Black Saga - Quiz Show Balto. County (09/10)
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  • 1: #1 – 702: #71 – 1403: #141 – 2104: #211 – 2805: #281 - end
  • 09-10
  • 211 - 280

Transcript

  • 1. Question and Answer Black Saga
  • 2. Words of Wisdom In his response to no mention of African enslavement in the Phillis Wheatley Declaration of Independence, who wrote: "I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that his justice cannot sleep forever"? Maya Angelou "No more American in mournful strain/Of wrongs, and grievance unredress‟d complain,/No longer shall thou dread the iron chain,/Which wanton Tyranny with lawless John Adams hand/Has made, and which it meant t‟enslave the land" Many poems written by this poet described the continent of Africa and slavery. This 18th-century British religious leader founded Thomas Jefferson the Methodist church. In 1774, he published a book called Thoughts Upon Slavery, … “Here are several mistakes. For 1. Wealth is not necessary to the Glory of any Nation; but Wisdom, Virtue, Justice, Mercy, Generosity, Public Spirit ... the tears, and sweat, and blood of our fellow- John Wesley creatures.”
  • 3. "There is nothing which contributes King George more to the development of the colonies and the cultivation of their soil than the laborious toil of the Negroes." Benjamin Rush A Quaker minister became a major abolitionist before the American Revolution with his publication, Some Consideration on the Keeping of Negroes…. The author noted, "Where slavekeeping prevails, pure religion and sobriety King Louis XIV of France declines, as it evidently tends to harden the heart and render the soul less susceptible of that holy spirit of life..." A distinguished Philadelphia physician and John Woolman chemistry professor published An Address to the Inhabitants of the British Settlements in America, Upon Slavekeeping. He charged that any "vices which are charged upon the Negroes in the southern colonies and West Indies. . .are the genuine offspring of slavery." Thomas Jefferson
  • 4. By a ruling in this case, the Massachusetts Supreme Court abolished slavery in 1783…the court‟s Commonwealth vs. Jennison opinion stated "the idea of slavery is inconsistent with our own conduct and Constitution, and there can be no such thing as perpetual servitude of a rational creature, unless his liberty is forfeited…” Name the case Marquis de Lafayette In 1786, in a letter to John Adams, what hero of the American Revolution said, "I would never have drawn my sword in this cause of America, could Dred Scott vs. Sanford I have conceived that thereby I was founding a land of Slavery." At the Constitutional Convention in George Mason Philadelphia in 1787, in response to the adoption of Article 10, Section 9, which extended the slave trade for twenty years, this person argued, “As much as I value a union of all the States, I would not admit the Southern States into the Union, unless they agree to the discontinuance of this disgraceful trade, because William Lloyd Garrison it brings weakness, and not strength, to the Union.”
  • 5. “I was soon put down under the decks, and there I received such a saluation in my Mary Prince nostrils as I had never experienced in my life: so that with the loathsomeness of the stench and crying together, I became so sick and low … I now wished for the last friend, death, to relieve me. . .” Olaudah Equiano “All slaves want to be free--to be free is very sweet... I have been a slave myself - I know what slaves feel... The man that says slaves be quite happy about slavery - The North Star that they don‟t want to be free - that man is either ignorant or a lying person...” "I am earnest--I will not The Liberator Ed: William Lloyd Garrison equivocate--I will not excuse--I will not retreat an inch--AND I WILL BE HEARD.“ Name the Newspaper. Francis Ellen Watkins Harper
  • 6. Name the abolitionist who said, "Men do not go into slavery naturally--they don‟t go Sojourner Truth into slavery at the bidding of their fellowmen--they don‟t bow down their necks to the yoke merely by being entreated to do so...NO! Something else is necessary...” Frederick Douglass "Right is of no Sex--Truth is of no Color--God is the Father of us Ida B. Wells-Barnett all, and we are all Brethren." Name the newspaper. "Look at me! Look at my arms!" and Freedom’s Journal she held up her muscular right arm. "I could work as much and eat as much as a man--when I could get it-- and bear the lash as well! And ain‟t I The North Star a woman?"
  • 7. "The sale began--young girls were there, Defenseless in their wretchedness, Roger Taney Whole stifled sobs of deep despair Revealed their anguish and distress…” Who wrote these words in The Slave Auction? Phillis Wheatley In the famous Dred Scott v. Sanford case, … "slaveholders had the right to 10th Amendment of the United take human merchandise to any part of the union, and that this Black man had States Constitution no right to even bring suit." "Neither slavery nor involuntary Francis Ellen Watkins Harper servitude, except as a punishment for crimes whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject 13th Amendment of the United to their jurisdiction.” States Constitution
  • 8. "In every state many thousands [ex- slaves] were found without employment, Oliver O. Howard without homes, without means of subsistence, crowding into towns and about military posts, where they hoped to find protection and supplies. …” George Moses Horton "This place is nothing but a strife, Distressing all the peace of life, We nothing have to show; Let others scorn me or degrade John Mercer Langston I’ll take my hatchet and my spade Come, all, and let us go!" Frederick Douglass "If there is no struggle there is no progress ... This struggle may be a moral one, or it may be a physical one, and it may be both moral and physical, but it must be a struggle. Power concedes nothing without demand. It never did and it never will." Booker T. Washington
  • 9. “The American people and the Government 14th Amendment Amendment of at Washington may refuse to recognize it the United States Constitution for a time, but the „inexorable logic of events‟ will force it upon them in the end; that the war now being waged in this land is a war for and against slavery…” Frederick Douglass "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, ... are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. 13th Amendment of the United No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or States Constitution immunities of citizens of the United States; …" “Why, sir, though we are not white, we have Henry McNeal Turner accomplished much. We have pioneered civilization here; we have built up your country; we have worked in your fields, … And what do we ask of you in return? ... We are willing to let the dead past bury its dead; John Mercer Langston but we ask you now for our RIGHTS…”
  • 10. “All over the South and among the coloured people of the North, workmen in Henry McNeal Turner gold, silver, brass, iron, wood, brick, mortar, and the arts, are found doing skillfully and at usual wages the most difficult tasks... perhaps the most accomplished gunsmith among the Americans is a black man, an ex-slave... P.B.S. Pinchback “This is not time to fight only with your white hand, and allow your black hand to remain tied; Men in earnest don‟t fight with one hand, when they might fight with two, John Mercer Langston and a man drowning would not refuse to be saved even by a colored man.” “… we have rights as well as privileges Frederick Douglas to maintain and we must assert our manhood in their vindication... With this force as a political element, as laborers, producers and consumers, we are an Booker T. Washington element of strength and wealth…
  • 11. "We wear the mask /that grins and lies It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes. Paul Lawrence Dunbar This debt we pay / to human guile with torn and bleeding hearts, / we smile, and mouths with myriad subtleties." Booker T. Washington "The wisest among my race understand that the agitation of questions of social equality is the extremist folly, and that progress in the enjoyment of all privileges that will come to John Mercer Langston us must be the result of severe and constant struggle rather than of artificial forcing." "The difference between us is very Frederick Douglas marked. Most that I have done and Said to Harriet Tubman suffered in the service of our cause has been in public, … You, on the other hand, have labored in a private way. I have Henry McNeal Turner wrought in the day--you in the night. ... "
  • 12. "I can‟t offer you money, position or fame. The first two you have; the last, from the place Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. you now occupy, you will not doubt achieve. These things I now ask you to give up, I offer you in their place work-- hard, hard work--the task of bringing a people from degradation, poverty, and waste to full manhood." Booker T. Washington Said to George Washington Carver "Industrial education for the Negro is Booker T. Washington‟s hobby. The Negro knows that now, as then, the Frederick Douglas South is strongly opposed to his learning anything else but how to work." George Moses Horton “Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flame of withering injustice...." Ida B. Wells-Barnett
  • 13. What is the word used to describe the "great scattering" of African people from their communities in Africa to other parts of the world?  #1
  • 14. The continent of Africa is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Indian Ocean & Red Sea to the east. A narrow strip of land in its northeast corner connects it to the Arabian Peninsula & beyond that to Asia & Europe. How does Africa rank in relation to other Continents in size? First Second Third Fourth  #2
  • 15. There is evidence that Africans came to the Americas as early as the 8th century. Sculptures reflecting African influence are found in several towns in Mexico. Name the civilization or culture in Mexico that reflects African influence.  #3
  • 16. In West Africa three great empires emerged between A.D. 500 and 1600. Each had a powerful army and controlled great wealth. Name these powerful African empires.  #4
  • 17. Name the religion practiced by most residents of Songhai during the period between A.D. 500 and 1600.  #5
  • 18. What major river valley contributed to the growth of three ancient African empires – Ghana, Mali, and Songhai?  #6
  • 19. What great city in Songhai had a population of more than 100,000 residents and grew as a business, religious, and intellectual center?  #7
  • 20. In 1502, what was country was the first to bring a cargo of enslaved Africans into the Western Hemisphere? England Italy Mexico Portugal Spain  #8
  • 21. Estevanico, a famous black explorer and guide, explored territory that became these two states. Name them.  #9
  • 22. The history of African Americans, in what was to become the United States, began when a Dutch Ship anchored off of what settlement in 1619? Captain Jope is believed to have exchanged his cargo of Africans for food. How many Africans were exchanged?  #10
  • 23. In 1634, farmers in the Chesapeake Bay region imported white and black indentured servants and later, enslaved Africans to profitably grow this crop. Name this crop. Indigo Cotton Tobacco  #11
  • 24. In 1638, the first enslaved Africa ns arrived in New England along with a cargo of salt, cotton, and tobacco, aboard a ship called what?  #12
  • 25. In 1641, what colony became the first to recognize slavery as a legal institution? North Carolina Massachusetts New Netherlands Maryland Virginia  #13
  • 26. In 1642, Virginia passed a law to stop people from helping runaway enslaved Africans. Individuals could be fined for each night he or she sheltered a runaway. What fine was imposed?  #14
  • 27. In 1644, eleven blacks who were among the founders of this settlement in the Hudson River valley, asked for their freedom because they had served their years of servitude. This probably was the first organized protest by blacks in America. Each received land in what is now Greenwich Village in New York City. In what colony did these events occur?  #15
  • 28. Enslaved Africans delivered to the West Indies were likely to work on a plantation that grew what? Sugar Tobacco Rice Cotton  #16
  • 29. During the early years of the slave trade, most slaves who survived the voyage from Africa to the West Indies were trained there to work and obey masters. This process could last 3-4 years. It ended when the southern colonies needed so many workers that planters imported enslaved Africans directly. What was the training period called?  #17
  • 30. In what year did Maryland pass a law that recognized slavery as legal? 1674 1668 1664 1660  #18
  • 31. To maintain a slave trading monopoly and a constant supply of enslaved African labor, the British government gave a charter to what company?  #19
  • 32. On February 18, 1688, what group adopted the first formal anti-slavery resolution in American history? What did the call slavery?  #20
  • 33. One of the earliest "triangular trade routes" brought enslaved Africans from Africa to the West Indies. What product was frequently shipped from the West Indies to the North American mainland?  #21
  • 34. In the 1700s, plantation owners believed slaves were necessary to produce successfully many different crops. Which crops were most dependent on enslaved African labor?  #22
  • 35. In the 1700s, this city in England was called ―Queen of English slave trading‖ because it supplied almost half of the ships used in the Atlantic slave trade. Name the city.  #23
  • 36. What is the name of the two month-journey for enslaved Africans from Africa to the West Indies? During this journey, they were brutally treated.  #24
  • 37. In the 1700s, rice agriculture in the colonies was found in the ―low country‖ where enslaved Africans were heavily concentrated. Rice accounted for 60 percent of all exports of this region. Just before the American Revolution, two colonies exported more than 69 million pounds of rice each year. Name the colonies.  #25
