Water management in rice by different methods of establishment

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    Water management in rice by different methods of establishment Water management in rice by different methods of establishment Presentation Transcript

    • “Enhancing Water Productivity in Rice through Different Methods of Rice Cultivation” Shantappa Duttarganvi Doctoral Research Fellow WALAMTARI
    • Introduction Traditional/ low land rice SRI method Aerobic Rice Alternate wetting and Drying Direct seeded rice Conclusion
    • Introduction RICE IS LIFE Cultivate more land with less water
    • • >3 billion people in Asia & 1.5 billion people in Africa and Latin America •37% area (154 Mha) is rainfed--scope to increase productivity
    • To meet future food requirements, India need to increase rice productivity by 3 % per annum (Thiyagarajan and Selvaraju, 2001) To produce 1 kg of grain, farmers have to supply 2-3 times more water in rice fields than other cereals (Baker et al., 1998) 80% of the freshwater resources are used for irrigation purpose half of which is used for rice production (Dawe et al., 1998) “Despite the constraints of water scarcity, rice production must rise dramatically over the next generation to meet the food needs “ (Serageldin, 2011)
    • DES, 2009
    • Components of water balance in rice fields Bouman, 2001
    • Selection of a good genotype Method of planting Weed management Irrigation method and land levelling Seed priming Silicon nutrition
    •  Low land rice  Aerobic rice  System of rice Intensification (SRI)  Alternate wetting and drying (AWD)  Direct seeded rice  Deep water rice  Ground cover rice production system  Raised bed-saturated soil culture method  Drip irrigation
    • Low land rice      High water requirement 3000–5000 liters of water to produce 1 kg of rice Environmental degradation Reduces fertilizer use efficiency Destruction of soil aggregates Anaerobic fermentation of soil organic matter: Methane emission
    • Ways to improve WUE in conventional system  Crack/rat hole ploughing  Bund lining or reparing breached bunds  Conoweeding  Line sowing  Saturated condition  Proper land leveling and puddling  Transplanting young seedlings
    • Water saving methods • System of rice Intensification (SRI): 30-40% • Alternate wetting and drying (AWD): 15-30% • Aerobic rice: 40-50% • Direct seeded rice: 75% • Ground cover rice production system: 50-60%
    • SYSTEM OF RICE INTENSIFICATION (SRI) METHOD • SRI was developed in Madagascar in the early-1980s by Father Henri de Laulanie • Formal experimentation started in India 2002-2003 Core principles of SRI < seed- one seed revolution < water- Rice is not an aquatic plant 8-12 day old seedlings Mechanical weeding Square planting Organic source of nutrients “SRI cuts the water required for irrigated rice by 25-50%. The combination of water reduction together with other SRI practices can increase paddy yields by 50-100%” Norman Uphoff
    • • 8-12 days old seedlings • The fields are alternately kept wet and dry; they are not flooded until the panicle initiation stage • 1-3 cm of water in the field during the reproductive phase • Mechanical weeding 10 DAT
    • The basic practices of SRI 8-10 Days (2 leaf stage) nursery Weeding with weeder Careful uprooting & transplanting Saturation of the field Wider spacing(25X25cm) Use of Organics Mahendrakumar et al. (2008)
    • Mechanical weeding Transplanted SRI field
    • • Rice seedlings lose much of their growth potential if they are transplanted more than about 15 days after they emerge in their nursery • Wide spacing of plants will lead to greater root growth and accompanying tillering Norman Uphoff, 2005 In SRI method, young seedlings are placed at shallow depth and therefore these seedlings establish quickly. Whereas in the conventional method 25-30 day old seedlings are pulled from nursery and pushed deep into the puddled soil and during the process the tips of roots face upward and hence these require more time and energy to establish in the soil
    • DRR Technical Bulletin Mahendrakumar et al. (2008)
    • Country Yield Increase over conventional Philippines 100% India Nepal Indonesia 83% 82% 78% Cambodia china 41% 29% Vietnam 21% FAO, 2007
