Words of Wisdom
In his response to no mention of
African enslavement in the Phillis Wheatley
Declaration of Independence, who
wrote: "I tremble for my country
when I reflect that God is just; that
his justice cannot sleep forever"?
"No more American in mournful strain/Of
wrongs, and grievance unredress‟d
complain,/No longer shall thou dread the iron
chain,/Which wanton Tyranny with lawless John Adams
hand/Has made, and which it meant t‟enslave
the land" Many poems written by this poet
described the continent of Africa and slavery.
This 18th-century British religious leader founded Thomas Jefferson
the Methodist church. In 1774, he published a
book called Thoughts Upon Slavery, … “Here are
several mistakes. For 1. Wealth is not necessary to
the Glory of any Nation; but Wisdom, Virtue,
Justice, Mercy, Generosity, Public Spirit ... the
tears, and sweat, and blood of our fellow- John Wesley
"There is nothing which contributes
more to the development of the
colonies and the cultivation of their
soil than the laborious toil of the
A Quaker minister became a major abolitionist
before the American Revolution with his
publication, Some Consideration on the Keeping
of Negroes…. The author noted, "Where
slavekeeping prevails, pure religion and sobriety King Louis XIV of France
declines, as it evidently tends to harden the heart
and render the soul less susceptible of that holy
spirit of life..."
A distinguished Philadelphia physician and
chemistry professor published An Address to the
Inhabitants of the British Settlements in America,
Upon Slavekeeping. He charged that any "vices
which are charged upon the Negroes in the
southern colonies and West Indies. . .are the
genuine offspring of slavery." Thomas Jefferson
By a ruling in this case, the Massachusetts Supreme
Court abolished slavery in 1783…the court‟s Commonwealth vs. Jennison
opinion stated "the idea of slavery is inconsistent
with our own conduct and Constitution, and there
can be no such thing as perpetual servitude of a
rational creature, unless his liberty is forfeited…”
Name the case
Marquis de Lafayette
In 1786, in a letter to John Adams,
what hero of the American Revolution
said, "I would never have drawn my
sword in this cause of America, could Dred Scott vs. Sanford
I have conceived that thereby I was
founding a land of Slavery."
At the Constitutional Convention in George Mason
Philadelphia in 1787, in response to the adoption of
Article 10, Section 9, which extended the slave trade
for twenty years, this person argued, “As much as I
value a union of all the States, I would not admit the
Southern States into the Union, unless they agree to
the discontinuance of this disgraceful trade, because William Lloyd Garrison
it brings weakness, and not strength, to the Union.”
“I was soon put down under the decks, and
there I received such a saluation in my Mary Prince
nostrils as I had never experienced in my
life: so that with the loathsomeness of the
stench and crying together, I became so sick
and low … I now wished for the last friend,
death, to relieve me. . .”
“All slaves want to be free--to be free is
very sweet... I have been a slave myself -
I know what slaves feel... The man that
says slaves be quite happy about slavery - The North Star
that they don‟t want to be free - that man
is either ignorant or a lying person...”
"I am earnest--I will not The Liberator
Ed: William Lloyd Garrison
equivocate--I will not excuse--I will
not retreat an inch--AND I WILL
BE HEARD.“ Name the
Newspaper. Francis Ellen Watkins Harper
Name the abolitionist who said, "Men do
not go into slavery naturally--they don‟t go Sojourner Truth
into slavery at the bidding of their
fellowmen--they don‟t bow down their
necks to the yoke merely by being entreated
to do so...NO! Something else is
"Right is of no Sex--Truth is of no
Color--God is the Father of us
Ida B. Wells-Barnett
all, and we are all Brethren."
Name the newspaper.
"Look at me! Look at my arms!" and Freedom’s Journal
she held up her muscular right arm.
"I could work as much and eat as
much as a man--when I could get it--
and bear the lash as well! And ain‟t I The North Star
"The sale began--young girls were there,
Defenseless in their wretchedness,
Whole stifled sobs of deep despair
Revealed their anguish and distress…”
Who wrote these words in The Slave Auction?
In the famous Dred Scott v. Sanford
case, … "slaveholders had the right to
10th Amendment of the United
take human merchandise to any part of
the union, and that this Black man had States Constitution
no right to even bring suit."
"Neither slavery nor involuntary Francis Ellen Watkins Harper
servitude, except as a punishment for
crimes whereof the party shall have
been duly convicted, shall exist within
the United States, or any place subject 13th Amendment of the United
to their jurisdiction.”
"In every state many thousands [ex-
slaves] were found without employment, Oliver O. Howard
without homes, without means of
subsistence, crowding into towns and
about military posts, where they hoped to
find protection and supplies. …”
George Moses Horton
"This place is nothing but a strife,
Distressing all the peace of life,
We nothing have to show;
Let others scorn me or degrade John Mercer Langston
I’ll take my hatchet and my spade
Come, all, and let us go!"
"If there is no struggle there is no progress
... This struggle may be a moral one, or it
may be a physical one, and it may be both
moral and physical, but it must be a
struggle. Power concedes nothing without
demand. It never did and it never will." Booker T. Washington
“The American people and the Government 14th Amendment Amendment of
at Washington may refuse to recognize it the United States Constitution
for a time, but the „inexorable logic of
events‟ will force it upon them in the end;
that the war now being waged in this land is
a war for and against slavery…”
"All persons born or naturalized in the
United States, ... are citizens of the United
States and of the state wherein they reside. 13th Amendment of the United
No state shall make or enforce any law
which shall abridge the privileges or States Constitution
immunities of citizens of the United States;
“Why, sir, though we are not white, we have Henry McNeal Turner
accomplished much. We have pioneered
civilization here; we have built up your
country; we have worked in your fields, …
And what do we ask of you in return? ... We
are willing to let the dead past bury its dead; John Mercer Langston
but we ask you now for our RIGHTS…”
“All over the South and among the coloured
people of the North, workmen in Henry McNeal Turner
gold, silver, brass, iron, wood, brick, mortar, and
the arts, are found doing skillfully and at usual
wages the most difficult tasks... perhaps the most
accomplished gunsmith among the Americans is a
black man, an ex-slave...
“This is not time to fight only with your
white hand, and allow your black hand to
remain tied; Men in earnest don‟t fight with
one hand, when they might fight with two, John Mercer Langston
and a man drowning would not refuse to be
saved even by a colored man.”
“… we have rights as well as privileges Frederick Douglas
to maintain and we must assert our
manhood in their vindication... With this
force as a political element, as laborers,
producers and consumers, we are an Booker T. Washington
element of strength and wealth…
"We wear the mask /that grins and lies
It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes. Paul Lawrence Dunbar
This debt we pay / to human guile
with torn and bleeding hearts, / we smile,
and mouths with myriad subtleties."
Booker T. Washington
"The wisest among my race understand that
the agitation of questions of social equality
is the extremist folly, and that progress in the
enjoyment of all privileges that will come to John Mercer Langston
us must be the result of severe and constant
struggle rather than of artificial forcing."
"The difference between us is very Frederick Douglas
marked. Most that I have done and Said to Harriet Tubman
suffered in the service of our cause has
been in public, … You, on the other hand,
have labored in a private way. I have Henry McNeal Turner
wrought in the day--you in the night. ... "
"I can‟t offer you money, position or fame.
The first two you have; the last, from the place Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
you now occupy, you will not doubt achieve.
These things I now ask you to give up, I offer
you in their place work-- hard, hard work--the
task of bringing a people from degradation,
poverty, and waste to full manhood."
Booker T. Washington
Said to George Washington Carver
"Industrial education for the Negro is
Booker T. Washington‟s hobby. The
Negro knows that now, as then, the Frederick Douglas
South is strongly opposed to his learning
anything else but how to work."
George Moses Horton
“Five score years ago, a great American, in
whose symbolic shadow we stand, signed the
Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous
decree came as a great beacon light of hope to
millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in
the flame of withering injustice...." Ida B. Wells-Barnett
What is the word used to describe the "great scattering" of
African people from their communities in Africa to other parts
of the world?