  • 38. In the 1700s, another important crop grown in South Carolina was used as a blue dye for cloth. This crop grew best on high ground and required about 25 slaves for a 50-acre plot. Fifty pounds per acre was considered a good crop, with 70 pounds per acre possible in better soils. Name this crop.  #26
  • 39. In the period from 1680 to 1750, about how many enslaved Africans coming directly from Africa to the American mainland were carried on each English ship? About 75 About 200 About 500  #27
  • 40. Although only a few black people lived in New England in 1700, this large city became important for slave trading. Ships with food and other products sailed to the West Indies where the goods were traded for rum. The rum then was transported to Africa to buy enslaved Africans who were brought back to the West Indies. The ships then returned home with sugar and molasses. Name the city that was called the ―hub of America slave trading.‖  #28
  • 41. Early schools for African Americans were founded and staffed by white abolitionists. In 1704 the first school for enslaved Africans in British North America was founded by a white abolitionist in New York at Trinity Church. Name him.  #29
  • 42. This important port city was founded by the French in 1718 and later was transferred to the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. By 1820, blacks (both free and enslaved) were about half of its population, and its exports were the second largest in the country. In the late 1830s and early 1840s, the city's exports were greater than those of New York. What was this important city and what was the major product exported through its port?  #30
  • 43. In 1720, molasses from the West Indies was transported to colonial ports where it was made into rum and shipped to Africa in exchange for enslaved Africans. What city in Rhode Island had more than 22 factories making rum to be shipped to Africa?  #31
  • 44. This colony was established as a barrier between the British in the Carolinas and the Spanish in Florida. This colony’s proprietors initially believed slavery was unsound & unprofitable, and they restricted the importation of enslaved Africans. Name it.  #32
  • 45. Benjamin Banneker was known as a scientist, astronomer, and surveyor, but he, too, was an inventor. What was his major invention that was probably the first of its kind to be built in the United States?  #33
  • 46. In 1773, Jean Baptiste Pointe Du Sable, a black man from Haiti, was the first merchant and the first settler in this area. He set up permanent residence and a fur trading business along a river near Lake Michigan. Name the city founded at this site. Chicago, Illinois Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Lansing, Michigan Boston, Massachusetts  #34
  • 47. This black woman from Senegal was sold to a tailor in Boston, Massachusetts. She learned to read and write, and before she was 20 years old, she had achieved some fame as a poet. She gained her freedom in 1772, made a trip to London to read her poems, and in 1773, became the first African American to publish a book of poetry. Her book was entitled Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral. Who was she?  #35
  • 48. Between 1770 and 1775, 4,000 enslaved Africans per year arrived in Charleston, South Carolina. All were held for several weeks on Sullivan’s Island, a quarantine station designed to prevent the spread of epidemics from overseas. So many enslaved people arrived here that Sullivan Island became known as what?  #36
  • 49. The first abolitionist society was founded in this American city in 1775. It worked to abolish slavery in the colony and to protect free Blacks from being sold into slavery. Name the city where the society was formed.  #37
  • 50. By the time of the American Revolution, what colony had more black slaves than white people? Georgia Virginia Massachusetts South Carolina  #38
  • 51. This African American patriot fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775. He petitioned the Massachusetts legislature to help him and others return to Africa. This is considered the first recorded attempt by blacks to return home. He was also the first African American to join a Masonic order. He later established his own order that has a membership of over 250,000 today. Name him.  #39
  • 52. What important document originally had a section that denounced slavery, but was deleted before the document was adopted in 1776?  #40
  • 53. Several colonies took steps to abolish slavery between 1777 and 1784. This colony prohibited slavery in the constitution it adopted in 1777. Name it.  #41
  • 54. In 1781, this Black soldier in the Continental Army became one of the most notable spies of the American Revolution. He gathered information that helped Marquis de Lafayette defeat the British at Yorktown, Virginia on October 19, 1781. Name the Black spy.  #42
  • 55. In 1783 this wealthy free Black merchant and other free Blacks of Dartmouth, Massachusetts protested to the state legislature that they were being taxed without representation. The courts decided that Black men who paid taxes in Massachusetts could vote there. Name this merchant and leader.  #43
  • 56. This former enslaved black person from Delaware was a wagon driver in the American Revolution and began preaching in the Methodist Church in 1786. He served St. George’s Methodist Episcopal Church (a white church) in Philadelphia as an occasional minister to blacks. Once while praying he was pulled from his knees by a white usher for being in an area of the church reserved for whites. He and other blacks left the church and in 1794 established the Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia – the first church organized and directed by blacks in the United States. Name him.  #44
  • 57. In 1787, this act passed by Congress determined the number of representatives from I each state. Enslaved blacks had no voice in government but their numbers counted for each state's seats in the House of Representatives. What act made this possible?  #45
  • 58. Congress passed the Ordinance of 1787 that barred slavery in the Northwest Territory. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude was permitted in the region northwest of the Ohio River except as punishment for a crime. Name the states that were eventually formed out of this territory.  #46
  • 59. In 1790, the legislatures of North Carolina and Virginia approved digging a canal from Albermarle Sound to ports in Virginia. Digging the canal began in 1793 with hired slave labor. The canal helped to open the vast timber resources of the region. It was an important transportation route until the railroads were built in 1840. Name the canal.  #47
  • 60. This Black American played a major role in surveying the land for the design of the District of Columbia after the original planner grew tired of criticism of his plan and returned to France. This surveyor, appointed to the commission on the recommendation of Thomas Jefferson, reconstructed the entire plan from memory. Name the surveyor.  #48
  • 61. In 1791, this Black person led a successful revolt of enslaved Africans against the French in Haiti. The overthrow of this French colony produced fear in the U.S. Congress that a revolt was about to occur in the United States. The legislators passed stronger laws to control enslaved Black people. Haiti would become the first independent country in the Americas ruled by Blacks. Name the leader of this revolt in Haiti.  #49
  • 62. The first Black Catholic sisterhood was founded in 1792 in Baltimore, Maryland. Name the founder.  #50
  • 63. With the cotton gin, invented in 1793, a man could deseed and clean cotton more efficiently. Using a horse to turn this machine, it could clean about fifty times as much cotton as before. It quickly made cotton the leading crop in the South and the chief export for the region. Who invented the Cotton gin? Benjamin Banneker Elias Neau Eli Whitney George Washington Carver  #51
  • 64. In 1793, Congress passed an act making it a crime to harbor an escaped enslaved African or to interfere with his capture or arrest. Name this act.  #52
  • 65. What African American is believed to be the first of his race to be recognized as a professional portrait painter? He advertised in the Intelligencer, calling himself a "self taught genius." He painted portraits of some of the most influential white families in Maryland and Virginia.  #53
  • 66. In 1800, what percent of the U.S. population was made up of black people? Roughly 5 percent Roughly 12 percent Roughly 19 percent  #54
  • 67. In the 19th century, the Dismal Swamp, on the border between Virginia and North Carolina, offered a safe place for enslaved African runaways. Here they built homes, grew crops, raised animals and sold wood shingles and logs to free blacks. Visitors said it was one of the most difficult places where people could live. The swamp provided the runaways with almost everything they needed, but when they needed other essentials, some raided nearby towns or stole from boats anchored along the canal. What were these colonies of runaways called?  #55
  • 68. This enslaved African served as major scout, interpreter, and emissary with Lewis and Clark’s expedition throughout the West because he was familiar with Native Americans. Name him. [In 1805, Lewis and Clark see the Pacific Ocean for the first time standing at the mouth of the Columbia River in the "Oregon Country," thus proving that America is a vast country stretched between two oceans. The expedition was authorized by President Thomas Jefferson as a fact-finding mission about the land purchased from France in 1803, the "Louisiana Purchase". The expedition set out from St. Louis, Missouri on May 13, 1804. An enslaved African provided important services during the mission, serving as major scout, interpreter, and emissary with Native Americans. Name him.]  #56
  • 69. January 1, 1808 is an important date in the African American experience. What legal action took place?  #57
  • 70. Most Africans who were enslaved and taken to the Western Hemisphere came from the coast of West Africa. What places on this coast were the largest suppliers of enslaved African people?  #58
  • 71. During Colonial times and several decades afterwards, many enslaved Africans fled to places where they often lived with Native Americans, such as with the Seminole. In what state did escaped Africans and Seminoles live together? Georgia Florida Ohio  #59
  • 72. Although the Secretary of War had stated "No Negro, mulatto or Indian is to be enlisted," when war started again in 1812, Blacks did serve in one military branch. Name it.  #60
  • 73. Commodore Oliver H. Perry of the U.S. Navy, who had earlier criticized the effectiveness of black sailors, changed his view when he won a decisive victory using black sailors on September 12, 1813 in this important battle in the War of 1812. Name the battle.  #61
  • 74. This Black American invented a device for handling sails and later owned a sailmaking factory in Philadelphia. As one of the richest men in the city, he supported many abolitionist causes. Name him.  #62
  • 75. Today, this seaport is one of the largest in the South. Prior to the Civil War it was known for its auctions of enslaved Africans. Enslaved Black people sold here were often used on the cotton plantations along the Mississippi River. What is this seaport?  #63
  • 76. In 1816, Robert Finley, a Presbyterian clergyman, founded a society in Washington DC to resettle free American blacks on the west coast of Africa. Many prominent Americans were sponsors, including John C. Calhoun of South Carolina and Henry Clay of Kentucky. Name the Society.  #64
  • 77. Born in 1817 as a slave in Tuckahoe, Maryland, this African American worked on the docks of Baltimore and escaped from slavery by disguising himself as a sailor. He fled to freedom and lived in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Name him.  #65
  • 78. In 1820, the largest number of enslaved black people (425,153) lived in this state. It had more than one-and-a-half times as many enslaved black people as the second largest concentration (258,475). Name the state. Which state ranked second?  #66
  • 79. In 1821, Thomas Jennings became the first known black person to receive a patent for an invention. Money from his patent and business in New York City was used to support the abolitionist movement. What was his invention?  #67
  • 80. This Quaker merchant moved to Wilmington, Delaware in 1822. He was a ―conductor‖ who helped more than 2,700 runaway slaves escape on the Underground Railroad. He gave them a pair of shoes for their journey. He was convicted and fined by the U.S. District Court for hiding runaways. Name him. [He strongly opposed a slavery and joined the Pennsylvania Abolition Society. Delaware was a slave state, bordering Pennsylvania and New Jersey on one side and Maryland (a slave state) on the other. This abolitionist became a "conductor" on the Underground Railroad by turning his home in Wilmington into the last station on the Underground Railroad before enslaved runaways reached freedom in Pennsylvania. It is estimated that he helped between 2,000 and 2,700 runaway enslaved blacks escape to freedom. In an effort to stop his successful station, Maryland authorities set a reward of $10,000 for his arrest. In 1848, however, he was convicted and fined by the U.S. District Court for hiding runaways. His iron business suffered and forced him into bankruptcy, but with the help of anti- slavery friends, he re-established his business.]  #68
  • 81. This African American carpenter purchased his freedom in 1800 with the winnings from a lottery ticket. He urged other blacks to demand equality. In 1822, he plotted to free enslaved black people in Charleston, S.C. but was betrayed by a co- conspirator. He was hanged along with many of his followers. Name the leader of this rebellion.  #69
  • 82. On March 16, 1827, two African American leaders, Samuel Cornish & John Russwurm, published the first black newspaper in this country. What was the name of this newspaper? Freedom‟s Journal Freedom News Freeman‟s Journal Freeman‟s News  #70
