PNoy warns of terror threat during Black Nazarene processionMANILA, Philippines - Terrorists could carry out anattack during the procession for the Feast of theBlack Nazarene in Manila on Monday, PresidentAquino warned on Sunday."In any open democracy, there will always bechallenge coming from extremist elements. The sadreality of the world today is that terrorists want todisrupt the ability of people to live their lives the waythey want to , including the freedom to worship," hesaid in a press conference."Lately, we have been getting some information thatled us to believe that there is a heightened risk thatleads us to take the necessary precautions,especially given the nature of the procession for theBlack Nazarene which involves quite a huge numberof people," he added.
Hundreds of thousands ofdevotees are expected to attendthe procession from the QuirinoGrandstand to the QuiapoChurch.Mr. Aquino said severalindividuals associated with aterrorist group have beenspotted in the National CapitalRegion with intentions to"create distractions" during theFeast of the Black Nazarene.He identified these individualsas local."The possibility prompts us towarn you of the risk in attendingthe procession," he said.
1.The Renaissance in ItalyA Renaissance historian has described the Renaissanceas the ―Prototype of the modern world.‖ This was theperiod in which people began to adopt a rational,objective, and statistical approach to reality and torediscover the importance of the individual and his orher artistic creativity.
(2).The Background of the Italian RenaissanceItaly:Birthplace of the RenaissanceThe city-states of northern Italy that spawned theRenaissance were developed urban centers, wherepeople had the wealth, freedom, and inclination tocultivate the arts to enjoy the fruits of worldly life.In Italy ,reminders of ancient Rome’s grandeur wereeverywhere.
With the expansion of commerce and industry, Italianfeudal values of birth, military prowess, and a fixedhierarchy of lords and vassals decayed in favor ofambition and individual achievement.
(3). Humanism and Individualism The most characteristic intellectual movement of theRenaissance was humanism, an educational and culturalprogram based on the study of ancient Greek and Romanliterature. Humanism is the term generally applied to thepredominant social philosophy and intellectual and literarycurrents of the period from c. 1350 to c.1600. The return tofavor of classics stimulated the philosophy of secularism, theappreciation of worldly pleasures, and above all intensified theassertion of personal independence and individual expression.Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, orsocial outlook that stresses indepenpence, self-reliance andindividual liberty.
(4). Renaissance Literature Petrarch (1304- 1374), ―the father of humanism,‖ His work Secretum ("My Secret book"), was an personal imaginary dialogue with Augustine.
x Dante Alighieri (1265- 1321) The greatest Italian poet and one of the most important writers of European literature. Dante is best known for the epic poem COMMEDIA, c. 1310-14, later named LA DIVINA COMMEDIA (Divine Comedy ).
Giovanni Boccaccio(1313 –21 December1375) was an Italianauthor and poet, a friendand correspondent ofPetrarch, an importantRenaissance Humanistand the author of anumber of notable worksincluding the Decameron,On Famous Women, andhis poetry in the ItalianVernacular
(5). Secular Politics-Machiavelli and the New StatecraftNo one gave better expression the Renaissancepreoccupation with political power than NiccoloMachiavelli (1469-1527). ―MIGHT MAKES RIGHT‖ ―THE END JUSTIFY THE MEANS‖
Niccolò di Bernardo deiMachiavelli (May 3, 1469 –June 21,1527) was an Italiandiplomat,political,philosopher,musician,poet andplaywright. Machiavelli was afigure of the ItalianRenaissance, and a centralfigure of its political scene. Heis best known for his workson realist political theory.ThePrince was considered one ofmost famous treatises onpolitical power in westernworld.
2:The High Renaissance inside and outside of Italy(1) Renaissance ArtThe essential meanings of the Renaissance isconveyed through its art, particularlyarchitecture, sculpture, and painting.Renaissance examples of all three art formsreflect a style that stressed proportion, balance,and harmony.
The great Renaissance artists included Leonardoda Vinci(1452-1519),Michelangelo Buonarroti(1475-1564), and Raphael Santi (1483-1520).
Leonardo di ser Piero daVinci (April15,1452-May21, 1519) It is primarilyas a painter thatLeonardo was and isrenowned. Two of hisworks, the Mona Lisa andThe Last Supper occupyunique positions as themost famous, mostreproduced and mostparodied portrait andreligious painting of alltime,
Leonardo di ser Piero daVinci . Mona Lisa
Leonardo da Vinci(1452-1519). The Last Supper
Mona Lisa (“La Gioconda”) (1503-1507):chiaroscuro and sfumato: less is more
Michelangelo di LodovicoBuonarroti Simoni (March 6,1475 – February 18, 1564),commonly known asMichelangelo, was an ItalianRenaissance painter, sculpter,architect, poet and engineer.his versatility in thedisciplines he took up was ofsuch a high order that he isoften considered a contenderfor the title of the archetypalRenaissance, along with hisrival and fellow ItalianLeonardo di ser Piero daVinci .
David By MichelangeloBuonarroti
Raphael Sanzio, usuallyknown by his first namealone (April 6 or March28,1483–April 6, 1520)wasan Italian painter andarchitect of the HighRenaissance , celebrated forthe perfection and grace ofhis paintings and drawings.Together with Michelangeloand Leonardo da Vinci heforms the traditional trinityof great masters of thatperiod.
Cowper Madonna byRaphael Santi
The School of Athens by Raphael Santi
(2): The Spread of the RenaissanceAided by the invention of printing, the Renaissancespread to Germany, France, England, and Spain in thelate fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries. In itsmigration northward, Renaissance culture adapteditself to conditions different from those in Italy—particularly the strength of lay piety.
Desiderius ErasmusRoterodamus (c. 1466-1536) Erasmus was aclassical scholar whowrote in a "pure" Latinstyle and enjoyed theSobriquet "Prince of theHumanists." He has beencalled "the crowningglory of the Christianhumanists. ― He belongsthe credit for makingRenaissance humanisman internationalmovement.
French and English HumanismFrancois Rabelais (c. 1494-c. 1553), a formermonk, exemplified the humanist spirit in France. Inresponse to religious dogmatism, Rabelais asserted theessential goodness of the individual and the right toenjoy the world rather than be bound by the fear of apunishing God.
Francois Rabelais (c.1494-April 9. 1553),was a major FrenchRenaissance writer,doctor and humanist.He is regarded as anavant-garde writer offantasy, satire, thegrotesque, dirty jokesand bawdy songs. in1532 he published hisbook, Pantagruel,
The most influential humanist of the early EnglishRenaissance was Sir Thomas More (1478-1535). Hismost famous book is Utopia, the first major utopiantreatise to be written in the West since Plato’s republicand one of the most original works on the entireRenaissance.
Thomas More (1478-1535). was an Englishlawyer, author, andstatesman who in hislifetime gained areputation as aleading humanistscholar. His mostfamous book is Utopia
William Shakespeare (1564-1616), widely consideredthe greatest playwright the world has ever produced,gave expression to Renaissance values—honor,heroism, and the struggle against fate and fortune.
William Shakespeare(26 April 1564 – 23April 1616 ) was anEnglish poet andplaywright, widelyregarded as thegreatest writer in theEnglish Language andthe worlds pre-eminent dramatist. Heis often calledEnglands nationalpoet and the ―Bard ofAvon" (or simply "TheBard").
(3): The Renaissance and the Modern AgeThe renaissance, then, marks the birth of modernity;in art; in the idea of the individual’s role in history andin nature; and in society, politics, war, and diplomacy.The revival of antiquity by the humanists did notmean, however, that they identified completely with it.The revival itself was done too self-consciously forthat.