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ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA                                                                  Trade: grains/farming                ...
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Mesopotamia Strands notes

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Transcript of "Mesopotamia Strands notes"

  1. 1. ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA Trade: grains/farming Surplus (more than enough so that you can trade it)Tigris-Euphrates River… fertile floodplain Division of labor- people could specialize in different jobsMade irrigation system/canals Fought for farmland; built walls around cities for protectionPlateau with mountains on N & E First permanent army- SargonNo trees INVENTIONS: cuneiform/writing (allowed them to recordFertile Crescent business/trade/law); wheel/carts; plow pulled by oxen; sewers;Farming: grains bronze tools & weaponsFirst Civilization Sumerians (Sargon) Babylonians 1 (Hammurabi)Phoenicians on Mediterranean Sea: ships/controlled trade; urban Hittites 1595 BCE Assyrians heavy taxes, spread terror Babylonian 2 (Nebachudnezzar- Chaldonian) Persians (539 BCE tolerant) Phoenicians: cedar; for silverwork, ivory carvings, slaves, glass items) Lydia: gold; first coinsSumer 300 BCE 1st Empire: Sargon (Akaadian) Cuneiform/ scribesCity-states: central cities working together Religion increases; kings rule with approval of godsNew jobs b/c specialization of labor: (social hierarchy) Zigurat; polytheism King Phonecians- first alphabet (no vowels) priest (scribe) Babylonians: Math: base 60; 360 degrees; area of triangle & craftsman, merchant, trader square; medicine; Astronomy; working class (farmers) -Epic of Gilgamesh slaves Hanging Gardens of Babylon: culture/learningTaxes; writing: allowed them to record laws Judaism monotheism; Israelites (12 tribes)Babylonian Code 282 Laws (Hammurabi) (Babylon) Torah (book); 1 God; 10 Commandments; YahwehAssyrian strong military, harsh rulers, unforgiving (Nineveh) ChristianityChaldeans  Babylon 2 Nebuchadnezzar- Hanging Gardens Islam 5 PillarsPersians tolerant rulers; *largest empire on earth at the time Kings: satraps
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