  • 83. This Quaker abolitionist was one of the most active conductors of the Underground Railroad. In the small town of Newport (now called Fountain City), Indiana, he organized escapes for fleeing enslaved Black people. He later moved to Cincinnati where he used his store to help as many as 1,000 enslaved Black people escape to freedom. Name him.  #71
  • 84. In Boston in 1829, this free black abolitionist published a radical antislavery pamphlet, Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World. He called for the use of violence to overthrow slavery. The language of the pamphlet was so strong that the governor of Georgia ordered the ship that brought the pamphlets to the state held in quarantine. The legislature made it a capital offense to circulate the pamphlets and offered a $10,000 reward for this person's capture. Name this abolitionist.  #72
  • 85. In 1790, less than 700,000 enslaved Black people lived in the South. Forty years later in 1830, how many Black people lived in this region? Just over 900,000 Just over 1 million Just over 2 million Just over 4 million  #73
  • 86. In 1831, this African American woman along with 16 black and white women founded the Philadelphia Female Anti- Slavery Society. She was a leading abolitionist, community activist, and generous giver to her causes. She encouraged her children to devote time to social causes. Name her.  #74
  • 87. On January 1, 1831, this abolitionist published the first issue of his antislavery newspaper, The Liberator, in Boston. It quickly became a leading newspaper for African Americans in Boston and throughout the East. He relied heavily on Blacks for support of his paper. Name the publisher.  #75
  • 88. On February 22, 1832, a group of black women organized the first all-black female antislavery society whose constitution focused on self improvement as well as antislavery activities. Name the city & state where this society was formed.  #76
  • 89. This university in Pennsylvania is often referred to as the oldest black university in the United States. In 1832, Richard Humphreys, a Philadelphia Quaker, left $10,000 in his will to establish a school for Blacks. It was originally called the Institute for Colored Youth. Today it has an enrollment of about 2,000 and is one of the 14 institutions in the Pennsylvania state system of higher education. Name it.  #77
  • 90. Prudence Crandall, a White woman, was arrested in 1833 for teaching Black girls at her school. A mob set fire to her school and she was forced to close it. State lawmakers later realized what they had done was wrong and gave her a small yearly income. Where was Prudence Crandall’s school?  #78
  • 91. This African American was born a free man in Philadelphia, made a fortune repairing ships in his dry dock, and gave generously to antislavery causes. He is credited with influencing William Lloyd Garrison’s views against colonization. In 1833, Garrison and others met in this abolitionist's home to organize the American Anti-Slavery Society. Name him.  #79
  • 92. Two sisters, daughters of a judge of the South Carolina Supreme Court, were outspoken female abolitionists. One daughter published her Appeal to the Christian Women of the South; the other published Epistle to the Clergy of the Southern States. Their antislavery publications brought a storm of criticism and insults. Name the sisters.  #80
  • 93. Windsor, Sandwich, New Canaan, Colchester, and St. Catharines are settlements in Canada that became home for formerly enslaved black people. More than 40,000 enslaved Africans fled to these communities and others in Canada before the Civil War. It is believed that the majority of slaves who went to Canada crossed this river. Name it.  #81
  • 94. This African American, born free in Norwich, Connecticut, helped hundreds of enslaved African Americans escape to freedom via the Underground Railroad. Frederick Douglass was among those he assisted. In 1835, he founded the New York Vigilance Committee, a group of notable African Americans who worked with White lawyers who fought in the courts on behalf of those accused of being fugitive slaves. In 1838 he published the first Black magazine, Mirror of Liberty. Name him.  #82
  • 95. Mutinies frequently occurred aboard ships transporting enslaved Africans to the Americas. One famous mutiny occurred in 1839 when Cinque and his followers seized a ship and sailed it to New England where they were captured. One of their trials took place in the Old State House in Hartford, Connecticut which then was the state capitol. Later, John Quincy Adams defended them in the U.S. Supreme Court. The enslaved Africans were eventually released. Name this famous mutiny.  #83
  • 96. In 1839, this political party was organized to become the first anti-slavery political party. Name it. Democratic Party Republican Party Libertarian Party Liberty Party  #84
  • 97. In 1842, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that slave owners might recover fugitive enslaved blacks from any state, and that the state could neither help nor hinder the enslaved person. On the other hand, some interpreted the decision as a blow to slaveholders on the basis that state officials were not authorized to return fugitive slaves to their owners. Name this case.  #85
  • 98. This former enslaved person was one of the most influential African Americans between 1840 and 1870. At the National Convention of Colored Men in Buffalo, NY, he delivered ―An Address to Slaves of the United States‖ in which he said: ―Rather die freeman than live to be slaves. Remember that you are FOUR MILLION! … Let your motto be resistance! Resistance! RESISTANCE!‖ Name this abolitionist.  #86
  • 99. In 1843, the U.S. and British governments agreed in this treaty to patrol Africa’s West Coast to seize ships involved in smuggling enslaved Africans to their territories. Name the treaty.  #87
  • 100. In 1843, an African American engineer and inventor received a patent for the ―vacuum evaporation process‖ for refining sugar. This and his other related inventions cheaply dehydrated sugar cane into granules, and thus revolutionized the sugar industry. Name this inventor, engineer, and scientist.  #88
  • 101. By 1843, many of the settlers of the Willamette Valley were southerners. While they could not change the 1843 provisional constitution that prohibited slavery, they did add a provision that expelled all Negroes and mulattoes from the territory. Name the territory.  #89
  • 102. One of San Francisco’s most famous citizens of the 1840s was an African American from the Virgin Islands. He was the first to launch a steamboat on San Francisco Bay, built the city’s first hotel, was a town council member and treasurer and was an influential citizen in the development of the city. Some believe he was the first African American to become a millionaire in this country, benefiting from land he owned along the American River, one site of the 1849 Gold Rush. Who was he?  #90
  • 103. Fisk University, Berea College, Atlanta University, Talladega College, Hampton Institute, Tougaloo College, Tillotson College, LeMoyne Institute, and Straight University (now Dillard University) were colleges/universities organized to train and educate African Americans. These colleges and universities were organized by an association formed in 1846. Name it.  #91
  • 104. On December 3, 1847, the North Star, an abolitionist newspaper, quickly became one of the most widely read antislavery newspapers in the country. The publishers addressed slavery, women’s suffrage, and other subjects. Name the two publishers of this newspaper.  #92
  • 105. William and Ellen Craft met as enslaved persons in Macon, Georgia. Because they did not want to bring children into the world to be enslaved, they planned to escape and flee to the North. In December 1848, they disguised themselves – he as an enslaved person and she as a gentleman and slaveholder – and boarded a train from Georgia to Philadelphia. Abolitionists in Philadelphia protected them until they sailed for England. Later, they wrote a book about their escape. Name the title of their book.  #93
  • 106. She made at least 19 trips into the South and helped an estimated 300 enslaved black people escape to freedom – including her parents and several of her brothers and sisters. She, herself, had escaped from slavery in Maryland in 1849. Slaveholders had a $40,000 reward for her capture. She was known ―Moses of her people.‖ She lived for eight years in St. Catherines in Canada and then moved along with her parents to a home in Auburn, NY where she lived until she died at 96 years of age. Name her.  #94
  • 107. This white lawyer, and later U.S. Senator, was an outspoken opponent of slavery. He argued for desegregated schools, saying that the Massachusetts Constitution declared all men free, equal, and entitled to equal protection of the laws. To deprive blacks of equal education denied them of these rights. Name this person.  #95
  • 108. A former enslaved African American, he organized the Refugee’s Home Colony in Canada. He bought 1,300 acres of land for the settlement of escaped African Americans. In his 1849 autobiography, he wrote about the brutality of slavery. Name him.  #96
  • 109. This enslaved African was put in a box made especially for his escape to freedom. It was nailed shut and shipped from Richmond, Virginia to the office of an antislavery committee in Philadelphia. After 30 hours, it arrived and when pried open, this person stepped out and said, ―How do you do, gentlemen?‖ Name the person.  #97
  • 110. This African American arrived in San Francisco with her husband during the Gold Rush. She opened a boarding house, managed estates and made loans. During the 1850s, she actively helped rescue blacks being illegally held in rural areas. She also worked to pass a state law that gave blacks the right to testify in court and to ride on San Francisco’s streetcars. Name her.  #98
  • 111. In 1850, this legendary black pioneer, fur trader, army scout, and rancher discovered a pass through the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The pass, later named for the explorer, became the main passageway for migrants moving West. He traveled throughout the West and became a trusted friend of several Native American tribes. The Crow Tribe named him “Bull’s Robe” and made him a chief. Name this famous pioneer.  #99
  • 112. By 1850, what portion of the world’s cotton crop was produced by slave states in the United States?  #100
  • 113. The U.S. Congress passed legislation that admitted California as a free state and organized New Mexico and Utah territories with no restrictions on slavery. This legislation also included a harsh new fugitive law that allowed southerners to recapture enslaved runaway blacks even in free states and made it a crime for anyone to aid a runaway. Name the legislation.  #101
  • 114. Located in Ohio, this was one of the first two historically Black colleges and universities founded in the mid- 1800s. It was founded by Daniel Payne. Name this university. Howard University Lincoln University Ohio State University Wilberforce University  #102
  • 115. On September 18, 1850, President Millard Fillmore signed a law that many called the ―slaveholder’s dream‖ – a law which required citizens and federal officers to become diligent slave catchers. The law provided the prompt return of enslaved blacks to ―slave owners‖ and denied fugitive enslaved blacks a trial by jury or the right to testify on their own behalf. Also, anyone who knowingly blocked a fugitive’s arrest could be fined as much as $1,000 for each offense. Name the law.  #103
  • 116. She was born in Delaware, educated in a Quaker school, and was forced to flee to Canada to avoid the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850. There, she started the Provincial Freeman – a weekly newspaper with the motto: ―Self-reliance is the true road to independence.‖ She is considered the first African American woman to publish a newspaper in North America. Name her.  #104
  • 117. In 1852, a best-selling book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, described the horrible conditions of slavery. The book, published in the National Era, an anti-slavery newspaper, helped gain support for the abolitionists. The author moved to Hartford, Connecticut in 1864 where she lived until her death. Today, her home is a museum and has a significant research library. Who wrote the famous antislavery novel?  #105
  • 118. In 1852, Martin R. Delany, a physician, abolitionist, and co-founder of the North Star, called for the establishment of a ―Negro Promised Land‖ in Central or South America. Later, he tried to set up a Black state in which Central American country?  #106
  • 119. This black woman was an unwilling migrant to California in 1853. She traveled from Mississippi to California with 300 wagons owned by her slaveholder. She drove the cattle during the long trip. Arriving in California, she successfully petitioned for her freedom and that of other enslaved blacks traveling with her. She eventually became wealthy from land she bought near Los Angeles. Name her.  #107
  • 120. In 1853, this African American published Clotelle, or The President’s Daughter, the first novel by an African American writer. He was an apprentice printer with Elijah Lovejoy and an agent of the Western Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society. He was a pioneer in writing about Black history. He later published other works, including The Escape, the first play written by an African American. Name him.  #108
  • 121. This gifted poet, writer, and orator of the antislavery movement was called the "Bronze Muse." Growing up in Baltimore, Maryland she devoted her life to ending the enslavement and oppression of Africans. Some of her works, especially her only novel, Iola Leroy, have been rediscovered. Name this African American poet.  #109
  • 122. On January 1, 1854, the first black college in the United States was chartered. It was named Ashmun Institute, after Jehudi Ashmun, a white emigrationist and the first president of Liberia. It was called the ―black Princeton‖ because of its demanding curriculum and the fact that its first instructors came from the faculty of Princeton Theological Seminary. What is the name of this university today?  #110
