane : is a slanted surface that helps move an object up
- 33. Screw: an inclined plane that is wrapped around a pole; hold things together or lift things up www.yourdictionary.com/screw
- 34. <ul><li>QUESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>The motion of any object can be describe by its position an how that position changes over __ </li></ul><ul><li>What is a push or pull on an object called? </li></ul><ul><li>In order to work, what do all machines require? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of energy is used to move things? </li></ul><ul><li>During a tug of war, each team is pulling on the rope with equal forces in opposite directions. What is this an example of? </li></ul><ul><li>6. The force of friction acts in which direction? </li></ul><ul><li>7. After a design is found, the designer must test the design, evaluate the test, and then what? </li></ul><ul><li>8. A teeter-totter is an example of which kind of simple machine? </li></ul>time force energy mechanical energy balanced forces Opposite direction object is moving Communicate it lever BBC Forces QUIZ
- 35. Energy Efficiency: Closed system : group of objects that only transfer E to each other. (not everything is a closed system) *In Conversion of E, some ALWAYS gets converted to thermal E (not lost!) Energy efficiency: comparison of the amount of E before conversion, with the amount after conversion
- 36. <ul><li>How can you make machines more Energy Efficient? (more useful) </li></ul><ul><li>Oiling mechanical parts reduces friction & heat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Aerodynamic shapes use less E to overcome friction </li></ul>
- 37. LAB: Energy Trace Pick a daily activity & trace it back to its source of E
- 38. Energy Resources
- 39. <ul><li>Fossil Fuels : resource from buried Carbon: burning coal, oil & natural gas </li></ul>NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE -Steam -turbine -generator -electricity
- 40. <ul><li>Nuclear Fuels : uses radioactive metals, uranium & plutonium in chemical reactions to produce heat> steam> energy </li></ul>NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCE
- 41. <ul><li>Solar Energy : </li></ul><ul><li>HEAT or ENERGY </li></ul><ul><li>solar cells hold water or silicon, sun/light heats it (= hot water/spaces or electric charge from heated silicon molecule) </li></ul>RENEWABLE RESOURCE NOTES
- 42. <ul><li>Water : (Hydroelectric Power) water rushes down through tubes inside the dam. The moving water drives electrical generators, which may be built inside the dam </li></ul>RENEWABLE RESOURCE
- 43. <ul><li>Wind Energy: using the wind to turn turbines for energy </li></ul>RENEWABLE RESOURCE
- 44. <ul><li>Geothermal Energy : using heat from inside the earth to warm water> steam> energy (radioactive decay of uranium= heat) </li></ul>RENEWABLE RESOURCE
- 45. <ul><li>Biomass organic matter that’s burned to release Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Burning wood; captured methane; municipal waste; agricultural residue </li></ul>RENEWABLE RESOURCE
- 46. ELECTRICITY Activities LINK QUIZ
- 47. LAB ENERGY PRO’s & CON’s List the advantages & disadvantages of the following sources of Energy. Wind Geothermal Biomass water solar nuclear Fossil fuels DISADVANTAGE ADVANTAGE ENERGY TYPE
- 48. BBC Energy Links HOW STUFF WORKS: Telephone system Wii Radio Helicopters Toilets Microwaves LCD & Plasma tv Light bulbs Air & refrigeration Electricity 1 Electricity 2 Water Treatment Plants QUIZ

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