The continent of Africa is bounded by the Mediterranean
Sea to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the
Indian Ocean & Red Sea to the east. A narrow strip of land
in its northeast corner connects it to the Arabian Peninsula
& beyond that to Asia & Europe. How does Africa rank in
relation to other Continents in size?
There is evidence that Africans came to the Americas as
early as the 8th century. Sculptures reflecting African
influence are found in several towns in Mexico. Name the
civilization or culture in Mexico that reflects African influence.
In West Africa three great empires emerged
between A.D. 500 and 1600. Each had a
powerful army and controlled great wealth.
Name these powerful African empires.
Name the religion practiced by most
residents of Songhai during the period
between A.D. 500 and 1600.
What major river valley contributed to the
growth of three ancient African empires –
Ghana, Mali, and Songhai?
What great city in Songhai had a population
of more than 100,000 residents and grew as
a business, religious, and intellectual
In 1502, what was country was the first to
bring a cargo of enslaved Africans into
the Western Hemisphere?
Estevanico, a famous black explorer and guide,
explored territory that became these two states.
The history of African Americans, in what was to
become the United States, began when a Dutch
Ship anchored off of what settlement in 1619?
Captain Jope is believed to have exchanged his
cargo of Africans for food. How many Africans
In 1634, farmers in the Chesapeake Bay
region imported white and black indentured
servants and later, enslaved Africans to
profitably grow this crop. Name this crop.
In 1638, the first enslaved Africa ns
arrived in New England along with a
cargo of salt, cotton, and tobacco,
aboard a ship called what?
In 1641, what colony became the first to
recognize slavery as a legal institution?
In 1642, Virginia passed a law to stop
people from helping runaway enslaved
Africans. Individuals could be fined for each
night he or she sheltered a runaway. What
fine was imposed?
In 1644, eleven blacks who were among the founders of
this settlement in the Hudson River valley, asked for their
freedom because they had served their years of
servitude. This probably was the first organized protest
by blacks in America. Each received land in what is now
Greenwich Village in New York City. In what colony did
these events occur?
Enslaved Africans delivered to the West
Indies were likely to work on a plantation
that grew what?
During the early years of the slave trade, most
slaves who survived the voyage from Africa to the
West Indies were trained there to work and obey
masters. This process could last 3-4 years. It
ended when the southern colonies needed so
many workers that planters imported enslaved
Africans directly. What was the training period
In what year did Maryland pass a law that
recognized slavery as legal?
To maintain a slave trading monopoly
and a constant supply of enslaved
African labor, the British government
gave a charter to what company?
On February 18, 1688, what group adopted
the first formal anti-slavery resolution in
What did the call slavery?
One of the earliest "triangular trade routes"
brought enslaved Africans from Africa to the
West Indies. What product was frequently
shipped from the West Indies to the North
In the 1700s, plantation owners believed
slaves were necessary to produce
successfully many different crops. Which
crops were most dependent on enslaved
In the 1700s, this city in England was called
―Queen of English slave trading‖ because
it supplied almost half of the ships used in
the Atlantic slave trade. Name the city.
What is the name of the two month-journey
for enslaved Africans from Africa to the West
Indies? During this journey, they were
In the 1700s, rice agriculture in the colonies was
found in the ―low country‖ where enslaved Africans
were heavily concentrated. Rice accounted for 60
percent of all exports of this region. Just before the
American Revolution, two colonies exported more
than 69 million pounds of rice each year. Name the
In the 1700s, another important crop grown
in South Carolina was used as a blue dye
for cloth. This crop grew best on high ground
and required about 25 slaves for a 50-acre
plot. Fifty pounds per acre was considered a
good crop, with 70 pounds per acre possible
in better soils. Name this crop.
In the period from 1680 to 1750, about
how many enslaved Africans coming
directly from Africa to the American
mainland were carried on each English
Although only a few black people lived in New
England in 1700, this large city became important
for slave trading. Ships with food and other
products sailed to the West Indies where the
goods were traded for rum. The rum then was
transported to Africa to buy enslaved Africans who
were brought back to the West Indies. The ships
then returned home with sugar and molasses.
Name the city that was called the ―hub of America
Early schools for African Americans were
founded and staffed by white abolitionists. In
1704 the first school for enslaved Africans in
British North America was founded by a
white abolitionist in New York at Trinity
Church. Name him.
This important port city was founded by the French
in 1718 and later was transferred to the United
States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. By 1820,
blacks (both free and enslaved) were about half of
its population, and its exports were the second
largest in the country. In the late 1830s and early
1840s, the city's exports were greater than those
of New York. What was this important city and
what was the major product
exported through its port?
In 1720, molasses from the West Indies was
transported to colonial ports where it was
made into rum and shipped to Africa in
exchange for enslaved Africans. What city in
Rhode Island had more than 22 factories
making rum to be shipped to Africa?
This colony was established as a barrier between
the British in the Carolinas and the Spanish in
Florida. This colony’s proprietors initially believed
slavery was unsound & unprofitable, and they
restricted the importation of enslaved Africans.
Benjamin Banneker was known as a
scientist, astronomer, and surveyor, but he,
too, was an inventor. What was his major
invention that was probably the first of its
kind to be built in the United States?
In 1773, Jean Baptiste Pointe Du Sable, a black man from
Haiti, was the first merchant and the first settler in this area.
He set up permanent residence and a fur trading business
along a river near Lake Michigan. Name the city founded at
This black woman from Senegal was sold to a tailor in
Boston, Massachusetts. She learned to read and write, and
before she was 20 years old, she had achieved some fame
as a poet. She gained her freedom in 1772, made a trip to
London to read her poems, and in 1773, became the first
African American to publish a book of poetry. Her book was
entitled Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral.
Who was she?
Between 1770 and 1775, 4,000 enslaved Africans per year
arrived in Charleston, South Carolina. All were held for
several weeks on Sullivan’s Island, a quarantine station
designed to prevent the spread of epidemics from
overseas. So many enslaved people arrived here that
Sullivan Island became known as what?
The first abolitionist society was founded in
this American city in 1775. It worked to
abolish slavery in the colony and to protect
free Blacks from being sold into slavery.
Name the city where the society was
By the time of the American
Revolution, what colony had more black
slaves than white people?
This African American patriot fought at the Battle
of Bunker Hill in 1775. He petitioned the
Massachusetts legislature to help him and others
return to Africa. This is considered the first
recorded attempt by blacks to return home. He
was also the first African American to join a
Masonic order. He later established his own order
that has a membership of over 250,000 today.
What important document originally had a
section that denounced slavery, but was
deleted before the document was adopted in
Several colonies took steps to abolish slavery
between 1777 and 1784. This colony prohibited
slavery in the constitution it adopted in 1777.
In 1781, this Black soldier in the Continental
Army became one of the most notable spies
of the American Revolution. He gathered
information that helped Marquis de Lafayette
defeat the British at Yorktown, Virginia on
October 19, 1781. Name the Black spy.
In 1783 this wealthy free Black merchant
and other free Blacks of Dartmouth,
Massachusetts protested to the state
legislature that they were being taxed
without representation. The courts decided
that Black men who paid taxes in
Massachusetts could vote there. Name this
merchant and leader.
This former enslaved black person from Delaware was a
wagon driver in the American Revolution and began
preaching in the Methodist Church in 1786. He served St.
George’s Methodist Episcopal Church (a white church) in
Philadelphia as an occasional minister to blacks. Once
while praying he was pulled from his knees by a white
usher for being in an area of the church reserved for
whites. He and other blacks left the church and in 1794
established the Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church
in Philadelphia – the first church organized and directed by
blacks in the United States. Name him.
In 1787, this act passed by Congress
determined the number of representatives
from I each state. Enslaved blacks had no
voice in government but their numbers
counted for each state's seats in the House
of Representatives. What act made this
Congress passed the Ordinance of 1787 that barred slavery
in the Northwest Territory. Neither slavery nor involuntary
servitude was permitted in the region northwest of the Ohio
River except as punishment for a crime. Name the states
that were eventually formed out of this territory.