  • 123. In 1854, he was ordained a Catholic priest in Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France, thus becoming the first African American to become a Catholic priest. Name him. Roger Taney James A. Healy Isaac Myers Robert Smalls  #111
  • 124. In 1855, John Mercer Langston became the first black person to win elective office in a settled community in the United States. To what office was he elected?  #112
  • 125. In 1856, J.M. Weymout established the first Black daily newspaper. What was it called?  #113
  • 126. Some scholars believe that the Civil War actually began in 1856 when abolitionists and proslavery forces battled in this state. John Brown, a minister from Connecticut, went to fight with the abolitionists. Governor Daniel Woodson, who favored slavery, declared that his state was in "open insurrection". Name the state.  #114
  • 127. In 1857 this U.S. Supreme Court decision effectively denied citizenship to African Americans by rejecting this person’s claim to freedom. Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, Roger Taney, gave the majority opinion: ―slaveholders had the right to take human merchandise to any part of the union, and that this black man had no right to even bring suit.‖ The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 was upheld and all anti-slavery laws were held unconstitutional. This person had sued for his freedom because, although he was born a slave in Virginia, he was later taken to the free state of Illinois and territory that became Minnesota. Name the case.  #115
  • 128. This person planned to attack the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, take over the town, distribute arms to enslaved African Americans, and spread the revolution throughout the South. His plan failed. His sons were killed and some of his followers were hanged for treason. This famous anti-slavery abolitionist also was hanged. Name him.  #116
  • 129. What state, which grew large amounts of cotton and rice, was the first to secede from the Union prior to the Civil War, declaring it an "independent commonwealth"?  #117
  • 130. In 1860, what percentage of the African Americans in the United States lived in the South?  #118
  • 131. Although the exact number of runaways will never be known, it is estimated that approximately 100,000 enslaved black people escaped to freedom using a network of trails and hiding places stretching from Canada to Mexico between 1825 and 1860. Enslaved black runaways started the network. Just prior to the Civil War, Ohio had the largest number of operators. Name this network.  #119
  • 132. By 1860, this African American supervised the Chesapeake Marine Railroad and Dry Dock Company, one of the largest shipyards in Baltimore. The shipyard formed after white ship caulkers went on strike to eliminate African American caulkers and other black shipyard workers from working in the industry. This man organized the black caulkers and longshoremen and raised money from the community. Name the man who organized the shipyard.  #120
  • 133. Between 1820-1860, the largest number of urban slaveholders was found in what city? Charleston, South Carolina Richmond, Virginia Baltimore, Maryland Norfolk, Virginia Mobile, Alabama  #121
  • 134. The growth of cotton production showed the importance of enslaved Africans in the American economy. In 1790, the United States produced only 3,000 bales of cotton. By 1860, it produced 4.8 million bales, prompting one Southerner to proclaim that ―Cotton was King.‖ The cotton- growing states became known as the ―Cotton Kingdom.‖ About what percentage of the world’s cotton crop was produced in the United States at that time?  #122
  • 135. The Civil War began on April 12, 1861 when Confederate troops fired on this fort located at a very important location. The Union surrendered two days later. The South then held the fort until February 17, 1865 and endured one of the longest sieges in modern warfare. Almost 46,000 shells, estimated at over 7 million pounds of metal, were fired at the fort during Union attacks. Name this fort and where it was located.  #123
  • 136. Name and locate the four border states that remained with the Union during the Civil War, but still remained slaveholding states.  #124
  • 137. This African American was the first and only black to attain the rank of captain in the Union Navy during the Civil War. As a pilot of the armed Confederate ship, Planter, he along with eight black crewmen sailed the ship out of Charleston harbor (with his family and other fugitives on board), and turned it over as a prize of war to the Union Navy on May 13, 1862. Who was this Civil War hero?  #125
  • 138. This teenager escaped from slavery and joined the First South Carolina Volunteers whose soldiers she taught to read and write. She became an important nurse for this regiment and later wrote a book about her experiences. Name her.  #126
  • 139. This African American showed his bravery during the Civil War when Union forces attacked Fort Wagner in Charleston, S.C. For his actions, he was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor--the first African American to win this honor. Name him and the unit with which he served.  #127
  • 140. What Black regiment was the first recruited during the Civil War? Two sons of Frederick Douglass served with it.  #128
  • 141. On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued a presidential order that freed enslaved black people in the Confederate states. Some believe he did this to weaken the Confederacy as well as to generate favorable world opinion. Name the presidential order.  #129
  • 142. Proposed in January of 1865 and ratified in December of that year, the ____ Amendment of the Constitution forbid slavery in the United States saying ―Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.‖  #130
  • 143. This minister of the African Methodist Episcopal Church worked in Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri. He opened a school for freed Blacks in St. Louis before moving to Natchez, Mississippi, in 1866. He became a state senator and on January 20, 1870 was chosen by a majority of the state legislators to fill the term of former Confederate president Jefferson Davis in the United States Senate. He, thus, became the first Black person ever to be a member of the U.S. Senate. Name him.  #131
  • 144. He was born into slavery near Farmville, Virginia, but escaped at the beginning of the Civil War. He lived in Hannibal, Missouri where he organized the state's first school for blacks. After moving to Mississippi, he became a wealthy landowner and involved in local politics, including superintendent of education in Bolivar County in 1871. In 1874, he became the second African American senator and the first to serve a full term in the United States Senate. Name him.  #132
  • 145. She was born into slavery, but once free, went to public schools and attended a teacher's college in Rhode Island. In 1860, she enrolled in Oberlin College where she organized classes for former enslaved African Americans. When she graduated—the second black woman to receive a bachelor's degree, she became the principal of the Institute for Colored Youth in Philadelphia. As principal, she became the first African American woman to head an institution of higher learning. Name her.  #133
  • 146. After the Civil War, former enslaved African Americans were eager to make progress by becoming better educated, owning land, and holding political office. During this period, the U.S. Constitution was amended three times to address the rights of African Americans. What was this period of progress called?  #134
  • 147. This federal organization was given the responsibility of reconstructing the South. It issued more than 20,000,000 food rations, established 50 hospitals, resettled more than 30,000 people, set up 4,330 schools, enrolled more than 247,000 students, and established a number of black colleges. It also represented freedmen in court. Name the organization.  #135
  • 148. On June 13, 1866, the U.S. Congress proposed the ____ Amendment to the Constitution. This amendment defined citizenship to include all those born or naturalized in the United States. This guaranteed citizenship for Blacks and equal protection under the law. Congress sent the amendment to the states for ratification, but this did not occur until 1868.  #136
  • 149. In the first Civil Rights Bill, the U.S. Congress was seeking to protect freed slaves from Southern Black Codes. Through the bill, blacks were given privileges of American citizenship: to make contracts, hold property, and testify in court. They were made subject to the laws, punishment, and penalties of the United States. The U.S. President, Andrew Johnson vetoed it. When was the first Civil Rights Bill passed?  #137
  • 150. This historically black college and university was founded in 1867 in Washington, D.C. It boasts that in its first century it graduated at least one-half of the nation's black physicians, dentists, pharmacists, engineers , and architects. Name this university.  #138
  • 151. In 1867, this college in Augusta, Georgia was founded by the American Baptist Home Mission Society and called Augusta Institute. The school moved to Atlanta in 1879, and in 1913, was renamed after the secretary of the society. Today, the college has a dedicated alumni, many of whom have earned doctorate degrees. One out of every ten of its male graduates has an academic or professional doctorate. Name the college.  #139
  • 152. During Reconstruction, this African American was elected to fill two posts in his state: Secretary of State and Secretary of Treasurer. He had attended the University of Glasgow in Scotland and had studied at Presbyterian seminaries in Edinburgh and London. He was an eloquent speaker and brilliant economist. Name the politician and the state where he was elected.  #140
  • 153. This historically Black college was established in 1868 in Virginia by Samuel Chapman Armstrong, a 27-year old brevet brigadier general who had commanded Black troops in the Civil War. Armstrong, the head of the eastern district of the Freedmen’s Bureau, purchased the site and started the school in an old federal hospital, with two teaching assistants and fifteen students. Booker T. Washington, founder of Tuskegee Institute, graduated from this school in 1881. Name the school.  #141
  • 154. In 1868, this African American was elected Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana, the highest elective office held by an African American up to that time. Who was he?  #142
  • 155. Some Black schools and universities sent singers throughout the United States and Europe to raise money for new buildings. This African American educator and her students in this Florida school baked sweet potato pies and sold them to railroad workers to raise money to buy nearby land. Name the educator and school she founded.  #143
  • 156. In 1869, the U.S. regular army was reorganized with four black regiments. They were scattered across the West to protect settlers, guard the mail, and protect the railroads. They built their own housing and forts. Commonly referred to as the ―Buffalo Soldiers‖ by Native Americans, what were the four black regiments?  #144
  • 157. In the 1870s, many African Americans set out for a new life in Kansas. The chief organizer of this movement was a former enslaved black man from Tennessee. Even though he was more than 70 years old at the time, he was still energetic and helped many to resettle in black colonies in Kansas. Name him.  #145
  • 158. In 1869, the _____ amendment to the Constitution was ratified. This amendment said that the right of citizens to vote shall not be denied on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.  #146
  • 159. In 1870, this African American was the first of his race to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives and take his seat. He was born a slave but became free after his father bought his family’s freedom. He was drafted by his home state to serve in the Civil War, but escaped to Bermuda. In 1866, he returned home and settled in Georgetown. At this time, only ten counties in this state had a majority of white voters, and in his county, only one in six voters were white. He held a number of Republican Party positions, including serving in the State Senate. He eventually served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1871-1879. Name this U.S. Congressman and the state he represented.  #147
  • 160. This African American was sworn in as the first Black governor of Louisiana after governor Henry C. Warmoth was impeached "for high crimes and misdemeanors" in 1872. He had previously been a delegate to the Republican convention that nominated Ulysses S. Grant for president. Name him.  #148
  • 161. In 1872, this Black man invented the lubricating cup for the steam engine. Educated in Edinburgh, Scotland before moving to Detroit, he continued his interest in mechanical engineering. When he was unsuccessful in getting a job as fireman for the Michigan Central Railroad, he founded his own manufacturing company. After watching the inefficient machinery of trains and the daily oiling of all working parts, he invented the “lubricator cup” and received a U.S. patent. His invention improved the steam engine and saved operators valuable time and money. He also invented the graphite lubricator that made it possible for engines to be lubricated while moving. Over the years, this inventor had more than 42 inventions that modernized machinery all over the world. His inventions were so perfect that prospective buyers wanted only his products. Name this inventor.  #149
  • 162. She became the first African-American woman lawyer when she graduated from Howard University Law School in 1872. Barriers to setting up a law practice were too difficult to overcome at the time so she became a teacher in the Brooklyn, New York schools. Name her.  #150
  • 163. On June 2, 1875, Pope Pius IX named this African American to be bishop of Portland, Maine, making him the first African American Catholic bishop in the United States. Name him.  #151
