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Astronomy notes 1:  Notes on the history of Astronomy, Earth's seasons, moon's phases, and Earth's tides with video links
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Astronomy notes 1: Notes on the history of Astronomy, Earth's seasons, moon's phases, and Earth's tides with video links

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Notes on the history of Astronomy, Earth's seasons, moon's phases, and Earth's tides with video links

Notes on the history of Astronomy, Earth's seasons, moon's phases, and Earth's tides with video links

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  • 1. Astronomy 1 ppt. by Robin D. Seamon
  • 2. NOTE OUTLINE: 1.Historical Astronomers 2.Motion 3.Cycles: • Seasons • Moon phases • tides
  • 3. FAMOUS ASTRONOMERS of the PAST
  • 4. PTOLEMY •Worked with sundials & trigonometry •astronomer who accepted the common idea that the planets & Sun traveled around the Earth! (geocentric view) WRONG!!! COPERNICUS (1473-1543) •Proposed that the Earth & other planets revolved around the sun (heliocentric view) •People did NOT like this idea! RIGHT IDEA!!! http://www.cyfronet.pl/~n1kokow s/poszukiwania_en.html http://students.ou.edu/G/Summ er.D.Golden-1/coverpage.html
  • 5. GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642) •Used the invention of the telescope & mathematics to look at the universe •Observed The Milky Way, the moon, Jupiter’s moons & more http://ml.shapiro.gs/?p=64 http://www.wwnorton.com/college/engli sh/nael/18century/topic_3/illustrations/i mtelescope.htm PBS: Telescopes NOVA: VIDEO Galileo- Sun-centered universe (5 min)
  • 6. MOTION http://utahscience.oremjr.alpine.k12.ut.us/Scibe r06/6th/moon/html/rotate.htm
  • 7. MOTION VOCABULARY: •Axis: The tilt on which the earth spins (rotates) •Latitude: lines running on a map or globe •Longitude: lines running on a map or globe •Rotation: spinning around from one point & back around •Orbit: the path one body follows around another body •Revolution: the movement of a body in orbit from one point back to that point; one complete trip ADVANCE
  • 8. LATITUDE: Measured N & S of the Equator LONGITUDE: Measured E & W of the Prime Meridian http://www.polaris.iastate.edu/NorthStar/Unit2/unit2_sub1.htm BACK A X I S http://pseudoastro.wordpress.com/2009/01/30/planet-x- and-2012-proof-earth-is-not-experiencing-a-pole-shift/
  • 9. ROTATION The earth makes one rotation on its axis every 24 hours. This makes day & night. Earth satellite views: ppt. BACK http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/astronomy/arny/instructor/graphics/ch04/0422.html
  • 10. REVOLUTION The earth travels one revolution around the sun in 365 Earth days. BACK Summer Solstice http://www.uwm.edu/~kahl/CoVis/Seasons/
  • 11. JOHANNES KEPLER: (1600) Mathematician & astronomer •Kepler’s laws of motion: •objects travel in an ellipse around another object •objects move faster when closest to the sun and slower when farthest from the sun •the more distant from the sun an object is, the longer it takes to orbit the sun http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencef acts/scientists/johanneskepler.html http://kepler.nasa.gov/johannes/#anchor784359 VIDEO: Planetary orbits are Eliptical
  • 12. SIR ISAAC NEWTON: (1643-1727) Mathematician & astronomer NEWTON LINKBIOGRAPHY •Newton’s 1st law of Motion: objects remain still or in motion until another force is applied to it (law of inertia) •Newton’s 2nd law of Motion: acceleration happens when a force is acted on an object. The greater the mass of the object, the more force is needed to move it. (f=ma) •Newton’s 3rd law of Motion: for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction •NEWTON LINK: explore the 3 laws http://www.mrdowling. com/601-newton.html
  • 13. ILLUSTRATION: Show how inertia & gravity create orbits. p. 660-661 VIDEO 2: planetary rotation & revolution
  • 14. Why are there seasons on Earth? Seamon VIDEO: S
  • 15. •Equinox: when the sun is directly above the equator •Solstice: when the sun is farthest N & S of the Equator
  • 16. Summer Solstice Winter Solstice Autumn Equinox Spring Equinox http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/corporate/pressoffice/2006/pr20060317b.html Seasons are dependent upon: 1.The Earth’s axis tilt 2.Where the Earth is on its solar revolution Summer Solstice HSW: VIDEO LINK (The Earth’s Seasons) http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/12886-spin-around-the-solar-system-the
  • 17. Longer days in the Summer Summer Solstice Equinoxes Winter Solstice Shorter days in the Winter Day & night are almost equal Longest day Shortest day http://www.uwm.edu/~kahl/CoVis/Seasons/
  • 18. Video: Autumnal equinox Video: vernal equinox Video: seasons N & S poles VIDEO: Earth’s Movements (4 min) Earth satellite views: ppt.
  • 19. Why does the moon change?
  • 20. •Moon: a smaller body circling a larger body in space Luna: Earth’s moon •Luna rotates on its axis in about 27.3 Earth days •Luna revolves around the Earth in about 28 Earth days (Therefore, we see the same FACE of the moon) Google Earth images
  • 21. Luna’s Phases: VOCABULARY • Waxing the appearance of the moon getting larger (more sunlight shining on it as nights go by) • Waning the appearance of the moon getting smaller (less sunlight shining on it as nights go by • Crescent • Gibbous
  • 22. Waxing crescent Waning crescent VIDEO: V IDEO: Same Side of the Moon
  • 23. • Eclipse: the shadow of one celestial body falling on another body 1.Lunar eclipse 1.Solar eclipse Earth’s shadow on moon during lunar eclipse Shadow on moon during solar eclipse
  • 24. VIDEO 1: lunar eclipse VIDEO 2: solar eclipse1 VIDEO: solar Eclipse 2 Video: solar Eclipse 3 Total eclipse of the sun Video: eclipses
  • 25. MOON & ECLIPSE PHASES LAB p. 658 & 659
  • 26. TIDES Moon’s gravity pulls on the Earth’s oceans, causing the level of water to rise or lower: 1.High tide 2. Low tide http://www.fotonomy.com/Ceterus Paribus/photo/1ee2edd8/
  • 27. 1.Spring tides: Largest daily range -during new & full moons; every 14 days 2. Neap tides: Smaller daily range -during 1st & 3rd quarters of moon (sun, Earth, moon align) (sun & moon are at right angles to the Earth) VIDEO: Tides
  • 28. EXTRA: Video: NOVA- formation of our solar system (13 min) VIDEO: HSW The Beauty of Astronomy (2 min)

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