In 1790, the legislatures of North Carolina and
Virginia approved digging a canal from Albermarle
Sound to ports in Virginia. Digging the canal began
in 1793 with hired slave labor. The canal helped to
open the vast timber resources of the region. It
was an important transportation route until the
railroads were built in 1840. Name the canal.
This Black American played a major role in
surveying the land for the design of the
District of Columbia after the original planner
grew tired of criticism of his plan and
returned to France. This surveyor, appointed
to the commission on the recommendation
of Thomas Jefferson, reconstructed the
entire plan from memory. Name the
In 1791, this Black person led a successful revolt
of enslaved Africans against the French in Haiti.
The overthrow of this French colony produced fear
in the U.S. Congress that a revolt was about to
occur in the United States. The legislators passed
stronger laws to control enslaved Black people.
Haiti would become the first independent country
in the Americas ruled by Blacks. Name the leader
of this revolt in Haiti.
The first Black Catholic sisterhood was
founded in 1792 in Baltimore,
Maryland. Name the founder.
With the cotton gin, invented in 1793, a man could deseed
and clean cotton more efficiently. Using a horse to turn this
machine, it could clean about fifty times as much cotton as
before. It quickly made cotton the leading crop in the South
and the chief export for the region. Who invented the Cotton
George Washington Carver
In 1793, Congress passed an act making it a
crime to harbor an escaped enslaved
African or to interfere with his capture or
arrest. Name this act.
What African American is believed to be the
first of his race to be recognized as a
professional portrait painter? He advertised
in the Intelligencer, calling himself a "self
taught genius." He painted portraits of some
of the most influential white families in
Maryland and Virginia.
In 1800, what percent of the U.S.
population was made up of black people?
Roughly 5 percent
Roughly 12 percent
Roughly 19 percent
In the 19th century, the Dismal Swamp, on the border
between Virginia and North Carolina, offered a safe place
for enslaved African runaways. Here they built homes,
grew crops, raised animals and sold wood shingles and
logs to free blacks. Visitors said it was one of the most
difficult places where people could live. The swamp
provided the runaways with almost everything they needed,
but when they needed other essentials, some raided
nearby towns or stole from boats anchored along the canal.
What were these colonies of runaways called?
This enslaved African served as major scout, interpreter,
and emissary with Lewis and Clark’s expedition throughout
the West because he was familiar with Native Americans.
[In 1805, Lewis and Clark see the Pacific Ocean for the first time standing at
the mouth of the Columbia River in the "Oregon Country," thus proving that
America is a vast country stretched between two oceans. The expedition was
authorized by President Thomas Jefferson as a fact-finding mission about the
land purchased from France in 1803, the "Louisiana Purchase". The expedition
set out from St. Louis, Missouri on May 13, 1804. An enslaved African provided
important services during the mission, serving as major scout, interpreter, and
emissary with Native Americans. Name him.]
January 1, 1808 is an important date in
the African American experience. What
legal action took place?
Most Africans who were enslaved and taken
to the Western Hemisphere came from the
coast of West Africa. What places on this
coast were the largest suppliers of enslaved
During Colonial times and several decades afterwards,
many enslaved Africans fled to places where they often
lived with Native Americans, such as with the
Seminole. In what state did escaped Africans and
Seminoles live together?
Although the Secretary of War had
stated "No Negro, mulatto or Indian is
to be enlisted," when war started again
in 1812, Blacks did serve in one military
branch. Name it.
Commodore Oliver H. Perry of the U.S.
Navy, who had earlier criticized the
effectiveness of black sailors, changed his
view when he won a decisive victory using
black sailors on September 12, 1813 in this
important battle in the War of 1812. Name
This Black American invented a device
for handling sails and later owned a
sailmaking factory in Philadelphia. As
one of the richest men in the city, he
supported many abolitionist causes.
Today, this seaport is one of the largest
in the South. Prior to the Civil War it
was known for its auctions of enslaved
Africans. Enslaved Black people sold
here were often used on the cotton
plantations along the Mississippi River.
What is this seaport?
In 1816, Robert Finley, a Presbyterian clergyman, founded a
society in Washington DC to resettle free American blacks on
the west coast of Africa. Many prominent Americans were
sponsors, including John C. Calhoun of South Carolina and
Henry Clay of Kentucky. Name the Society.
Born in 1817 as a slave in
Tuckahoe, Maryland, this African American worked
on the docks of Baltimore and escaped from
slavery by disguising himself as a sailor. He fled to
freedom and lived in New Bedford, Massachusetts.
In 1820, the largest number of enslaved
black people (425,153) lived in this state. It
had more than one-and-a-half times as
many enslaved black people as the second
largest concentration (258,475). Name the
Which state ranked second?
In 1821, Thomas Jennings became the first
known black person to receive a patent for
an invention. Money from his patent and
business in New York City was used to
support the abolitionist movement. What
was his invention?
This Quaker merchant moved to Wilmington, Delaware in
1822. He was a ―conductor‖ who helped more than 2,700
runaway slaves escape on the Underground Railroad. He
gave them a pair of shoes for their journey. He was
convicted and fined by the U.S. District Court for hiding
runaways. Name him.
[He strongly opposed a slavery and joined the Pennsylvania Abolition Society. Delaware was a slave
state, bordering Pennsylvania and New Jersey on one side and Maryland (a slave state) on the other.
This abolitionist became a "conductor" on the Underground Railroad by turning his home in
Wilmington into the last station on the Underground Railroad before enslaved runaways reached
freedom in Pennsylvania. It is estimated that he helped between 2,000 and 2,700 runaway enslaved
blacks escape to freedom. In an effort to stop his successful station, Maryland authorities set a reward
of $10,000 for his arrest. In 1848, however, he was convicted and fined by the U.S. District Court for
hiding runaways. His iron business suffered and forced him into bankruptcy, but with the help of anti-
slavery friends, he re-established his business.]
This African American carpenter purchased his
freedom in 1800 with the winnings from a lottery
ticket. He urged other blacks to demand equality.
In 1822, he plotted to free enslaved black people
in Charleston, S.C. but was betrayed by a co-
conspirator. He was hanged along with many of
his followers. Name the leader of this rebellion.
On March 16, 1827, two African American leaders,
Samuel Cornish & John Russwurm, published the first
black newspaper in this country. What was the name of
This Quaker abolitionist was one of the most
active conductors of the Underground
Railroad. In the small town of Newport (now
called Fountain City), Indiana, he organized
escapes for fleeing enslaved Black people.
He later moved to Cincinnati where he used
his store to help as many as 1,000 enslaved
Black people escape to freedom. Name him.
In Boston in 1829, this free black abolitionist
published a radical antislavery pamphlet, Appeal to
the Colored Citizens of the World. He called for the
use of violence to overthrow slavery. The language
of the pamphlet was so strong that the governor of
Georgia ordered the ship that brought the
pamphlets to the state held in quarantine. The
legislature made it a capital offense to circulate the
pamphlets and offered a $10,000 reward for this
person's capture. Name this abolitionist.
In 1790, less than 700,000 enslaved Black
people lived in the South. Forty years later in
1830, how many Black people lived in this
Just over 900,000
Just over 1 million
Just over 2 million
Just over 4 million
In 1831, this African American woman
along with 16 black and white women
founded the Philadelphia Female Anti-
Slavery Society. She was a leading
abolitionist, community activist, and
generous giver to her causes. She
encouraged her children to devote time
to social causes. Name her.
On January 1, 1831, this abolitionist
published the first issue of his
antislavery newspaper, The Liberator,
in Boston. It quickly became a leading
newspaper for African Americans in
Boston and throughout the East. He
relied heavily on Blacks for support of
his paper. Name the publisher.
On February 22, 1832, a group of black
women organized the first all-black
female antislavery society whose
constitution focused on self
improvement as well as antislavery
activities. Name the city & state where
this society was formed.
This university in Pennsylvania is often
referred to as the oldest black university in
the United States. In 1832, Richard
Humphreys, a Philadelphia Quaker, left
$10,000 in his will to establish a school for
Blacks. It was originally called the Institute
for Colored Youth. Today it has an
enrollment of about 2,000 and is one of the
14 institutions in the Pennsylvania state
system of higher education. Name it.