  • 164. In 1876, the Freedmen’s Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church established the first all-Black medical school in the United States. Three other African-American medical schools: Howard University Medical School, Shaw Medical School, and the Medical Department of the University of West Tennessee were established later. What is the name of the first all-Black medical school and where it is located?  #152
  • 165. In June 1877, he became the first Black person to graduate from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. For four years he had been excluded from activities and ignored by white cadets. After joining the Tenth Cavalry in 1878, serving mostly in Oklahoma and Texas, he was the only Black officer in the U.S. Army. Name him.  #153
  • 166. In 1879, this newspaper, considered the oldest continuously printed Black newspaper in the country, was founded. Name it. Boston Herald San Diego Falcon Los Angeles Eagle Mobile Messenger  #154
  • 167. Booker T. Washington is one of the most famous African American educators. In 1881, he established a college to train Black teachers. Name the college he established and the state where it is located.  #155
  • 168. In 1882, this scientist received a patent for his invention of the first incandescent electric light bulb with a carbon filament. It was considered an improvement of Thomas Edison’s electric lamp. This scientist/inventor contributed so many inventions to the field of electricity that many of his fellow scientists called him "the Black Edison." This scientist was a member of the Edison Pioneers, a group of what many called the “greatest” inventors of the time. Name him.  #156
  • 169. This African American invented the "shoe- lasting machine", a machine that revolutionized the shoe industry and made Lynn, Massachusetts the "shoe capital of the world." His invention cut the price of shoes by more than 50 percent, doubled wages, and improved working conditions for millions of people in the shoe industry. Who was this famous African-American inventor?  #157
  • 170. On May 1, 1884 this baseball catcher made his professional major league debut with Toledo in an American Association game. As a result, he became the first Black player in organized baseball history. Name him.  #158
  • 171. In 1887, he obtained Patent No. 315,368 for the "telegraphony," a device that received and transmitted Morse code or voice messages between moving trains and between trains and stations. His invention reduced the number of accidents. Name this inventor.  #159
  • 172. This African American, a successful Kansas politician, moved to Oklahoma Territory in 1887 and later became the founder of two all-Black towns, Liberty and Langston. He envisioned Oklahoma Territory as an all- Black state. President Benjamin Harrison provided no support for this plan. Name this African American.  #160
  • 173. This African American is credited with many important inventions (more than sixty patents) related to railway systems and electrical industries. His patents were sold to General Electric, Westinghouse, and American Bell Telephone. Thomas Edison offered him a job but he turned him down. The American Catholic Tribune called him the "greatest electrician in the world" in 1888. Name him.  #161
  • 174. In 1889, this person, the son of former enslaved African Americans, and graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, became the first African American to attain the rank of colonel in the U.S. Army. He served on the western frontier and in the Philippines, Haiti, and Liberia. He rode his horse from Texas to Washington, D.C. to show that he was in good physical health and that he should not be retired from military service. It did not help his cause and he was forced to retire because of "high blood pressure." Name him.  #162
  • 175. A famous African American artist was encouraged by Thomas Eakins to paint scenes of Black life. He painted The Banjo Lesson in 1890. Name this artist.  #163
  • 176. On May 4, 1891, Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, a noted African American physician opened the first training school for Black nurses in Chicago. Name the hospital where the training school was located.  #164
  • 177. In this city and state, one of the oldest Black-owned newspapers, The Afro- American is still published. John Henry Murphy, Sr. established it in 1892. After serving in the Civil War, Murphy worked as a white washer, porter, janitor, postal employee, and printer before he founded the newspaper. In what city and state is this newspaper published?  #165
  • 178. This Black woman, who taught school in Mississippi and Tennessee, published a weekly column for The Living Way, and wrote articles for the New York Age and others, was a founder of many organizations that worked for justice for Black Americans. In 1893, she wrote a pamphlet criticizing the racism at the 1893 World’s Fair. She was a key founder of the National Association of Colored Women in 1896. In 1909, she was one of two Black women who were among the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), In 1910, she helped organize the Negro Fellowship League, and in 1913, helped found the Alpha Suffrage Club, the first Black women’s suffrage organization in Illinois. She became a delegate to the National American Women’s Suffrage Association meeting in Washington, D.C. Name her.  #166
  • 179. This African American physician performed the first successful open- heart operation. It occurred at Chicago's Provident Hospital in 1893. Name the physician.  #167
  • 180. In 1893, this author published his first collection of poetry entitled Oak and Ivy. Having worked as an elevator operator for $4 a week, he achieved considerable fame upon publication of his book Lyrics of Lowly Life in 1896. Name him.  #168
  • 181. In 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court decision, Plessy v. Ferguson, was decided on a vote of 8-1. The decision upheld the "separate but equal" doctrine and began the age of Jim Crow. The Court said that the State of Louisiana was within its rights to arrest Homer Plessy, an African American, for violating its "Jim Crow" laws. Specifically, what did Plessy do to break the law?  #169
  • 182. This woman devoted much of her life to women’s issues and Black causes. A graduate of Oberlin College in 1884, she was the first African American to serve on the Washington, D.C. School Board. Later, she helped form the National Association of Colored Women and became the association's first president in 1896. She was also instrumental in desegregating restaurants in Washington, D.C. Name her.  #170
  • 183. In 1896, 130,344 African Americans were registered to vote in Louisiana and formed the majority of registered voters in 26 parishes. The next year, a law passed in Louisiana effectively barred Blacks from voting and became a model for other southern states. This law stated “A person might register and vote if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867, or if he or an ancestor had served in either the Confederate or Union army.” In 1900, only 5,320 African Americans were registered and no parish had a Black majority. In 1904, only 1,342 blacks voted. What specific clause had been written into the Louisiana Constitution that effectively disenfranchised so many Black voters?  #171
  • 184. In 1896, this African American was selected director of agricultural research at Tuskegee Institute. Here, he began to teach and experiment with agricultural production. He was one of the first soil scientists to encourage crop rotation, and he developed several hundred industrial and household uses for peanuts and sweet potatoes. Name him.  #172
  • 185. What Black inventor designed a device that allowed railroad cars to be coupled more easily? A New York railroad paid him $50,000 in 1897 for his invention. It became known as the "jenny coupler" and was one of the most important inventions that made the railroads more efficient.  #173
  • 186. Rosamond Johnson, trained at the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, and his brother James Weldon Johnson, wrote a song that is often called the ―Negro National Anthem.‖ Name it.  #174
  • 187. In 1903, she became the first Black woman to head a bank. She presided over the St. Luke Bank and Trust Company in Richmond, Virginia. She took $9,000 of initial deposits and increased bank holdings to $376,000 in a few years. The Bank helped many Blacks to get an education, housing, and economic independence. Name her.  #175
  • 188. Twenty-nine Black intellectuals, headed by W.E.B. Du Bois, organized this movement in Fort Erie, Canada in 1905. It demanded the abolition of all forms of racial discrimination and was a direct response to Booker T. Washington's cautious approach to racial justice. The movement lasted only five years. It is frequently referred to as the organization that led to the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909. Name the movement or organization.  #176
  • 189. In 1905, this African American published the first issue of the Chicago Defender. Although he sold only 300 copies of the first issue, by 1929, the Defender was a national newspaper with circulation of 250,000. It was attacked racial injustices in the South, specifically discrimination, segregation, and lynching. It encouraged Blacks to leave the South for work and better opportunities in the North. Who was this important newspaper publisher?  #177
  • 190. This important civil rights group was organized in New York City on February 12, 1909. Its purpose was to advance the civil rights of African American people and to protect the rights of all people. This organization has become one of the major civil rights organizations today. Name it.  #178
  • 191. The Crisis is a major magazine of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Who was the first editor of The Crisis? W.E.B. Du Bois Carter G. Woodson James Weldon Johnson Alain Locke Garrett Morgan  #179
  • 192. In 1910, this woman established a hair- products manufacturing company that eventually employed about 3,000 workers. In her early life, she had worked as a washerwoman and invested her wages to develop a hair conditioner for women. She is the first African American woman to become a millionaire by her own efforts. She gave much of her money to charities that benefited African American communities. Name her.  #180
  • 193. This major organization was founded in 1911 to help southern Blacks adjust to city life, particularly in the North. Eugene Kinckle Jones was one of the founders and served as its Executive Secretary for more than 20 years. He was also a member of President Franklin Roosevelt’s "Black Cabinet.” Name the organization.  #181
  • 194. This African American was a member of Admiral Robert E. Peary's expedition to the North Pole. Some records show that he was the first person to reach the Pole and placed the American flag there. In 1912, he wrote of his experiences in A Negro Explorer at the North Pole. In 1945, the U.S. Congress awarded him a medal for "outstanding service to the Government of the United States in the field of science." Name this explorer.  #182
  • 195. W. C. Handy, founder of one of the first Black-owned music publishing company, is often called the "father of the blues" because he wrote some of the most notable and lasting blues songs. Two songs have city names in their title. Name the titles of these songs and the states where the cities are located.  #183
  • 196. This African American founded the Association for the Study of Negro Life and Culture in 1915, and one year later, he began publishing the Journal of Negro History. He also organized the first Negro History Week. He is often called “Father of Negro history.” Name this educator.  #184
  • 197. Marcus Garvey founded this organization that grew to more than six million members in the U.S. and other countries. The organization worked to increase Black pride and to develop economic and educational self-help programs. Over time, it had a church, a newspaper, and 30 chapters around the world. Name the organization.  #185
  • 198. This African American scientist and inventor presented his invention at the Second International Exposition of Sanitation and Safety. His breathing helmet and smoke protector (later called a gas mask) won First Grand Prize. It proved successful in 1916 when the inventor rescued a number of men trapped in a tunnel filled with poison gases. In 1923 he sold his patent for the automatic traffic signal for $40,000 to General Electric. Name this inventor.  #186
  • 199. The U.S. Supreme Court declared in this case that Louisiana and Kentucky ordinances requiring Blacks to live in certain sections of the city were unconstitutional. Name the case.  #187
  • 200. In the 1920s, what place was sometimes called the "capital of the African American world"?  #188
  • 201. Andrew "Rube" Foster founded what professional sports league?  #189
  • 202. Between 1915 and 1920, nearly one million African Americans had moved from the agricultural South to the crowded urban cores of the North. What is the name given to this mass movement of people from the South to the North?  #190
  • 203. In 1920, this African American intellectual, educator, poet, and civil rights activist became the first Black executive secretary of the NAACP. He became an effective organizer for the NAACP, increasing its membership and the number of chapters. His silent march in New York City was an effective protest against lynching in this country. Name him.  #191
  • 204. One of the most popular Black musicals to open on Broadway was produced by Eubie Blake, a ragtime pianist and composer, and Noble Sissle. It was the first Broadway show to be written, produced and performed by Blacks, and was the first to include jazz compositions. The show was so popular that crowds waiting to get tickets caused the traffic department to change traffic routes near the theater. The show ran a record 504 performances. Name the musical.  #192
  • 205. A number of race riots occurred after World War I. On May 30, 1921, an incident in this town sparked widespread anger between whites and Blacks. As many as 200 African Americans and 50 whites were killed. One account noted that the riot was unequal in American history in terms of destruction. One of America’s most thriving African American business districts called "Wall Street of the South" was destroyed. Where did this race riot take place?  #193
