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Ancient greece study guide
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Ancient greece study guide


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  • 1. ANCIENT GREECEMountainous peninsula2,000+ islandsRocky ground, not good for farming (except Crete)Mediterranean SeaIonian SeaAegean SeaModerate temperatureMountains and seas isolated the separate city-states3500 BCE Minoans farming on CreteMostly lacked natural resources, so colonized surrounding areas-fishing, trade, Crete- farming-Minoans: navy-1400 BCE Mycenaeans- navy, weapons, defense, adopt Minoan advances? 1200 Trojan War: Mycenaeans vs. Troy (Helen)-1150- 750 BCE Dorian sea raiders- less advanced, trade declined; no writing-Athenian Democracy vs. Spartan military state- bronze weapons, phalanxes-Persian Wars Battle of Marathon; Greeks winBattle of Salamis- Greeks win after sacrifice of 300 Spartan men-478 BCE Delian League- Alliance-Peloponnesian Wars: Athens vs. Sparta; Sparta wins 404 BCE-333 BCE Alexander the Great vs. Persia (Darius flees) Alexander wins-332 BCE Alexander into Egypt: founds Alexandria; crowned pharoah-330 BCE Alexander into Mesopotamia: Babylon, Susa, Persepolis (Persian capital)-327 BCE Alexander into India-323 BCE Alexander dies of fever-Macedonian generals fight over Alexander’s empire after his death (Antigonus – Macedonia; Ptolemy- Egypt, Seleucus- Old Persian Empire)-150 BCE Rome takes GreeceMinoans powerful, advanced civilization;-Prepalatial: cities, no central government- Protopalatial: king= ruler; palaces built- Neoplalatial: all palaces destroyed, new bigger ones built;villas, roads, classes develop; women active in societyMycenaeans best at sea; fortresses on hills & mountains forprotection, bronze weaponsDorians less advanced, lose writingIonians750 BCE polis- city-states; 10,000 residents; acropolis: fortifiedhilltop, center of government; agora: marketplace in acropolis621 BCE Draco: Draconian Law- all are =; harsh death penalty594 BCE Solon: outlawed debt slavery, organized 4 classes500 BCE Cleisthenes: broke up nobility so all citizens involved in govtAthens Democracy: rule by citizensPericles: direct democracy: citizens involved by lottery(representative democracy- USA: citizens elect arepresentative to speak for you in government)SOUTH: Sparta- military state; boys 6-60 in military; women morerights in society **Separate city-states became competitive: Athens & SpartaPolytheismMinoans: curled hair, wore jewelryMycenaeans: writing, palacesDorians: less advanced, little culture, no writingHomer: blind poet: Iliad, Odyssey; mythologyATHENS-democracy, writing, DRAMA:tragedy, comedy; philosophy:Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Science:Astronomy, math, Parthenon,women no power, CLASSICALART: perfect human form &serenity; strong navy; UsedDelian League $ to fundAthensSPARTA- age 6-60: militaryPeloponnesian Wars-Athens vs. Sparta- Macedonia: King Phillip III’sphalanx system of military ispassed to son, AlexanderAlexander the Great combinesGreek culture (Hellenic) withEastern culture: Hellenistic cultureLanguage: koine: for trading;Alexandria: trade, museums,learning, art