Prudence Crandall, a White woman, was
arrested in 1833 for teaching Black girls at
her school. A mob set fire to her school and
she was forced to close it. State lawmakers
later realized what they had done was wrong
and gave her a small yearly income. Where
was Prudence Crandall’s school?
This African American was born a free man
in Philadelphia, made a fortune repairing
ships in his dry dock, and gave generously
to antislavery causes. He is credited with
influencing William Lloyd Garrison’s views
against colonization. In 1833, Garrison and
others met in this abolitionist's home to
organize the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Two sisters, daughters of a judge of the
South Carolina Supreme Court, were
outspoken female abolitionists. One
daughter published her Appeal to the
Christian Women of the South; the other
published Epistle to the Clergy of the
Southern States. Their antislavery
publications brought a storm of criticism and
insults. Name the sisters.
Windsor, Sandwich, New
Canaan, Colchester, and St. Catharines are
settlements in Canada that became home for
formerly enslaved black people. More than
40,000 enslaved Africans fled to these
communities and others in Canada before the
Civil War. It is believed that the majority of
slaves who went to Canada crossed this river.
This African American, born free in Norwich,
Connecticut, helped hundreds of enslaved
African Americans escape to freedom via the
Underground Railroad. Frederick Douglass was
among those he assisted. In 1835, he founded
the New York Vigilance Committee, a group of
notable African Americans who worked with
White lawyers who fought in the courts on
behalf of those accused of being fugitive
slaves. In 1838 he published the first Black
magazine, Mirror of Liberty. Name him.
Mutinies frequently occurred aboard ships
transporting enslaved Africans to the Americas.
One famous mutiny occurred in 1839 when Cinque
and his followers seized a ship and sailed it to New
England where they were captured. One of their
trials took place in the Old State House in Hartford,
Connecticut which then was the state capitol.
Later, John Quincy Adams defended them in the
U.S. Supreme Court. The enslaved Africans were
eventually released. Name this famous mutiny.
In 1839, this political party was organized
to become the first anti-slavery political
party. Name it.
In 1842, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that
slave owners might recover fugitive
enslaved blacks from any state, and that the
state could neither help nor hinder the
enslaved person. On the other hand, some
interpreted the decision as a blow to
slaveholders on the basis that state officials
were not authorized to return fugitive slaves
to their owners. Name this case.
This former enslaved person was one of the
most influential African Americans between
1840 and 1870. At the National Convention
of Colored Men in Buffalo, NY, he delivered
―An Address to Slaves of the United States‖
in which he said: ―Rather die freeman than
live to be slaves. Remember that you are
FOUR MILLION! … Let your motto be
resistance! Resistance! RESISTANCE!‖
Name this abolitionist.
In 1843, the U.S. and British
governments agreed in this treaty to
patrol Africa’s West Coast to seize
ships involved in smuggling enslaved
Africans to their territories. Name the
In 1843, an African American engineer and
inventor received a patent for the ―vacuum
evaporation process‖ for refining sugar. This
and his other related inventions cheaply
dehydrated sugar cane into granules, and
thus revolutionized the sugar industry. Name
this inventor, engineer, and scientist.
By 1843, many of the settlers of the
Willamette Valley were southerners.
While they could not change the 1843
provisional constitution that prohibited
slavery, they did add a provision that
expelled all Negroes and mulattoes
from the territory. Name the territory.
One of San Francisco’s most famous citizens of
the 1840s was an African American from the
Virgin Islands. He was the first to launch a
steamboat on San Francisco Bay, built the
city’s first hotel, was a town council member
and treasurer and was an influential citizen in
the development of the city. Some believe he
was the first African American to become a
millionaire in this country, benefiting from land
he owned along the American River, one site of
the 1849 Gold Rush. Who was he?
Fisk University, Berea College, Atlanta
University, Talladega College, Hampton
Institute, Tougaloo College, Tillotson
College, LeMoyne Institute, and Straight
University (now Dillard University) were
colleges/universities organized to train and
educate African Americans. These colleges
and universities were organized by an
association formed in 1846. Name it.
On December 3, 1847, the North Star,
an abolitionist newspaper, quickly
became one of the most widely read
antislavery newspapers in the country.
The publishers addressed slavery,
women’s suffrage, and other subjects.
Name the two publishers of this
William and Ellen Craft met as enslaved persons in
Macon, Georgia. Because they did not want to
bring children into the world to be enslaved, they
planned to escape and flee to the North. In
December 1848, they disguised themselves – he
as an enslaved person and she as a gentleman
and slaveholder – and boarded a train from
Georgia to Philadelphia. Abolitionists in
Philadelphia protected them until they sailed for
England. Later, they wrote a book about their
escape. Name the title of their book.
She made at least 19 trips into the South and
helped an estimated 300 enslaved black people
escape to freedom – including her parents and
several of her brothers and sisters.
She, herself, had escaped from slavery in
Maryland in 1849. Slaveholders had a $40,000
reward for her capture. She was known ―Moses of
her people.‖ She lived for eight years in St.
Catherines in Canada and then moved along with
her parents to a home in Auburn, NY where she
lived until she died at 96 years of age. Name her.
This white lawyer, and later U.S. Senator,
was an outspoken opponent of slavery. He
argued for desegregated schools, saying
that the Massachusetts Constitution
declared all men free, equal, and entitled to
equal protection of the laws. To deprive
blacks of equal education denied them of
these rights. Name this person.
A former enslaved African American,
he organized the Refugee’s Home
Colony in Canada. He bought 1,300
acres of land for the settlement of
escaped African Americans. In his
1849 autobiography, he wrote about
the brutality of slavery. Name him.
This enslaved African was put in a box
made especially for his escape to freedom.
It was nailed shut and shipped from
Richmond, Virginia to the office of an
antislavery committee in Philadelphia. After
30 hours, it arrived and when pried open,
this person stepped out and said, ―How do
you do, gentlemen?‖ Name the person.
This African American arrived in San
Francisco with her husband during the Gold
Rush. She opened a boarding house,
managed estates and made loans. During
the 1850s, she actively helped rescue
blacks being illegally held in rural areas. She
also worked to pass a state law that gave
blacks the right to testify in court and to ride
on San Francisco’s streetcars. Name her.
In 1850, this legendary black pioneer, fur
trader, army scout, and rancher discovered a
pass through the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
The pass, later named for the explorer,
became the main passageway for migrants
moving West. He traveled throughout the
West and became a trusted friend of several
Native American tribes. The Crow Tribe
named him “Bull’s Robe” and made him a
chief. Name this famous pioneer.
By 1850, what portion of the world’s
cotton crop was produced by slave
states in the United States?
The U.S. Congress passed legislation that
admitted California as a free state and organized
New Mexico and Utah territories with no
restrictions on slavery. This legislation also
included a harsh new fugitive law that allowed
southerners to recapture enslaved runaway
blacks even in free states and made it a crime for
anyone to aid a runaway. Name the legislation.
Located in Ohio, this was one of the first two historically
Black colleges and universities founded in the mid-
1800s. It was founded by Daniel Payne. Name this
Ohio State University
On September 18, 1850, President Millard Fillmore
signed a law that many called the ―slaveholder’s
dream‖ – a law which required citizens and federal
officers to become diligent slave catchers. The law
provided the prompt return of enslaved blacks to
―slave owners‖ and denied fugitive enslaved blacks
a trial by jury or the right to testify on their own
behalf. Also, anyone who knowingly blocked a
fugitive’s arrest could be fined as much as $1,000
for each offense. Name the law.
She was born in Delaware, educated in a
Quaker school, and was forced to flee to
Canada to avoid the Fugitive Slave Law of
1850. There, she started the Provincial
Freeman – a weekly newspaper with the
motto: ―Self-reliance is the true road to
independence.‖ She is considered the first
African American woman to publish a
newspaper in North America. Name her.