  • 206. In 1923, this African American female was called the "Queen of the Blues" after she recorded "Down Hearted Blues," a song written by Alberta Hunter and Lovie Austin. The song sold 800,000 copies almost immediately--the first major hit for Columbia Records. It eventually sold more than a million copies. One of her most famous recordings was “Nobody Knows You When You’re Down and Out.” Name this major blues performer.  #194
  • 207. This track and field athlete of the University of Michigan won the broad jump at the Olympic Games in Paris. He became the first Black athlete to win an Olympic gold medal. Name him.  #195
  • 208. In 1925, this African American philosopher, writer, and professor at Howard University and the first African American Rhodes scholar (1907), created the term "New Negro". The term taken from his book, The New Negro, conveyed a renewed confidence and pride among African Americans. He is sometimes called the "official father of the Harlem Renaissance.” Name the author.  #196
  • 209. During most of American history, labor unions prohibited Blacks from becoming members. A. Philip Randolph organized a labor union in 1925 for a group of Black workers to help them get higher wages and better working conditions. He is considered the "father of African American unionism"? What group of workers did he organize?  #197
  • 210. In 1926, this African American was considered one of the country's leading poets when he published The Weary Blues. He later published several novels: Not Without Laughter, One Way Ticket, and Mulatto. Name him.  #198
  • 211. When Chicago's Black residents elected him to the U.S. Congress in 1928, he was the first African American Congressman since 1901 and the first elected from the North. Name him.  #199
  • 212. She was called the "First Lady of Jazz". Her first big break came in the 1930s when she began singing with Chick Webb and his band at the Harlem Opera House. She would become the top female jazz singers -- a title she held until her death. Who was she?  #200
  • 213. This famous jazz singer’s sad life is described in her autobiography, Lady Sings The Blues. She appeared with Count Basie’s orchestra and had many hit records including "God Bless the Child." She was called “Lady Day.” Who was she?  #201
  • 214. In 1931, this African American became the leader of the NAACP. As executive secretary during World War II, he traveled to the South to investigate the lynching of Blacks. Name this leader.  #202
  • 215. This choreographer was a pioneer in restoring the African and Caribbean heritage to dance in America. Although she benefited from WPA support, it was her featured role as Georgia Brown in Cabin in the Sky that allowed others to see her as a great artist. Because of her choreographic creativity and her obvious inclusion of primitive and folk dances that reflected an authentic base for black people, she was dubbed the "Mother of African American dance." Name her. Hattie McDaniel Katherine Dunham Mary McLeod Bethune Mahalia Jackson  #203
  • 216. This African American received as many as 61 patents. In 1935, he developed the first automatic refrigeration system for trucks--an invention that changed the eating habits of the entire nation. He later developed an air conditioning unit for military field hospitals, and military field kitchens. He received little credit for his accomplishments during his life. In 1991, the National Medal of Technology was awarded to him–30 years after his death. Name this inventor.  #204
  • 217. Funds from what federal project help support African American artists including Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, Aaron Douglas, and Katherine Dunham?  #205
  • 218. In 1935, this African American educator and political advisor to President Franklin Roosevelt established the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) to fight racial and gender discrimination. The organization grew rapidly, and in the 1970s, it was one of the largest organizations of African American women in the country--more than 3 million members. Name this female leader.  #206
  • 219. This African American athlete, born on an Alabama sharecropping farm, won three individual and one team gold medal in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Germany. He became the first Olympian ever to win four gold medals. Adolf Hitler left the stadium to avoid congratulating him. He had, for the moment, triumph over racism. Because of his speed, he was called the "Ebony Antelope." Name him. DeHart Hubbard Mohammad Ali Arthur Ashe Eddie Robinson Jesse Owens  #207
  • 220. This U.S. Supreme Court case set the basis for equalizing the salaries of Black and White school teachers in 1936. Name this case.  #208
  • 221. In 1937, Joe Louis, the son of Alabama sharecroppers, earned the title of heavyweight boxing champion of the world by defeating Jim J. Braddock. He became the first Black heavyweight champion in 22 years. Known internationally as the “Brown Bomber”, how long did he retain the world heavyweight boxing championship before he retired?  #209
  • 222. He became the first African American to serve as a U.S. federal judge. President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed him to the federal district court in the Virgin Islands in 1937. Name him.  #210
  • 223. This African American woman became the first Black woman lawmaker when she was elected to the Pennsylvania legislature in 1938. Name her.  #211
  • 224. She became the first African American female judge when, in 1939, she was appointed to the New York City Court of Domestic Relations. She was a graduate of the Yale Law School in 1931. Name her.  #212
  • 225. In 1939, this actress won the first Academy Award (the Oscar) ever given to a Black performer. She earned the Oscar as best supporting actress for her role in Gone with the Wind. Name her. Hattie McDaniel Mahalia Jackson Sarah Vaughan Marian Anderson  #213
  • 226. In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) denied an African American singer permission to perform in Washington, D.C.'s Constitution Hall. The Secretary of Interior and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt arranged for her to sing before a large audience at the Lincoln Memorial. Name this famous opera singer.  #214
  • 227. He was the first African American military General in the regular U. S. Army. Name him. Robert C. Weaver Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. A. Philip Randolph Hugh Mulzac  #215
  • 228. In 1940, the U.S. Army announced the formation of a training school for Black pilots. Called the "Home of Black Aviation," the school was located in the same community as a famous Black college founded by Booker T. Washington. What is the name of this town?  #216
  • 229. On April 7, 1940, the U.S. Postal Service issued a stamp to honor this African American for his contribution to the overall well being of Black Americans and the country, in general. This was the first stamp issued to honor an African American. Name the person honored.  #217
  • 230. This African American is cited as the most widely praised of the 20th century. His paintings of the lives, dreams, and struggles of African Americans are among the most respected of any artist. His paintings show his deep understanding of African American history, particularly in his series paintings of ―The Life of Frederick Douglass‖ (1938), and ―The Migration of the Negro‖ (1940-41). One of these paintings is on the cover of a well- documented African American reference book, Black Saga: The African American Experience. Name him.  #218
  • 231. In 1941, this President issued Executive Order 8802 that prohibited employers from discriminating against African Americans in the war industries and in government services because of race, creed, color, or national origin. The Order came in response to the threat of a large protest march on Washington, D.C. by A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin. This executive order, the first major presidential action since Reconstruction, did little to change racial discrimination in these jobs because industries found ways around them. Name the President who issued the order.  #219
  • 232. In 1941, this African American, an economist, was appointed director of the government office in charge of integrating Blacks into the national defense program. He later became the first African American to be a Presidential cabinet member. Name him. Paul Robeson Colin Powell A. Philip Randolph Robert C. Weaver  #220
  • 233. This African American was the commander of the Booker T. Washington, the first Liberty ship named after an African American. In his autobiography, he stated the following: ―If there was ever a moment when the real meaning of democracy could and had to be demonstrated to the peoples of the world, the moment was now! And what was America’s answer in this hour of need? A Jim Crow ship! Named for a Negro, christened by a Negro, captained by a Negro, and no doubted manned by Negroes.‖ Name the captain of the Booker T. Washington.  #221
  • 234. CORE (Congress of Racial Equality), an action-oriented civil rights group, was founded by James Farmer in Chicago, Illinois in 1941. What tactic did it use successfully in breaking down the color line during the civil rights movement?  #222
  • 235. The first class of pilots trained at the U.S. Army’s training school for Black pilots at Tuskegee, Alabama included Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., a West Point graduate, and Lts. George Roberts, Mac Ross, Charles DeBow, and Rodney Curtis. What was the name of this all-Black flight squadron?  #223
  • 236. He planned the first march on Washington to protest discrimination against Black workers in the defense industry. It was canceled when President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 on June 25, 1941. Name the person who proposed this march.  #224
  • 237. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor in Honolulu, Hawaii. This African American, assigned to the U.S. Navy as a cook and not trained to use the big guns due to widespread racial discrimination, took over after the white gunner had been killed and shot down four Japanese planes. Name this hero and the ship on which he served.  #225
  • 238. This African American was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross for heroic action aboard the USS San Francisco in the Solomon Islands. He died in the Battle of Guadacanal. In 1942 the first U.S. naval vessel commissioned and named for a Black person was named for this WW II naval hero. Name him.  #226
  • 239. John H. Johnson published the first copy of Negro Digest on November 1, 1942. It became the first Black-owned successful general magazine. Out of this venture came the Johnson Publishing Company, now one of the largest Black-owned businesses in the country. Name two magazines that the company publishes today.  #227
  • 240. This African American was one of the most successful stage actors on Broadway. On October 19, 1943, he starred in the title role of Othello, a production that ran for 296 performances and set the record for Shakespearean drama on Broadway. Who was this famous actor?  #228
  • 241. The United Negro College Fund was founded to help all-Black colleges and universities. It raised $760,000 in its first year to support these educational institutions. It was founded by then president of Tuskegee Institute. Name him.  #229
  • 242. She claimed never to have sung a song the same way twice. She was a gifted singer with rhythm and phrasing like a jazz instrumentalist. As such, she was referred to as the ―Divine One.‖ Name this singer. Mahalia Jackson Ella Fitzgerald Sarah Vaughan  #230
  • 243. Jackie Robinson broke the color line in modern major league baseball when he signed to play for the Montreal Royals, a Brooklyn Dodgers Triple A affiliate in the International League in 1945. Before that, he played for a team of the Negro League. Name the Negro League team.  #231
  • 244. This great African American author wrote his autobiography, entitled Black Boy, in 1945. It soon became a text in many American high schools. Name this author.  #232
  • 245. In 1946, this baseball pitcher for the Kansas City Monarchs threw 64 consecutive scoreless innings, possibly unmatched by anyone in professional baseball. In 1948, he became the first Black player to pitch in the American League. In one season he won 31 games for the Pittsburgh Crawfords, and in one week he won five games. He was also the first Black player to pitch in a World Series game. At the age of 59 or 60, he was still pitching in the major leagues. Who was this famous baseball pitcher?  #233
  • 246. In 1946, she earned the title of "Queen of Gospel" when her recording of "Move Up A Little Higher" sold more than 8 millions copies. She appeared on radio, TV, and toured Europe several times. She appeared in Carnegie Hall in 1950. She sang at President John F. Kennedy’s inauguration and at Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s funeral. Name her.  #234
  • 247. The first modern major league baseball game in which a Black player participated occurred on April 10, 1947 when this player took the field for the Brooklyn Dodgers. Name the player.  #235
  • 248. He was the first African American baseball player in the American league. Just 11 weeks after Jackie Robinson broke the color line in modern league baseball, this player joined the Cleveland Indians. In his 13 year career, he became the game’s second Black manager, following another Robinson, Frank. This player would not give in to hate and always conducted himself in a manner that opened the game to many black players to come later. He was inducted into the baseball Hall of Fame in 1998. He died in 2003. Name him.  #236
  • 249. On July 26, 1948, this President signed Executive Order 9981 that ended discrimination in the military. He stated, "Men in uniform should have equality of treatment and opportunity regardless of race, color, religion, or national origin." Who was this U.S. president? (237)  #237