    • MORE TILLERS AND > 400 GRAINS PER PANICLE
    • conventional practice v/s SRI methods Conventional Practices SRI Methods • 25-30 days seedlings • 8-12 days old seedlings • Multiple seedlings • Single seedling • Large plant population • Sparse plant population • Paddies kept flooded • Soil aeration with AWD throughout the growing cycle • Weeds are controlled by flooding, hand weeding and herbicides • Weeds are controlled with a rotary weeder
    • Comparison of dry matter in SRI v/s Conventionally grown rice at different stages crop cycle Tao (2004)
    • Grain yield increase with adoption of SRI across the country Mahendrakumar et al. (2008)
    • Water productivity as influenced by SRI v/s normal (flooded rice) Grain yield increase by 10% in SRI Water use decreased by 29% (SRI 79 Cum) Water productivity increased by 20% Viraktamath, 2007
    • Water (irrigation and rainfall) use and water productivity in SRI and control rice crops 37.5 % 34.2 % Gujja and Thiyagarajan, 2010
    • Impact of crop establishment techniques on grain yield and water productivity of rice Yield attributes Conventional Line planting (20x10cm) SRI planting 25 x 25 cm Farmers practice Random planting No. of productive tillers/ sq.m 424 520 408 Panicle weight (g) 3.52 4.05 3.52 test weight (g) 20.1 20.6 19.8 Grain yield ( kg/ha) 6423 7135 5949 Straw yield (kg/ha) 8927 9632 8626 B:C ratio 2.91 3.41 2.71 Total water used (mm) 1421 1082 1421 WUE (kg/ha mm) 4.52 6.59 4.19 Muthukrishnan and Radhamani, 2011
    • Evaluation of methods of cultivation and spacing on seed yield and seed quality parameters in BPT-5204 Treatment No. of tillers/plant No. of productive tiller/plant Days to flowering Seed yield (t/ha) Benefit: cost ratio germination Methods of cultivation (C) C1–SRI 32.40 29.13 102.70 4.07 1.44 98.1 C2-traditional 15.92 8.14 106.70 3.68 1.14 97.3 Sem+ 0.01 1.34 0.40 0.20 0.05 0.5 C.D. @ 5% 0.06 8.15 2.40 0.06 0.15 NS S1- 20x20 15.88 14.84 101.1 2.82 1.21 97.9 S2-30x30 28.33 32.55 101.6 3.41 1.47 97.6 S3-40x40 24.43 29.51 102.0 3.28 1.41 97.6 S.Em.+ 1.10 0.16 0.1 0.10 0.08 0.2 C.D. @ 5% 3.30 0.48 NS 0.33 0.23 NS Spacings (S) Dharwad Krishna et al. (2008)
    • Effect of rice establishment methods on growth, grain yield and water productivity during post rainy season Total Grain IW Water Populati Productive Water Methods yield used Productiviy on /sqm tillers/hill Used Kg/ha (mm) Kg/ha-m (mm) Line planting 49.3 12.4 4430 996 1043 4.23 Random planting 96.3 10.0 3970 1055 1102 3.60 SRI 16.0 17.5 5260 681 728 7.23 Marimuthu et al. (2011)
    • COST OF CULTIVATION (RS/ACRE): CONVENTIONAL V/S SRI METHOD Note : Price of paddy - Rs.5,600/t Price of straw - Rs. 800/t Mahendrakumar et al. (2008)
    • Saving of 30 – 40% irrigation water Saving of 85 % seed (2 kg / acre as against 25-30 kg/ acre in normal method) Saving of chemical inputs More healthy and tasty rice due to organic farming practices Better and higher yields with lower inputs Crop duration reduced by 7-10 days due to absence of transplanting shock
    • Aerobic rice system • Aerobic rice varieties • Well drained • Non puddled • 4-6t/ha with 50% saving irrigation water • Uplands • Undulating, rainfed lowlands • Water-short irrigated low lands
    • Benefits Increased mycorrhizal association Increased rhizobial association Prolonged root activity Higher water productivity Long root development Labour cost Reduced nitrogen loss Biofertilizers saves 20-30kg/ha of nitrogen fertilizers
    • Comparison of seasonal water requirement between low land flooded rice and aerobic rice Particulars Seasonal water requirement (mm) Lowland rice Aerobic rice 150-300 100 Evaporation 200 100 Transpiration 400 400 Seepage and percolation 500 335 Application loss 400 335 Total seasonal water requirement (mm) 1650 935 Land preparation Lampayan and Bouman, 2005
    • Water input and yield of aerobic rice varieties under flooded and aerobic conditions year Water Water input management Yield (t ha-1) I 2002 HD502 HD297 Flooded 1057 1351 6.8 5.4 Aerobic 2001 IR 350 644 5.3 4.7 Flooded 900 1255 5.7 5.3 Aerobic 522 917 4.6 5.3 Bouman et al. (2007)