In 1852, a best-selling book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin,
described the horrible conditions of slavery. The
book, published in the National Era, an anti-slavery
newspaper, helped gain support for the
abolitionists. The author moved to Hartford,
Connecticut in 1864 where she lived until her
death. Today, her home is a museum and has a
significant research library. Who wrote the famous
In 1852, Martin R. Delany, a physician,
abolitionist, and co-founder of the North
Star, called for the establishment of a
―Negro Promised Land‖ in Central or South
America. Later, he tried to set up a Black
state in which Central American country?
This black woman was an unwilling migrant to
California in 1853. She traveled from Mississippi
to California with 300 wagons owned by her
slaveholder. She drove the cattle during the long
trip. Arriving in California, she successfully
petitioned for her freedom and that of other
enslaved blacks traveling with her. She
eventually became wealthy from land she bought
near Los Angeles. Name her.
In 1853, this African American published
Clotelle, or The President’s Daughter, the
first novel by an African American writer. He
was an apprentice printer with Elijah Lovejoy
and an agent of the Western Massachusetts
Anti-Slavery Society. He was a pioneer in
writing about Black history. He later
published other works, including The
Escape, the first play written by an African
American. Name him.
This gifted poet, writer, and orator of the
antislavery movement was called the
"Bronze Muse." Growing up in
Baltimore, Maryland she devoted her life to
ending the enslavement and oppression of
Africans. Some of her works, especially her
only novel, Iola Leroy, have been
rediscovered. Name this African American
On January 1, 1854, the first black college in
the United States was chartered. It was
named Ashmun Institute, after Jehudi
Ashmun, a white emigrationist and the first
president of Liberia. It was called the ―black
Princeton‖ because of its demanding
curriculum and the fact that its first
instructors came from the faculty of
Princeton Theological Seminary. What is the
name of this university today?
In 1854, he was ordained a Catholic priest in
Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France, thus
becoming the first African American to become
a Catholic priest. Name him.
James A. Healy
In 1855, John Mercer Langston became the
first black person to win elective office in a
settled community in the United States. To
what office was he elected?
In 1856, J.M. Weymout established the first
Black daily newspaper. What was it called?
Some scholars believe that the Civil War actually
began in 1856 when abolitionists and proslavery
forces battled in this state. John Brown, a minister
from Connecticut, went to fight with the
abolitionists. Governor Daniel Woodson, who
favored slavery, declared that his state was in
"open insurrection". Name the state.
In 1857 this U.S. Supreme Court decision effectively
denied citizenship to African Americans by rejecting this
person’s claim to freedom. Chief Justice of the U.S.
Supreme Court, Roger Taney, gave the majority opinion:
―slaveholders had the right to take human merchandise
to any part of the union, and that this black man had no
right to even bring suit.‖ The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850
was upheld and all anti-slavery laws were held
unconstitutional. This person had sued for his freedom
because, although he was born a slave in Virginia, he
was later taken to the free state of Illinois and territory
that became Minnesota. Name the case.
This person planned to attack the federal arsenal
at Harper’s Ferry, take over the town, distribute
arms to enslaved African Americans, and spread
the revolution throughout the South. His plan
failed. His sons were killed and some of his
followers were hanged for treason. This famous
anti-slavery abolitionist also was hanged. Name
What state, which grew large amounts of
cotton and rice, was the first to secede from
the Union prior to the Civil War, declaring it
an "independent commonwealth"?
In 1860, what percentage of the African
Americans in the United States lived in
Although the exact number of runaways will never
be known, it is estimated that approximately
100,000 enslaved black people escaped to
freedom using a network of trails and hiding places
stretching from Canada to Mexico between 1825
and 1860. Enslaved black runaways started the
network. Just prior to the Civil War, Ohio had the
largest number of operators. Name this network.
By 1860, this African American supervised the
Chesapeake Marine Railroad and Dry Dock
Company, one of the largest shipyards in
Baltimore. The shipyard formed after white ship
caulkers went on strike to eliminate African
American caulkers and other black shipyard
workers from working in the industry. This man
organized the black caulkers and longshoremen
and raised money from the community. Name the
man who organized the shipyard.
Between 1820-1860, the largest number
of urban slaveholders was found in what
Charleston, South Carolina
The growth of cotton production showed the
importance of enslaved Africans in the American
economy. In 1790, the United States produced
only 3,000 bales of cotton. By 1860, it produced
4.8 million bales, prompting one Southerner to
proclaim that ―Cotton was King.‖ The cotton-
growing states became known as the ―Cotton
Kingdom.‖ About what percentage of the world’s
cotton crop was produced in the United States at
The Civil War began on April 12, 1861 when
Confederate troops fired on this fort located at a
very important location. The Union surrendered
two days later. The South then held the fort until
February 17, 1865 and endured one of the longest
sieges in modern warfare. Almost 46,000
shells, estimated at over 7 million pounds of
metal, were fired at the fort during Union attacks.
Name this fort and where it was located.
Name and locate the four border states that
remained with the Union during the Civil
War, but still remained slaveholding states.
This African American was the first and only black
to attain the rank of captain in the Union Navy
during the Civil War. As a pilot of the armed
Confederate ship, Planter, he along with eight
black crewmen sailed the ship out of Charleston
harbor (with his family and other fugitives on
board), and turned it over as a prize of war to the
Union Navy on May 13, 1862. Who was this Civil
This teenager escaped from slavery and
joined the First South Carolina Volunteers
whose soldiers she taught to read and write.
She became an important nurse for this
regiment and later wrote a book about her
experiences. Name her.
This African American showed his bravery
during the Civil War when Union forces
attacked Fort Wagner in Charleston, S.C.
For his actions, he was awarded the
Congressional Medal of Honor--the first
African American to win this honor. Name
him and the unit with which he served.
What Black regiment was the first
recruited during the Civil War? Two
sons of Frederick Douglass served with
On January 1, 1863, President Abraham
Lincoln issued a presidential order that freed
enslaved black people in the Confederate
states. Some believe he did this to weaken
the Confederacy as well as to generate
favorable world opinion. Name the
Proposed in January of 1865 and ratified in
December of that year, the ____
Amendment of the Constitution forbid
slavery in the United States saying ―Neither
slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as
a punishment for crime whereof the party
shall have been duly convicted, shall exist
within the United States, or any place
subject to their jurisdiction.‖
This minister of the African Methodist Episcopal
Church worked in Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri.
He opened a school for freed Blacks in St. Louis
before moving to Natchez, Mississippi, in 1866. He
became a state senator and on January 20, 1870
was chosen by a majority of the state legislators to
fill the term of former Confederate president
Jefferson Davis in the United States Senate. He,
thus, became the first Black person ever to be a
member of the U.S. Senate. Name him.
He was born into slavery near Farmville, Virginia,
but escaped at the beginning of the Civil War. He
lived in Hannibal, Missouri where he organized the
state's first school for blacks. After moving to
Mississippi, he became a wealthy landowner and
involved in local politics, including superintendent
of education in Bolivar County in 1871. In 1874, he
became the second African American senator and
the first to serve a full term in the United States
Senate. Name him.
She was born into slavery, but once free, went to
public schools and attended a teacher's college in
Rhode Island. In 1860, she enrolled in Oberlin
College where she organized classes for former
enslaved African Americans. When she
graduated—the second black woman to receive a
bachelor's degree, she became the principal of the
Institute for Colored Youth in Philadelphia. As
principal, she became the first African American
woman to head an institution of higher learning.
After the Civil War, former enslaved African
Americans were eager to make progress by
becoming better educated, owning land, and
holding political office. During this period,
the U.S. Constitution was amended three
times to address the rights of African
Americans. What was this period of
This federal organization was given the
responsibility of reconstructing the South. It issued
more than 20,000,000 food rations, established 50
hospitals, resettled more than 30,000 people, set
up 4,330 schools, enrolled more than 247,000
students, and established a number of black
colleges. It also represented freedmen in court.
Name the organization.
On June 13, 1866, the U.S. Congress
proposed the ____ Amendment to the
Constitution. This amendment defined
citizenship to include all those born or
naturalized in the United States. This
guaranteed citizenship for Blacks and equal
protection under the law. Congress sent the
amendment to the states for ratification, but
this did not occur until 1868.