  • 250. He became the first Black catcher in the major leagues when he joined the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1948. During his short ten-year career, he won the National League’s Most Valuable Player award in 1951, 1953, and 1955. He was the second African American to be elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame. Name him.  #238
  • 251. In the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, England, this African American female tied for first in the high jump with an Olympic record of 5’ 6 and 1/4‖. She was awarded the gold medal on the basis of fewer misses--the only gold medal won by an African American woman in track and field. She became the first African American woman to win a gold medal at the Olympics. Name her.  #239
  • 252. This African American was the first of his race to graduate from the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland. In 1949, he became the 20,699th midshipman to graduate. Despite racial abuse and harassment, he remained at the academy. Name this graduate. (240)  #240
  • 253. This African American diplomat was Assistant Secretary General of the United Nations. He worked to bring peace to the Middle East in the 1940s. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work. Who is this famous diplomat?  #241
  • 254. When she was just 13 years old, she published her first poem, "Eventide," in American Childhood Magazine. In 1950, she was awarded the prestigious Pulitzer Prize for her collection of poetry, Annie Allen. Who is this poet?  #242
  • 255. This African American author became one of the most prolific writers of fiction. In each of his novels, he presented some aspects of his life as an African American and the psychological effects of racism. Included among his notable novels are: "Go Tell It On the Mountain" (1953), "Notes of a Native Son" (1955), "Giovanni’s Room" (1956), "Nobody Knows My Name" (1961), "Another Country" (1962), and "The Fire Next Time" (1963). Name him.  #243
  • 256. One of the most liberal chief justices of the U.S. Supreme Court ruled on a number of decisions relating to school segregation and employment issues. He said, "In the field of public education, the doctrine of separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal". Name this Chief Justice.  #244
  • 257. The NAACP worked diligently to influence the decision in Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, which ruled "separate educational facilities were inherently unequal." This case was argued by a famous African American lawyer who was chief counsel of the Legal Defense Fund of the NAACP. He later became U.S. Solicitor General. Name this lawyer.  245
  • 258. On May 17, 1954, this important U.S. Supreme Court decision declared "racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional." The decision reversed the Plessy vs. Ferguson ruling of 1896. Name this important court case.  246
  • 259. On October 27, 1954, this African American became the first Black to be promoted to the rank of general in the U.S. Air Force. He was further honored for leading a group of all-Black fighter pilots known as the Tuskegee Airmen on combat tours over Europe during World War II. It was their success in the air that helped integrate the armed forces. This distinguished general died on July 4, 2002 at the age of 89. Name him.  247
  • 260. On December 1, 1955, this African American woman made history. She refused to give up her bus seat so a white man could sit down. The bus driver had her arrested. This action precipitated a successful bus boycott that began four days later that lasted a year. She has been called “Mother of the Civil Rights Movement.” Name her.  248
  • 261. This minister started his civil rights activities as head of the Montgomery bus boycott. He was the new minister of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery and was chosen president of the Montgomery Improvement Association-- the organization that led the boycott. Name him.  249
  • 262. In 1956, this African American female won one of the world's major tennis titles, the French Open Women's singles title. A year later she became the first African American to win the U.S. Open championship and the first to win the Women’s Singles Championship at Wimbledon, England. Major sports magazines at the time called her the best tennis player in the world. Name her. Aretha Ashe Wilma Rudolph Althea Gibson Venus Williams  #250
  • 263. He became the first African American professional golfer to win a significant tournament-- the Long Beach Open. In 1959, he became the first Black person to receive a Professional Golfer's Association card as an "approved player." He has been elected to the PGA Hall of Fame. Name him. (251)  251
  • 264. In 1957, federal troops and national guardsmen were dispatched to this medium-size city in the South to stop state interference with desegregation and to ensure the safe integration of a school by nine Black students. On July 11, 1958, the NAACP awarded its prestigious Spingarn Medal to the brave students (referred to as the Little Rock Nine) who desegregated this high school. Name the school and the city.  252
  • 265. From 1957 to his retirement in 1966, this fullback broke every rushing record in the National Football League. He was Rookie of the Year in 1957 and the NFL's Most Valuable Player in 1963, the first African American to win this award. He played for the Cleveland Browns from 1957 through 1965, during which time he won a record eight league rushing titles and placed second among all-time leading rushers, with 12,312 yards. In 1971, he was inducted into the Professional Football Hall of Fame. Name him.  253
  • 266. In 1958, this President signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957-- the first since Reconstruction. It authorized the Justice Department to stop any interference with the right of African Americans to vote and established the Commission on Civil Rights to investigate interference with the law. In 1960, he signed the Voting Rights Act, sometimes called the Civil Rights Act of 1960. This legislation granted additional protection to African Americans seeking to exercise their right to vote and instructed federal courts to appoint ―voting referees‖ to register Blacks in areas where racial discrimination against voters had been proven. Name the President.  254
  • 267. The "sit-in movement" began on February 1, 1960 when four black freshmen students from North Carolina A&T sat down at a ―whites only‖ lunch counter in a store in this southern city. Their action set off an historic challenge to segregation across the South and declared the use of ―sit-ins‖ as a major strategy for desegregating public facilities. Name the store and the city where the sit-in took place.  255
  • 268. In 1960, this African American athlete won the track and field Olympic gold medals in the 100 meter, 200 meter and 4x400 women's relay race. She was selected "Female Athlete of the Year" by the Associated Press. She had overcome the effects of polio as a child. Name her.  256
  • 269. This African American won the under-15 age division of the National Junior Tennis Championships in 1960 and 1961. He also guided the American team to the Davis Cup championship. He was one of the most liked professional tennis champions. This great athlete died of AIDS acquired through a blood transfusion. Who was he?  257
  • 270. A group of young people, Black and White, traveled by bus throughout the South in 1961 to draw attention to segregated bus terminals. Their action helped influence the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to rule that segregation in interstate travel facilities was illegal. What was this group called?  258
  • 271. This African American basketball star played for the Philadelphia Warriors and still holds the record of 100 points scored in a single National Basketball Association game. Name this athlete.  259
  • 272. These two individuals directed the 1963 March on Washington that called for civil rights for African Americans. In August 1963, more than 300,000 people marched on Washington, D.C. in protest for jobs and freedom. Name them.  260
  • 273. In 1963, Sidney Poitier won an Academy Award (an "Oscar") for his role as a traveling laborer who befriends a group of immigrant nuns and helps them build a chapel. He was the first African American male to win an Oscar for Best Actor. Name this movie.  261
  • 274. At grave #36-1431 in Arlington National Cemetery, lie the remains of a relentless civil rights fighter. He was the first Mississippi field secretary of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People from 1954 to 1963 when he was shot in the back by a segregationist. This pioneer civil rights leader, always under threats on his life, worked tirelessly to change the racial relations in Mississippi and paved the way for leaders such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and others. Name him.  262
  • 275. He received the Nobel Peace Prize on December 10, 1964, thus becoming the second Black person to receive this prestigious award. At the age of 35 years of age, he was the youngest man in history to receive the award. Name him.  263
  • 276. This African American was considered the "dean" of African American journalists. He was the first African American reporter in the mainstream press. In 1964, he was chosen to head the U.S. Information Service. He had served in a number of other positions for several presidents, including Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs and U.S. ambassador to Finland. He was one of the highest-ranking Black appointees in President Lyndon Johnson's administration. He died in 2000. Name him.  #264
  • 277. On Sunday, March 7, 1965, civil rights leaders Hosea Williams and John Lewis, together with more than 500 followers, began a 50-mile march from the city of Selma to the state capital. The purpose of the march was to protest the denial of voting rights, gain national support for their cause, and force the federal government into action. In what state did this occur and what is the name of the state capital?  #265
  • 278. This African American woman was a successful lawyer for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In 1966 President Lyndon Johnson appointed her as a federal judge to the U.S. District Court for Southern New York State. She was the first African American woman to be named a federal judge. Name her.  #266
  • 279. This African American won baseball’s "Triple Crown" in 1966. He finished first in homeruns (49), first in RBI’s (122), and first in batting average (316). Name him.  #267
  • 280. In 1966, he became the first Black to command a U. S. Navy ship in 1966. He became the first Black admiral in the U.S. Navy in 1971. Name him.  #268
  • 281. This African American created the festival of Kwanza. It is celebrated annually between Christmas and New Year’s Day to restore and reaffirm African heritage and culture. Name the creator.  #269
  • 282. Carl Stokes and Richard Hatcher became the first Black mayors of major American cities in 1967. Name the city each governed.  #270
  • 283. In 1967, this African American became the first Black woman elected to the U.S. Congress. She represented New York's 12th District. During her terms in Congress, she was a champion for children, women, and low-income people. In 1972, she campaigned for the Democratic Party presidential nomination, thus becoming the first Black woman to seek the nation’s highest political office. Name her.  #271
  • 284. This African American was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court by President Lyndon B. Johnson. He was confirmed by the U.S. Senate in a 69-11 vote , thus becoming the first Black Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1967. Name him.  #272
  • 285. This African American photographer for Ebony magazine won the Pulitzer Prize for his dramatic and emotional photographs of Coretta Scott King at her husband’s funeral. Name the photographer. Katherine Dunham Evelyn Ashford Marcella A. Hayes Moneta Sleet, Jr.  #273
  • 286. This company, the largest maker of African American hair-care products, was incorporated in 1969. In two years, 1971, it became the first Black-owned business to be listed and traded on the American Stock Exchange. Name the company.  #274
  • 287. This Black politician from Georgia is known for many accomplishments. He worked with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in the civil rights movement, was a Representative in the U.S. Congress, and was appointed by President Jimmy Carter to be U.S. Representative to the United Nations. He later served as mayor of Atlanta, Georgia. Who is he?  #275
  • 288. In 1973, this outfielder of the Atlanta Braves' baseball team, hit home run number 715, breaking Babe Ruth's record. He started his professional baseball career with the Indianapolis Clowns of the Negro Baseball League. He retired from baseball in 1976 with 755 total home runs. He set a National League record with 2,297 RBIs. Name him.  #276
  • 289. Thomas Bradley, a native of Texas, became this city's first Black elected official in 1963, and its first Black mayor in 1973. He spent 21 years as a member of the Los Angeles Police Department, a decade as a city councilman, and another two decades as the mayor of the city before he retired. Name the city he served.  #277
  • 290. In August 1975, he became the first African American to become a four-star general in U.S. military history. He assumed the command of the North American Air Defense (NORAD). This U.S. Air Force pilot had his flight training at Tuskegee. During his career, he flew 101 combat missions in Korea and 78 in Vietnam. He was the recipient of both the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Distinguished Service Medal. He retired from the Air Force on February 1, 1978. Name him.  #278
  • 291. This African American received the National Book Award in 1976 and a special Pulitzer Prize the same year for making an important contribution to the literature of slavery. ABC-TV produced a twelve-hour series based on the book and set records for the number of viewers. He received the NAACP’s Spingarn Medal for his extensive research. Name this person and his famous book.  #279
  • 292. In 1979, this second lieutenant in the U.S. Army received her aviator wings and became the first Black woman pilot in U.S. armed forces history. Name her.  #280