    • Direct seeding  Shortage of labour & their wage rate  Increasing availability of chemical weed control methods  Need to intensify production systems rice Direct-seeded rice save about 75 per cent of water along with about 10 percent loss of yield Johl, 2009
    • 1. Dry seeding 2. Wet seeding 3. Water seeding
    • Advantages  Faster and easier planting  Reduced labour and earlier crop maturity by 7–10 days  More efficient water use and higher tolerance of water deficit and less methane emission Disadvantages  Damage of surface-sown seeds by birds, rats and snails  Desiccation of seeds exposed to direct sunlight or dry weather  Increased lodging at maturity  Severe competition from rapidly emerging weeds  lower yield stability  Higher pest and disease incidence because of dense canopy
    • • AWD is also called „intermittent irrigation‟ or „controlled irrigation‟ • Alternate flooding • Compared with the traditional continuous flooding system, AWD using lowland rice cultivars can reduce water input by 15-30% without yield loss Field water tube from PVC Note the holes on all sides A Field tube under Flooded conditions Water at 15 cm depth:Time to irrigate and flood the field again
    • KEY POINTS OF AWD Transplant young seedlings into puddled soil  Install a PVC pipe with holes  Start AWD at 10 DAT and allow the field to dry out  Re-flood the field to a standing water layer of 5 cm when the groundwater is 15-20 cm below the soil surface  Keep a standing water layer of 5 cm for 1 week at flowering  Continue AWD cycles after flowering until harvest  Scope for 10, 20, 25 and 30 cm with different genotypes and different location 
    • Water use efficiency under different irrigation treatments Treatments Total water use (cm) Average Water use efficiency BRRIdhan BRRIdhan total water (kg/ha/cm) 28 29 used (cm) T1 112.20 122.20 117.2 58.53 T2 (10 cm) 92.20 97.20 94.7 69.48 T3 (20cm) 87.20 92.20 89.7 69.89 T4 (30cm) 82.20 87.20 84.7 69.19 Treatment details: T1: continuous submergence (1 to 7 cm standing water) T2, T3, T4: application of 5 cm irrigation water when water level in the pipe fell 10, 20 and 30 cm below the G.L., respectively. Oliver et al., 2008
    • Water usage and water productivity of rice as influenced by different systems of rice cultivation during kharif season System of rice cultivation % Water saving over transplanted rice No. of irrigations applied Total water Used (cubic m/ha) Transplanted rice 33 16802 - 5732 SRI 27 14322 14.8 6014 AWD 23 13773 18.0 5376 Wet seeded rice 39 15683 6.7 5175 Aerobic rice 24 9425 43.9 3582 Grain yield (kg/ha) Geethalakshmi et al. (2008)
    • Ground cover rice production system Soil is constantly kept very moist, but not flooded Mulch- drying out and developing deep cracks Plastic sheet or pre-composted straw Checks Adds the ET OM to soil
    • •The savings in irrigation water around 90 per cent in Nanjing and up to 50 per cent in Beijing and Guangzhou •This system reduced the significant nitrogen loss as a result of volatalization of gaseous ammonia Burkhard et al., 2005
    • Drip irrigation • 25,000/acre • 15 years life span • 4.78 • 80% water reduction and 10% increase in yield Benefits: • Increase in WUE • Reduce the agrochemical application by fertigation or chemigation • Eliminates anaerobic decomposition • Quality water can be delivered Texas, Netafim
    • ..ResAlternate wetting and drying (AWD)-using less water to grow rice - YouTube.mp4
    • Future line of work • Awareness about rice is not aquatic plant • Standardization of AWD • Weed management in aerobic and AWD • Scope for sprinkler and drip irrigation
    • Average yields, Water balance and water use efficiency Parameters Beijing Nanjing Guangzhou Puddle Plastic Puddle Plastic Puddle Plastic Yield in the experiment 8.75 5.57 9.57 8.52 9.53 8.23 Irrigation (mm) 3750 1275 1666 99 420 308 Precipitation (mm) 390 394 462 462 770 787 0 0 0 0 471 518 Net input (I + P – R, mm) 4140 1669 2128 561 720 577 Daily water consumption based on net input (mm d–1) 30.2 10.8 21.7 3.9 7.7 4.6 Water requirement based on irrrigation (m3/kg) 4.55 2.22 1.75 0.12 0.50 0.43 Water requirement based on net input (m3/kg) 5.02 2.90 2.23 0.66 0.86 0.80 WUE based on irrigation (kg/m3) 0.25 0.45 0.57 8.56 2.02 2.35 WUE based on water applied(kg/m3) 0.22 0.34 0.45 1.52 1.16 1.25 Runoff (mm) Lin et al. (2003)