In the first Civil Rights Bill, the U.S. Congress was
seeking to protect freed slaves from
Southern Black Codes. Through the bill, blacks
were given privileges of American citizenship:
to make contracts, hold property, and testify in
court. They were made subject to the laws,
punishment, and penalties of the United States.
The U.S. President, Andrew Johnson vetoed it.
When was the first Civil Rights Bill passed?
This historically black college and university
was founded in 1867 in Washington, D.C. It
boasts that in its first century it graduated at
least one-half of the nation's black
physicians, dentists, pharmacists, engineers
, and architects. Name this university.
In 1867, this college in Augusta, Georgia was
founded by the American Baptist Home Mission
Society and called Augusta Institute. The school
moved to Atlanta in 1879, and in 1913, was
renamed after the secretary of the society. Today,
the college has a dedicated alumni, many of whom
have earned doctorate degrees. One out of every
ten of its male graduates has an academic or
professional doctorate. Name the college.
During Reconstruction, this African
American was elected to fill two posts in his
state: Secretary of State and Secretary of
Treasurer. He had attended the University of
Glasgow in Scotland and had studied at
Presbyterian seminaries in Edinburgh and
London. He was an eloquent speaker and
brilliant economist. Name the politician and
the state where he was elected.
This historically Black college was established in
1868 in Virginia by Samuel Chapman Armstrong, a
27-year old brevet brigadier general who had
commanded Black troops in the Civil War.
Armstrong, the head of the eastern district of
the Freedmen’s Bureau, purchased the site and
started the school in an old federal hospital,
with two teaching assistants and fifteen
students. Booker T. Washington, founder of
Tuskegee Institute, graduated from this school in
1881. Name the school.
In 1868, this African American was elected
Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana, the
highest elective office held by an African
American up to that time. Who was he?
Some Black schools and universities sent
singers throughout the United States and
Europe to raise money for new buildings.
This African American educator and her
students in this Florida school baked sweet
potato pies and sold them to railroad
workers to raise money to buy nearby land.
Name the educator and school she
In 1869, the U.S. regular army was
reorganized with four black regiments. They
were scattered across the West to protect
settlers, guard the mail, and protect the
railroads. They built their own housing and
forts. Commonly referred to as the ―Buffalo
Soldiers‖ by Native Americans, what were
the four black regiments?
In the 1870s, many African Americans set
out for a new life in Kansas. The chief
organizer of this movement was a former
enslaved black man from Tennessee. Even
though he was more than 70 years old at the
time, he was still energetic and helped many
to resettle in black colonies in Kansas.
In 1869, the _____ amendment to the
Constitution was ratified. This amendment
said that the right of citizens to vote shall
not be denied on the basis of race, color,
or previous condition of servitude.
In 1870, this African American was the first of his race to
be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives and take
his seat. He was born a slave but became free after his
father bought his family’s freedom. He was drafted by
his home state to serve in the Civil War, but escaped to
Bermuda. In 1866, he returned home and settled in
Georgetown. At this time, only ten counties in this state
had a majority of white voters, and in his county, only
one in six voters were white. He held a number of
Republican Party positions, including serving in the State
Senate. He eventually served in the U.S. House of
Representatives from 1871-1879. Name this U.S.
Congressman and the state he represented.
This African American was sworn in as the
first Black governor of Louisiana after
governor Henry C. Warmoth was
impeached "for high crimes and
misdemeanors" in 1872. He had previously
been a delegate to the Republican
convention that nominated Ulysses S.
Grant for president. Name him.
In 1872, this Black man invented the lubricating cup for the
steam engine. Educated in Edinburgh, Scotland before moving
to Detroit, he continued his interest in mechanical
engineering. When he was unsuccessful in getting a job as
fireman for the Michigan Central Railroad, he founded his own
manufacturing company. After watching the inefficient
machinery of trains and the daily oiling of all working
parts, he invented the “lubricator cup” and received a U.S.
patent. His invention improved the steam engine and saved
operators valuable time and money. He also invented the
graphite lubricator that made it possible for engines to be
lubricated while moving. Over the years, this inventor had
more than 42 inventions that modernized machinery all over
the world. His inventions were so perfect that prospective
buyers wanted only his products. Name this inventor.
She became the first African-American
woman lawyer when she graduated from
Howard University Law School in 1872.
Barriers to setting up a law practice were
too difficult to overcome at the time so
she became a teacher in the Brooklyn, New
York schools. Name her.
On June 2, 1875, Pope Pius IX named this
African American to be bishop of Portland,
Maine, making him the first African
American Catholic bishop in the United
States. Name him.
In 1876, the Freedmen’s Aid Society of the
Methodist Episcopal Church established the
first all-Black medical school in the United
States. Three other African-American
medical schools: Howard University
Medical School, Shaw Medical School, and
the Medical Department of the University
of West Tennessee were established later.
What is the name of the first all-Black
medical school and where it is located?
In June 1877, he became the first Black
person to graduate from the U.S. Military
Academy at West Point. For four years he
had been excluded from activities and
ignored by white cadets. After joining the
Tenth Cavalry in 1878, serving mostly in
Oklahoma and Texas, he was the only Black
officer in the U.S. Army. Name him.
In 1879, this newspaper, considered the oldest
continuously printed Black newspaper in the country,
was founded. Name it.
San Diego Falcon
Los Angeles Eagle
Booker T. Washington is one of the
most famous African American
educators. In 1881, he established a
college to train Black teachers. Name
the college he established and the
state where it is located.
In 1882, this scientist received a patent for his
invention of the first incandescent electric light
bulb with a carbon filament. It was considered an
improvement of Thomas Edison’s electric lamp.
This scientist/inventor contributed so many
inventions to the field of electricity that many of
his fellow scientists called him "the Black
Edison." This scientist was a member of the
Edison Pioneers, a group of what many called the
“greatest” inventors of the time. Name him.
This African American invented the "shoe-
lasting machine", a machine that
revolutionized the shoe industry and made
Lynn, Massachusetts the "shoe capital of
the world." His invention cut the price of
shoes by more than 50 percent, doubled
wages, and improved working conditions
for millions of people in the shoe industry.
Who was this famous African-American
On May 1, 1884 this baseball catcher made
his professional major league debut with
Toledo in an American Association game.
As a result, he became the first Black
player in organized baseball history. Name
In 1887, he obtained Patent No. 315,368
for the "telegraphony," a device that
received and transmitted Morse code or
voice messages between moving trains and
between trains and stations. His invention
reduced the number of accidents. Name
This African American, a successful Kansas
politician, moved to Oklahoma Territory in
1887 and later became the founder of two
all-Black towns, Liberty and Langston. He
envisioned Oklahoma Territory as an all-
Black state. President Benjamin Harrison
provided no support for this plan. Name
this African American.
This African American is credited with
many important inventions (more than
sixty patents) related to railway systems
and electrical industries. His patents were
sold to General Electric, Westinghouse,
and American Bell Telephone. Thomas
Edison offered him a job but he turned him
down. The American Catholic Tribune
called him the "greatest electrician in the
world" in 1888. Name him.
In 1889, this person, the son of former enslaved
African Americans, and graduate of the U.S.
Military Academy at West Point, became the first
African American to attain the rank of colonel in
the U.S. Army. He served on the western frontier
and in the Philippines, Haiti, and Liberia. He
rode his horse from Texas to Washington, D.C. to
show that he was in good physical health and
that he should not be retired from military
service. It did not help his cause and he was
forced to retire because of "high blood pressure."
A famous African American artist was
encouraged by Thomas Eakins to paint
scenes of Black life. He painted The Banjo
Lesson in 1890. Name this artist.
On May 4, 1891, Dr. Daniel Hale Williams,
a noted African American physician opened
the first training school for Black nurses in
Chicago. Name the hospital where the
training school was located.
In this city and state, one of the oldest
Black-owned newspapers, The Afro-
American is still published. John Henry
Murphy, Sr. established it in 1892. After
serving in the Civil War, Murphy worked as
a white washer, porter, janitor, postal
employee, and printer before he founded
the newspaper. In what city and state is
this newspaper published?