  • 293. In 1979, this highly acclaimed dancer, teacher, choreographer, anthropologist, and humanitarian received the prestigious Albert Schweitzer Music Award for her extensive contributions. She was not only an internationally known choreographer and teacher of dance, but also an accomplished anthropologist who introduced and popularized Afro-Caribbean dance throughout the world. She was frequently called the ―Mother of African American and Afro-Caribbean Dance‖. Name her.  #281
  • 294. In 1979 she became the first African American female to hold a Presidential Cabinet post. Jimmy Carter named her Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and later Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. She previously had been the first African American woman to serve as a U.S. Ambassador. Name her.  #282
  • 295. In 1979, this nurse was the first Black woman to achieve the rank of general in the U.S. military. She had entered the Army Nurse Corps in 1955. In 1980, she became the Chief of the Army Nurse Corps. Name her.  #283
  • 296. This African American pilot served in Vietnam, flying 144 combat missions. After Vietnam, he became the first African American astronaut in space when he flew aboard the space shuttle, Challenger. Name him. Guion S. Bluford, Jr. Eddie Robinson August Wilson Gordan Parks  #284
  • 297. In 1987, this African American businessman surprised major investors by buying Beatrice International for $1 billion. The company topped Black Enterprise magazine’s list of African American-owned businesses each year. In 1993, he died, leaving America’s largest minority-owned business to his wife. Name the African American who bought this business and his wife who ran the business after he died.  #285
  • 298. In 1983 and in 1987, these two African American women won the Pulitzer Prize for their novels, The Color Purple and Beloved, respectively. Name the authors.  #286
  • 299. In 1988, this African American was promoted to the rank of four-star general of the U.S. Army. He was selected the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and served as National Security Advisor to President George Bush. He led a national volunteer organization, America's Promise, before becoming Secretary of State for President George W. Bush. Who is he?  #287
  • 300. Name the famous African American who spoke these words during his address to the Democratic National Convention on July 19, 1988: "Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. lies only a few miles from us tonight. Tonight he must feel good as he looks down upon us. We sit here together, a rainbow, a coalition--the sons and daughters of slave masters and the sons and daughters of slaves, sitting together around a common table, to decide the direction of our party and our country. His heart would be full tonight."  #288
  • 301. In 1988, this African American was one of 12 recipients of the National Medal of Arts, awarded by President Reagan. He was an outstanding photojournalist for Life magazine in the 1950s and 1960s. In 1972, he received the prestigious Spingarn Medal. In the 1970s, he moved to Hollywood and produced several films, including Shaft and Super Cops. In 1977, he and three other African Americans purchased Essence, the magazine for African American women. He is also the author of several books, including The Learning Tree (1966) that was made into a movie that he directed and wrote the music, and Born Black (1971). Name him.  #289
  • 302. In 1989, Maya Lin was hired by the Southern Poverty Law Center to design the Civil Rights Monument. A nine-foot vertical wall is constantly washed by water. A quotation of Martin Luther King, Jr. "until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream" was etched on the wall. Another wall includes 53 names that capture the civil rights struggle. Where is the Civil Rights Memorial located?  #290
  • 303. In 1989, Lawrence Douglas Wilder became the first Black person elected governor of a state in this country. He graduated from Howard University Law School and served bravely in the Korean War. He was also the first African American elected to this state's Senate since Reconstruction. Name this state.  #291
  • 304. In 1991, this famous African American playwright won the Pulitzer Prize for drama for his play, The Piano Lesson. At 44 years of age, he joined an exclusive group of playwrights who have won two Pulitzer prizes. He won his first in 1987 for his play Fences. Who is this famous playwright?  #292
  • 305. In 1980, the first and only Black-owned cable satellite television network began operation. It was started by Robert L. Johnson after he secured a personal loan of $15,000. In 1991, it became the first Black- owned company to be traded on the New York Stock Exchange. Name this television network.  #293
  • 306. This woman track star participated in four Olympic Games, 1976, 1984, 1988, and 1992. She won four gold medals and one silver medal. She won her last medal in 1992 as a member of the women's 4x100- meter relay. She was 35 years old at the time. She received the Flo Hyman Award from the Women's Sports Foundation. Name her.  #294
  • 307. This African American comedienne and actress was a hit at the box office when she opened a one-woman show on Broadway in 1984. She has won numerous awards including a Grammy and a Golden Globe. She was nominated for an Academy Award for her role in The Color Purple. In 1991, she won an Academy Award for her role as Oda Mae Brown in the film, Ghost. Name her.  #295
  • 308. Toni Morrison is one of the most gifted writers in this country today. In 1977, she was awarded the National Critics Circle Award for Song of Solomon. In 1993, she was presented the most prestigious award of all. What award did she receive?  #296
  • 309. This female singer was crowned "Queen of Soul" in 1967 when five of her singles for Atlanta Records sold over a million copies each. She recorded her first song, a gospel at age 14. She later branched out into rhythm and blues. In the 1960s and 1970, she won 10 Grammy Awards. She was the first woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and in 1994, she was awarded the Grammy for Lifetime Achievement. Name her.  #297
  • 310. This African American began acting in school plays. After four years in the Air Force, he took acting classes. He became known in 1967 when he co-starred with Pearl Bailey in an all-black version of Hello Dolly! He became a regular on the children’s program The Electric Company and earned a Tony award and three Obie awards for his Broadway performances, including his portrayal of Hoke in the play Driving Miss Daisy. In the movie version, he won a Golden Globe award. He also starred in Glory and earned an Oscar nomination. In 1995, he was nominated again for an Academy Award for his role in the Shawshank Redemption. Name this actor.  #298
  • 311. Four African American tennis players have won the singles titles of the two major grand slam tennis competitions--the U.S. Open and Wimbledon. Name them.  #299
  • 312. Over the years, eight African Americans have won an Oscar for best actor or actress or for best supporting actor or actress. Name these successful actors and actresses and the movies or films in which they starred.  #300
  • 313. This African American golfer has won all four grand slam golf titles, the Masters, the U.S. Open, the British Open and the PGA Championship. He is the youngest golfer to accomplish this extraordinary feat and joins only four other golfers in having won all four titles. Name this golfer.  #301
  • 314. This African American writer's auto-biography is I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. She has also written poetry and scripts for films and acted in the movie Roots. She read one of her poems, "On the Pulse of Morning" at the inauguration of Bill Clinton as President of the United States. Name her.  #302
  • 315. In 1998, this African American track and field sprinter died of heart problems. She participated in the 1984 and 1988 Olympics where she ran in the 100- and 200-meter races. In all, she won five medals in these Games, three gold and two silver. Name her.  #303
  • 316. This college football coach retired from Grambling State University after coaching there for 57 years. When he started at Grambling in 1941 (then called Louisiana Negro Normal and Industrial Institute) he was also the basketball and baseball coach. He retired with 480 victories and is often credited with the establishment of Black football around the country. He sent more than 200 of his players to the National Football League and four have been elected to the Football Hall of Fame. Name this football coach.  #304
  • 317. She has been called "the greatest female athlete of all time" winning back to back gold medals in the grueling heptathlon in the 1988 and 1992 Olympics. Born in East St. Louis, Illinois, she no longer competes but works as a motivational speaker and heads her own foundation that is dedicated to helping disadvantaged youth. Name this athlete.  #305
  • 318. This African American is considered the wealthiest female entertainer in the world. Her television show has won more than 30 Emmy awards and she earned an Academy Award nomination for her role in the film, The Color Purple. She owns her own production company, Harpo Productions, which produces TV specials, movies, and videos. She gives generously to educational causes. Name her.  #306
  • 319. This Black pediatric neurosurgeon has achieved international acclaim. Working at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, he has performed hundreds of delicate operations on children including the separation of Siamese twins. He is a graduate of Yale University and University of Michigan Medical School. He has written two books, his autobiography Gifted Hands and Think Big a book about making the most of your potential. Name him.  #307
  • 320. According to the U.S. 2000 Census, only three states have an African American population 30% or more of their state population. Name them.  #308
  • 321. This African American was nominated by President Bill Clinton, and later by President George W. Bush, to be a judge in the U.S. 4th Circuit Court. This district is comprised of Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and West Virginia and represents a higher percentage of minorities than any other in the nation. He was confirmed by the U.S. Senate to a lifetime appointment, 93-1. He became the first African American to serve on the Fourth U.S. Circuit Court. Name him.  #309
  • 322. Two African American tennis players, Venus and Serena Williams, made history on Saturday, September 8, 2001 when they played against each other at this famous Grand Slam event at Arthur Ashe Stadium. They became the first sisters to compete against each other at this event. A year later it occurred again. Name the Grand Slam event. The Masters Tournament U.S. Open Stanley Cup Wimbledon The World Series  #310
  • 323. A monument to African American history is located on the grounds of a state capital. Dedicated on March 29, 2001, it traces the African American experience from the Middle Passage to the fight for freedom in the Civil War, the struggle for civil rights and emergence into main stream America. Twelve scenes show images of the African American experience, and at the base of the monument’s obelisk are four rubbing stones from regions of Africa where slaves were captured--Senegal, Sierra Leone, the Republic of Congo, and Ghana. Name the state where this monument is found.  #311
  • 324. This African American grew up in a public housing project in Baltimore’s Cherry Hill neighborhood and went on to become a clergyman and U.S. Navy Rear Admiral. He later became chief of the Navy’s Chaplain Corps. He retired from the U.S.military after 27 years to take a new position. On June 17, 2003, he became the first African American chaplain of the U.S. Senate. Name him.  #312
  • 325. The nephew of heart surgeon and blood-bank founder Charles Drew graduated from Anacostia High School in Washington, D.C., attended the United States Air Force Academy, and was the only Black member of the Academy’s class of 1964. After serving 30 years in the U.S. Air Force, he was selected in 1978 to become an astronaut for NASA. After Guion S. Bluford, Jr. who flew aboard Challenger and Discovery, and Ronald McNair, who died in the Challenger disaster, he became the third black man to be sent into space, but the first to command a space shuttle. Today (2003), he is NASA’s second-in-command. Name him.  #313
  • 326. Today, these prized sweet grass baskets represent one of the few African arts that still exists in the United States. The art of making these baskets came to this country over 300 years ago with slaves from West African rice plantations. Families of the only group of African Americans that can trace their ancestors to the villages of Sierra Leone, pass the tradition of weaving from one generation to another. What specific group of people make these baskets and where are they produced today?  #314
  • 327. The U.S. House of Representatives voted overwhelmingly in 2003 to establish a national museum of black history and culture in Washington, D.C. John Lewis, the Georgia Congressman and former civil rights leader had introduced the legislation in each Congress since 1988 to create the museum. For a number of reasons, the legislation had previously failed in both the House and/or Senate. Lewis, a Democrat, noted ―the African American story must be told, and a national African American museum in Washington, D.C. is critical to that story. The proposed African American museum will be part of what?  #315
  • 328. Official portraits of U.S. Presidents hang in the White House. In 2004, the portraits of President William Clinton and First Lady, Hillary Clinton were unveiled. This African American artist of Silver Spring, Maryland painted both portraits and is the first African American to paint an official presidential portrait. The son of sharecroppers, this artist has also painted the official portrait of Supreme Court Justice, Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Name this artist.  #316