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Scientific revolution

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  • 1. PowerPoint® Presentations in World History The Scientific Revolution By Jason Neiffer Bill Williams, Editor Kerry Gordonson, Editor Dr. Aaron Willis, Project Coordinator Shoshana Muhammad, Editorial Assistant Melissa Kaplan, Editorial Assistant Amanda Harter, Editorial Assistant Social Studies School Service 10200 Jefferson Blvd., P.O. Box 802 Culver City, CA 90232 http://socialstudies.com access@socialstudies.com (800) 421-4246
  • 2. © 2005 Social Studies School Service10200 Jefferson Blvd., P.O. Box 802Culver City, CA 90232United States of America(310) 839-2436(800) 421-4246Fax: (800) 944-5432Fax: (310) 839-2249http://socialstudies.comaccess@socialstudies.comPermission is granted to reproduce individual worksheets for classroom use only.Printed in the United States of America.ISBN: 1-56004-215-XProduct Code: ZP937Special Notice -- Copyright of ImagesUsers are prohibited from using the images and text outside a single school, and are prohibited frompublishing the images and text in a school intranet or on the internet.
  • 3. TheScientificRevolution
  • 4. What Was the Scientific Revolution?• A revolution in human understanding and knowledge about the physical universe• 17th century• Began with Kepler, Galileo• Ended with Newton
  • 5. “Science” Before the Scientific Revolution• Based almost entirely on reasoning• Experimental method or observation wasn’t used at all• Science in medieval times • Alchemy • Astrology A medieval alchemist
  • 6. Factors Leading tothe Scientific Revolution • Rise of universities • Contact with non-Western societies • The Renaissance • Exploration
  • 7. Rationalism • Reason, not tradition, is the source of all knowledge • René Descartes (1596–1650) • French philosopher and mathematician • Cogito ergo sum (“I think, therefore, I am”) • Deductive reasoningRené Descartes
  • 8. Empiricism• The belief that experience is the only true source of knowledge• Roger Bacon• Shift toward empiricism a hallmark of the Scientific Revolution• Helped lead to the development of the scientific method Roger Bacon
  • 9. Francis Bacon andthe Scientific Method • 1561–1626 • English philosopher and empiricist • Inductive reasoning • Argued for experimental methodology
  • 10. The Scientific Method Science as a multiple-step process:1. Observe an 2. Develop a 3. Test the object or theory that theory with phenomenon explains the experiments object or phenomenon
  • 11. Roots of Scientific Thought: Aristotle• 4th century BCE Greek philosopher and scientist• Wrote several scientific works• His work laid the foundation for scientific study through the medieval era• Gravity/Theory of falling objects• Astronomy: Crystal spheres
  • 12. Roots of Scientific Thought: Ptolemy • 2nd century CE Greek astronomer, mathematician, and geographer • The Almagest (Syntaxis) • Geocentric (earth-centered) model of the universe • Motion of the planets