This Black woman, who taught school in Mississippi and
Tennessee, published a weekly column for The Living Way, and
wrote articles for the New York Age and others, was a founder
of many organizations that worked for justice for Black
Americans. In 1893, she wrote a pamphlet criticizing the
racism at the 1893 World’s Fair. She was a key founder of the
National Association of Colored Women in 1896. In 1909, she
was one of two Black women who were among the founders of
the National Association for the Advancement of Colored
People (NAACP), In 1910, she helped organize the Negro
Fellowship League, and in 1913, helped found the Alpha
Suffrage Club, the first Black women’s suffrage organization in
Illinois. She became a delegate to the National American
Women’s Suffrage Association meeting in Washington, D.C.
This African American physician
performed the first successful open-
heart operation. It occurred at
Chicago's Provident Hospital in 1893.
Name the physician.
In 1893, this author published his first
collection of poetry entitled Oak and Ivy.
Having worked as an elevator operator for
$4 a week, he achieved considerable fame
upon publication of his book Lyrics of
Lowly Life in 1896. Name him.
In 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court decision,
Plessy v. Ferguson, was decided on a vote
of 8-1. The decision upheld the "separate
but equal" doctrine and began the age of
Jim Crow. The Court said that the State of
Louisiana was within its rights to arrest
Homer Plessy, an African American, for
violating its "Jim Crow" laws. Specifically,
what did Plessy do to break the law?
This woman devoted much of her life to women’s
issues and Black causes. A graduate of Oberlin
College in 1884, she was the first African
American to serve on the Washington, D.C.
School Board. Later, she helped form the
National Association of Colored Women and
became the association's first president in 1896.
She was also instrumental in desegregating
restaurants in Washington, D.C. Name her.
In 1896, 130,344 African Americans were registered to
vote in Louisiana and formed the majority of registered
voters in 26 parishes. The next year, a law passed in
Louisiana effectively barred Blacks from voting and
became a model for other southern states. This law
stated “A person might register and vote if his father or
grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867,
or if he or an ancestor had served in either the
Confederate or Union army.” In 1900, only 5,320 African
Americans were registered and no parish had a Black
majority. In 1904, only 1,342 blacks voted. What specific
clause had been written into the Louisiana Constitution
that effectively disenfranchised so many Black voters?
In 1896, this African American was selected
director of agricultural research at
Tuskegee Institute. Here, he began to
teach and experiment with agricultural
production. He was one of the first soil
scientists to encourage crop rotation, and
he developed several hundred industrial
and household uses for peanuts and sweet
potatoes. Name him.
What Black inventor designed a device that
allowed railroad cars to be coupled more
easily? A New York railroad paid him
$50,000 in 1897 for his invention. It became
known as the "jenny coupler" and was one
of the most important inventions that made
the railroads more efficient.
Rosamond Johnson, trained at the New
England Conservatory of Music in Boston,
and his brother James Weldon Johnson,
wrote a song that is often called the ―Negro
National Anthem.‖ Name it.
In 1903, she became the first Black woman
to head a bank. She presided over the St.
Luke Bank and Trust Company in Richmond,
Virginia. She took $9,000 of initial deposits
and increased bank holdings to $376,000 in
a few years. The Bank helped many Blacks
to get an education, housing, and economic
independence. Name her.
Twenty-nine Black intellectuals, headed by
W.E.B. Du Bois, organized this movement in Fort
Erie, Canada in 1905. It demanded the abolition
of all forms of racial discrimination and was a
direct response to Booker T. Washington's
cautious approach to racial justice. The
movement lasted only five years. It is frequently
referred to as the organization that led to the
formation of the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.
Name the movement or organization.
In 1905, this African American published the first
issue of the Chicago Defender. Although he sold
only 300 copies of the first issue, by 1929, the
Defender was a national newspaper with
circulation of 250,000. It was attacked racial
injustices in the South, specifically
discrimination, segregation, and lynching. It
encouraged Blacks to leave the South for work
and better opportunities in the North. Who was
this important newspaper publisher?
This important civil rights group was
organized in New York City on February 12,
1909. Its purpose was to advance the civil
rights of African American people and to
protect the rights of all people. This
organization has become one of the major
civil rights organizations today. Name it.
The Crisis is a major magazine of the
National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People. Who
was the first editor of The Crisis?
W.E.B. Du Bois
Carter G. Woodson
James Weldon Johnson
In 1910, this woman established a hair-
products manufacturing company that
eventually employed about 3,000 workers.
In her early life, she had worked as a
washerwoman and invested her wages to
develop a hair conditioner for women. She
is the first African American woman to
become a millionaire by her own efforts.
She gave much of her money to charities
that benefited African American
communities. Name her.
This major organization was founded in
1911 to help southern Blacks adjust to city
life, particularly in the North. Eugene
Kinckle Jones was one of the founders and
served as its Executive Secretary for more
than 20 years. He was also a member of
President Franklin Roosevelt’s "Black
Cabinet.” Name the organization.
This African American was a member of
Admiral Robert E. Peary's expedition to the
North Pole. Some records show that he was
the first person to reach the Pole and
placed the American flag there. In 1912,
he wrote of his experiences in A Negro
Explorer at the North Pole. In 1945, the
U.S. Congress awarded him a medal for
"outstanding service to the Government of
the United States in the field of science."
Name this explorer.
W. C. Handy, founder of one of the first
Black-owned music publishing company, is
often called the "father of the blues"
because he wrote some of the most
notable and lasting blues songs. Two songs
have city names in their title. Name the
titles of these songs and the states where
the cities are located.
This African American founded the
Association for the Study of Negro Life and
Culture in 1915, and one year later, he
began publishing the Journal of Negro
History. He also organized the first Negro
History Week. He is often called “Father of
Negro history.” Name this educator.
Marcus Garvey founded this organization
that grew to more than six million
members in the U.S. and other countries.
The organization worked to increase Black
pride and to develop economic and
educational self-help programs. Over time,
it had a church, a newspaper, and 30
chapters around the world. Name the
This African American scientist and inventor
presented his invention at the Second
International Exposition of Sanitation and Safety.
His breathing helmet and smoke protector (later
called a gas mask) won First Grand Prize. It
proved successful in 1916 when the inventor
rescued a number of men trapped in a tunnel
filled with poison gases. In 1923 he sold his
patent for the automatic traffic signal for
$40,000 to General Electric. Name this inventor.
The U.S. Supreme Court declared in this
case that Louisiana and Kentucky
ordinances requiring Blacks to live in
certain sections of the city were
unconstitutional. Name the case.
In the 1920s, what place was sometimes
called the "capital of the African American
Andrew "Rube" Foster founded what
professional sports league?
Between 1915 and 1920, nearly one million
African Americans had moved from the
agricultural South to the crowded urban
cores of the North. What is the name given
to this mass movement of people from the
South to the North?
In 1920, this African American intellectual,
educator, poet, and civil rights activist
became the first Black executive secretary
of the NAACP. He became an effective
organizer for the NAACP, increasing its
membership and the number of chapters.
His silent march in New York City was an
effective protest against lynching in this
country. Name him.
One of the most popular Black musicals to open
on Broadway was produced by Eubie Blake, a
ragtime pianist and composer, and Noble Sissle.
It was the first Broadway show to be written,
produced and performed by Blacks, and was the
first to include jazz compositions. The show was
so popular that crowds waiting to get tickets
caused the traffic department to change traffic
routes near the theater. The show ran a record
504 performances. Name the musical.
A number of race riots occurred after World War
I. On May 30, 1921, an incident in this town
sparked widespread anger between whites and
Blacks. As many as 200 African Americans and 50
whites were killed. One account noted that the
riot was unequal in American history in terms of
destruction. One of America’s most thriving
African American business districts called "Wall
Street of the South" was destroyed. Where did
this race riot take place?
In 1923, this African American female was called
the "Queen of the Blues" after she recorded
"Down Hearted Blues," a song written by Alberta
Hunter and Lovie Austin. The song sold 800,000
copies almost immediately--the first major hit
for Columbia Records. It eventually sold more
than a million copies. One of her most famous
recordings was “Nobody Knows You When You’re
Down and Out.” Name this major blues
This track and field athlete of the
University of Michigan won the broad
jump at the Olympic Games in Paris.
