•Temperature: average kinetic Energy ofparticles in an objectSolidLiquidGashttp://www.bcssa.org/newsroom/scholarships/great8sci/Matter/Choose_Matter.htmlThe more kinetic Ethe higher the temp.Add heat to changephasesInteractiveLABPHASES•Density: how close the atoms are in the element
SOLIDS: atoms are tightly packedmovement of atoms is small & rapid because ofthe close bonds-definite volume & shapeLIQUIDS: atoms are farther apart than solids andcan slip around each other faster-definite volume; no definite shape so will takethe shape of containerGASES: atoms are farthest apart and can moveabout freely. (unconstrained gases willspread out indefinitely; confined gasestake shape of container.)-no definite volume or shape
ELEMENTS:Different elements have different properties-•Boiling point: point at which the atoms in a liquidstate vibrate and become a gas (hot)-different for each element!•Melting point: point at which the atoms in the solidstate vibrate and become a liquid (hot)-different for each element!VIDEO: Making molecules with atoms (2 min)Elements LINK SONG (3.5 min)VIDEO: Energy SourcesVIDEO: Energy Flow (2 min)VIDEO: How Electricity is Made (2 min)Molecules in motion SONG (3 min)
Solubility: amount of a solute that can bedissolved in a solvent-depends on the chemistry of it-depends on the temperatureof it (warm dissolves faster)http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_solution.html
•Conduit: conducts/ allows Energy transfer;water, metal•Insulator: does not allow Energy transfer;fiberglass, cardboard, air, cork, wood,rubber, wood•Heat: Energy transferred between objectsat different temperatures; thermal EnergyIf two objects are connected, there is always transferbetween high temp to low temp•Thermal equilibrium Energy transfer untilthe same temperature on both (balanced)
Put ‘C’ for Conductor & ‘I’ for Insulator.Curling ironoven mittceramic bowliron skilletstove coilcookie sheetplastic spatulafiberglass insulationcopper pipeWhy would we want an object to be an insulator?Why would we want an object to be a conductor?
•Conduction transfer of thermal energy throughdirect contact•Thermal (warm object touches a cold object)•Mechanical (kinetic E) 2 objects push or pullon each other•Electrical (current) battery or generator isconnected in a complete circuit to a device•Convection transfer of thermal energy bymovement of liquid/gas (hot up, cold down)•Radiation transfer of thermal energy byelectromagnetic waves (visible light & ultravioletwaves)HOW DO OBECTS HEAT UP?
QUESTION: Which changes temperature faster:--air, water?Can’t measure transferred E directly; must becalculated:Heat (J) = specific heat x mass x change in tempVIDEO: Heat Transmission (3 min)HSW video: Fiberglass insulationVIDEO: RADIATIONVIDEO: Geothermal Power (2 min)HSW video: THERMAL RADIATION universe (2 min)HEAT experiment 5 card LINK: http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=sce304
Materials:Sugar, hot water, cold water, spoonSugar Solution Lab1. Define solubility: _____________________________________________2. In this experiment, which was the solute? _____________ Which was the solvent?___________3. Which jar dissolved the sugar the fastest? _______________4. Which jar dissolved the most sugar? ______________5. Answer: Was your hypothesis correct? ________6. Explain why the sugar dissolved faster in the ______ water. (Use words from theword bank.) __________________________________________________________________________________________________7. What happened to the solution when you could not dissolve any more sugar in thesolutions?________________________________8. What does kinetic energy have to do with solubility? ____________________________________________________________________________________________9. What would be the best way to make sweet tea? _______________________________________________________________________________________________Variables:Independent variable- hot water, cold waterDependent variable- sugar, size of container, amount of water WORD BANKSolventSoluteSolubilitySaturationMoleculesAtomsKinetic energyDensityQUESTION: Does the temperature of a liquid affect thedissolving of a solute into a solvent?PROCEDURE:1.Prediction: In which solution do you think the sugar will dissolvebest? ____________________2.Add the same amount of water to each jar (1 hot, 1 cold)3.Add a spoon of sugar to each jar. Stir.4.Add equal spoonfuls of sugar to each jar until no moredissolving is taking place.5.Observe & answer the questions below.6.Cleanup.
LAB: Feel the HeatTrial Mass of nails (g) Volume of water thatequals mass of nails(mL)Initial temp. of water& nailsInitial temp of waterto which nails will betransferredFinal temp ofwater and nailscombined12Procedure:• Bundle the nails together with a rubber band. Record the mass. Tie string around, leaving one end 15cm long.• Put bundle of nails into a cup, letting string dangle out. Fill the cup with hot water, covering nails. Setaside 5 min.• Use graduated cylinder to measure enough cold water to exactly the mass of nails. Record.• Measure & record the temp of the hot water with the nails & temp of cold water.• Use string to transfer the bundle of nails to the cup of cold water. Use the thermometer to monitor thetemperature of water-nail mixture. When the temp stops changing record this final temp.• Empty cups, dry nails. Repeat for trial 2, but switch the hot & cold water. Record data.Conclusion:The cold water in Trial 1 gained energy. Where did the E come from?How does the E gained by the nails in Trial 2 compare with the E lost by the hot water in Trial 2?Which material seems to be able to hold E better… iron or water?p. 430Materials: balance, 2 cups, cylinder, 10 nails, string, rubber band, thermometer, hot water, cold water
•Wave: disturbance that transmits Energythrough matter or empty space;--as wave travels it does work on everything in itspath•Mechanical waves: need a mediumexamples- sound wave, ocean wave•Some waves don’t need a mediumexamples- visible light, microwaves, tv, radiosignals, x-rays
Waves:Transverse wave- particles move up & down,perpendicular to direction wave is goingLongitudinal wave- particle move horizontallyalong the wave in the direction the wave is movingSurface wave- combination of transverse &longitudinal waveVIDEO: HSW Wavelength BasicsADVANCE
Transverse wave- particles move up & down,perpendicular to direction wave is goingBACK
Longitudinal wave- particle move horizontally alongthe wave in the direction the wave is movingBACK
Properties of Waves•Amplitude: maximum distance the particles vibrate•Wavelength: distance between two crests orcompressions in a wave•Frequency: number of waves in a given amount oftime•Wave speed: speed at which wave travels (v)
Wave Interactionsreflection- wave bounces back after hitting a barrier;examples:light reflected lets us see itsound echoesrefraction- bending of a wave as it passes from onemedium to another at an angle (because wavechanges speed in a different medium)example:light through a prism (light is dispersed into separate colors)
Diffraction bending of waves around a barrierInterference two or more waves overlap-constructive interference 2 waves overlapcrests & troughs, combining both waves’ energy…makes it stronger!-destructive interference 2 waves overlapone crest on one trough, cancels out each other’sEnergyHSW: Assignment Discovery: Sound/Interference (1 ½ min)Ripple Tank Simulation
Standing waves: pattern looks like wave isstanding stillResonance: two objects naturally vibrate at thesame frequency; sound of one causes the other tovibrateVIDEO: Sound/Resonance-Shattering glass (15 min) UnitedStreaming