He became the first Black athlete to
win an Olympic gold medal. Name
In 1925, this African American philosopher,
writer, and professor at Howard University
and the first African American Rhodes
scholar (1907), created the term "New
Negro". The term taken from his book, The
New Negro, conveyed a renewed
confidence and pride among African
Americans. He is sometimes called the
"official father of the Harlem
Renaissance.” Name the author.
During most of American history, labor
unions prohibited Blacks from becoming
members. A. Philip Randolph organized a
labor union in 1925 for a group of Black
workers to help them get higher wages and
better working conditions. He is considered
the "father of African American unionism"?
What group of workers did he organize?
In 1926, this African American was
considered one of the country's leading
poets when he published The Weary Blues.
He later published several novels: Not
Without Laughter, One Way Ticket, and
Mulatto. Name him.
When Chicago's Black residents
elected him to the U.S. Congress in
1928, he was the first African
American Congressman since 1901 and
the first elected from the North.
She was called the "First Lady of Jazz". Her
first big break came in the 1930s when she
began singing with Chick Webb and his
band at the Harlem Opera House. She
would become the top female jazz singers
-- a title she held until her death. Who was
This famous jazz singer’s sad life is
described in her autobiography, Lady Sings
The Blues. She appeared with Count
Basie’s orchestra and had many hit records
including "God Bless the Child." She was
called “Lady Day.” Who was she?
In 1931, this African American became the
leader of the NAACP. As executive
secretary during World War II, he traveled
to the South to investigate the lynching of
Blacks. Name this leader.
This choreographer was a pioneer in restoring the African and
Caribbean heritage to dance in America. Although she benefited
from WPA support, it was her featured role as Georgia Brown in
Cabin in the Sky that allowed others to see her as a great artist.
Because of her choreographic creativity and her obvious inclusion of
primitive and folk dances that reflected an authentic base for black
people, she was dubbed the "Mother of African American dance."
Mary McLeod Bethune
This African American received as many as 61
patents. In 1935, he developed the first automatic
refrigeration system for trucks--an invention that
changed the eating habits of the entire nation. He
later developed an air conditioning unit for military
field hospitals, and military field kitchens. He
received little credit for his accomplishments
during his life. In 1991, the National Medal of
Technology was awarded to him–30 years after his
death. Name this inventor.
Funds from what federal project help
support African American artists including
Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, Aaron
Douglas, and Katherine Dunham?
In 1935, this African American educator and
political advisor to President Franklin Roosevelt
established the National Council of Negro Women
(NCNW) to fight racial and gender discrimination.
The organization grew rapidly, and in the 1970s,
it was one of the largest organizations of African
American women in the country--more than 3
million members. Name this female leader.
This African American athlete, born on an Alabama
sharecropping farm, won three individual and one team gold
medal in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Germany. He
became the first Olympian ever to win four gold medals. Adolf
Hitler left the stadium to avoid congratulating him. He had, for
the moment, triumph over racism. Because of his speed, he was
called the "Ebony Antelope." Name him.
This U.S. Supreme Court case set the basis
for equalizing the salaries of Black and
White school teachers in 1936. Name this
In 1937, Joe Louis, the son of Alabama
sharecroppers, earned the title of
heavyweight boxing champion of the world
by defeating Jim J. Braddock. He became
the first Black heavyweight champion in 22
years. Known internationally as the “Brown
Bomber”, how long did he retain the world
heavyweight boxing championship before
He became the first African American to
serve as a U.S. federal judge. President
Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed him to the
federal district court in the Virgin Islands in
1937. Name him.
This African American woman became the
first Black woman lawmaker when she was
elected to the Pennsylvania legislature in
1938. Name her.
She became the first African American
female judge when, in 1939, she was
appointed to the New York City Court of
Domestic Relations. She was a graduate of
the Yale Law School in 1931. Name her.
In 1939, this actress won the first Academy
Award (the Oscar) ever given to a Black
performer. She earned the Oscar as best
supporting actress for her role in Gone with the
Wind. Name her.
In 1939, the Daughters of the American
Revolution (DAR) denied an African
American singer permission to perform in
Washington, D.C.'s Constitution Hall. The
Secretary of Interior and First Lady Eleanor
Roosevelt arranged for her to sing before a
large audience at the Lincoln Memorial.
Name this famous opera singer.
He was the first African American military
General in the regular U. S. Army. Name
Robert C. Weaver
Benjamin O. Davis, Sr.
A. Philip Randolph
In 1940, the U.S. Army announced the
formation of a training school for Black
pilots. Called the "Home of Black Aviation,"
the school was located in the same
community as a famous Black college
founded by Booker T. Washington. What is
the name of this town?
On April 7, 1940, the U.S. Postal Service
issued a stamp to honor this African
American for his contribution to the overall
well being of Black Americans and the
country, in general. This was the first stamp
issued to honor an African American. Name
the person honored.
This African American is cited as the most widely
praised of the 20th century. His paintings of the
lives, dreams, and struggles of African Americans
are among the most respected of any artist. His
paintings show his deep understanding of African
American history, particularly in his series paintings
of ―The Life of Frederick Douglass‖ (1938), and
―The Migration of the Negro‖ (1940-41). One of
these paintings is on the cover of a well-
documented African American reference book,
Black Saga: The African American Experience.
In 1941, this President issued Executive Order 8802
that prohibited employers from discriminating against
African Americans in the war industries and in
government services because of
race, creed, color, or national origin. The Order came
in response to the threat of a large protest march on
Washington, D.C. by A. Philip Randolph and Bayard
Rustin. This executive order, the first major
presidential action since Reconstruction, did little to
change racial discrimination in these jobs because
industries found ways around them. Name the
President who issued the order.
In 1941, this African American, an economist, was
appointed director of the government office in charge of
integrating Blacks into the national defense program.
He later became the first African American to be a
Presidential cabinet member. Name him.
A. Philip Randolph
Robert C. Weaver
This African American was the commander of the
Booker T. Washington, the first Liberty ship named
after an African American. In his autobiography, he
stated the following: ―If there was ever a moment
when the real meaning of democracy could and
had to be demonstrated to the peoples of the
world, the moment was now! And what was
America’s answer in this hour of need? A Jim
Crow ship! Named for a Negro, christened by a
Negro, captained by a Negro, and no doubted
manned by Negroes.‖ Name the captain of the
Booker T. Washington.
CORE (Congress of Racial Equality), an
action-oriented civil rights group, was
founded by James Farmer in Chicago,
Illinois in 1941. What tactic did it use
successfully in breaking down the color line
during the civil rights movement?
The first class of pilots trained at the U.S.
Army’s training school for Black pilots at
Tuskegee, Alabama included Benjamin O.
Davis, Jr., a West Point graduate, and Lts.
George Roberts, Mac Ross, Charles
DeBow, and Rodney Curtis. What was the
name of this all-Black flight squadron?
He planned the first march on Washington to
protest discrimination against Black workers
in the defense industry. It was canceled
when President Franklin Roosevelt issued
Executive Order 8802 on June 25, 1941.
Name the person who proposed this march.
On December 7, 1941, the Japanese
attacked the U.S. naval base in Pearl Harbor
in Honolulu, Hawaii. This African American,
assigned to the U.S. Navy as a cook and not
trained to use the big guns due to
widespread racial discrimination, took over
after the white gunner had been killed and
shot down four Japanese planes. Name this
hero and the ship on which he served.
This African American was posthumously
awarded the Navy Cross for heroic action
aboard the USS San Francisco in the
Solomon Islands. He died in the Battle of
Guadacanal. In 1942 the first U.S. naval
vessel commissioned and named for a Black
person was named for this WW II naval
hero. Name him.
John H. Johnson published the first copy of
Negro Digest on November 1, 1942. It
became the first Black-owned successful
general magazine. Out of this venture came
the Johnson Publishing Company, now one
of the largest Black-owned businesses in the
country. Name two magazines that the
company publishes today.
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