Training on Alternate Wetting and Drying (awd) in rice
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Training on Alternate Wetting and Drying (awd) in rice






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  • In plant: Zinc Deficiency can cause stunting, poor tillering, poor grain filling, low yields. Up to 50% of soils are zinc deficient.In human: impairs cognitive development for children and causes growth stunting; impairs immune system for adults; greater susceptibility to respiratory infections and diarrhea.Zinc deficiency symptoms is worse in long term flooded soils and high organic matter.The experiment to test the effects of amounts of zinc fertiliztion with AWD and conintuous flooding.

Training on Alternate Wetting and Drying (awd) in rice Training on Alternate Wetting and Drying (awd) in rice Presentation Transcript

  • Alternate wetting and Drying in rice (AWD) and its adoptation Shantappa Duttarganvi 8499034130
  • Introduction RICE IS LIFE Cultivate more land with less water
  • Rice India • Area: 44mha • Production: 104mt • Productivity: 2001kg/ha AP • Area: 43.7 Lha • Production: 140 Lt • Productivity: 3032kg/ha
  • DES, 2009
  • Pressure to produce more food (rice) because of ever increasing population UN, 2004 (Wikipedia) In 2020, the world needs to produce an additional 50-80 M tons of paddy rice = 125-200 km3 of water But also: More people means • more industry • more drinking water • more sanitation water • more swimming pools • more cars to wash • more gardens to sprinkle • more… => Water is getting scarce and expensive
  • Water: A Global Issue „too little, Too much, or too dirty‟ • • • • • 1.3 billion without safe water supply 2 billion without sanitation 800 million malnourished Thousands killed by floods Every day reports on water related issues
  • Water Availability: 1975 Water Availability: 2025 Extreme Scarcity <500 Scarcity 500-1,000 Stress 1,000-1,700 Adequate 1,700-4,000 Abundant 4,000-10,000 m3/person/year Surplus >10,000 Ocean/ Inland Water No Data
  •  Future is going to be even uncertain interms of rain fall, ground water and surface water  Periodicity, intensity and distribution of rain fall is going to change
  • Rice and water  70% water used for irrigation globally  Rice uses > 80% water in many countries  3-5,000 litres to produce one kg
  • Crop water use 1kg = 3,000- 5,000 litres water 1kg 1kg = 3,000 – 5,000 litres water = 1,500 - 3,000 litres water So, we eat, wear, drink.. water…
  • Objectives of the Session Produce more rice with less water
  • Components of water balance in rice fields Bouman, 2001
  • Water-saving measures • Puddling and Land leveling • Crack plowing • Alternate wetting and drying • Communal seed beds • Efficient use of rainfall (cropping calendar) • Direct wet seeding • Aerobic rice • Pressurized irrigation
  • Crack plowing Compaction Good puddling …….. ‘Safe’ AWD Yield Diversification (non rice crops) Aerobic rice Upland Low High Water availability various response options to water scarcity Flooded lowland
  • Before puddling harrow to close the cracks Construct a field channel for irrigation Irrigate up to 5 cm, maximum Maintain bunds, seal cracks, and close rat holes Make a farm ditch for proper drainage Ensure good field levelling Ways to use water wisely
  • LAND PREPARATION  Cracks favour rapid “by-pass flow”  Shallow tillage to remove cracks  Soaking prior to puddling  Thorough puddling  Plot to plot irrigation removes valuable nutrients
  • Control Cracks Ploughed During land preparation, Bulacan, Phillipines, Cabangon and Tuong (2000)
  • PERFECT LEVELING IS ESSENTIAL IMPROPER LEVELING LEADS TO…. • Uneven crop growth • Uneven fertilizer distribution • Extra weed problems BUND PREPARATION AND MAINTENANCE • A reduction of 450 mm of total water use
  • METHODS OF WATER APPLICATION Continuous submergence •Less supervision •Less expenditure on weed control Intermittent submergence • Saves irrigation water • Minimizes the formation of toxic substances • Lessen drainage problem Continuous saturation • More weeds • Water saving
  • Continuous submergence • High water requirement 3000–5000 liters of water to produce 1 kg of rice • Environmental degradation • Reduces fertilizer use efficiency • Destruction of soil aggregates • Anaerobic fermentation of soil organic matter: Methane emission
  •  AWD: „intermittent irrigation‟ or „controlled irrigation‟  Alternate flooding: Number irrigations reduced without reducing yield  AWD period vary based as rainfall pattern, climatic condition, depth of water and texture  Plant roots have access to hidden water in root zone  Compared with the traditional continuous flooding system, AWD can reduce water input by 15-30% without yield loss
  • Safe AWD 60 Field water depth (cm) flowering CF 5 2.5 0 AWD Soil surface -5 -10 -15 -20 0 10 20 30 transp Early recovery tillering 40 Late tillering 50 60 70 PI to complete flowering Days after transplanting 80 90 grain filling 100 110 Maturity
  • Using tensiometer: To measure moisture availability of the soil for crops (expressed as soil tension) Safe AWD when: Soil Tension at 15 cm soil depth > - 10 kPa
  • A practical indicator to irrigate under safe AWD • Safe AWD = Irrigate when water depth ~ 15 cm • Keep flooded 10 DAT (weeds) and at flowering Simple key messages for farmers Simple tool that help farmers decide when to irrigate Farmers can experiment with threshold levels
  • Key points of AWD • Transplant young seedlings into puddled soil • Install a PVC pipe with holes • Start AWD at 10 DAT and allow the field to dry out • Re-flood the field to a standing water layer of 5 cm when the groundwater is 15-20 cm below the soil surface • Keep a standing water layer of 5 cm for 1 week at flowering • Continue AWD cycles after flowering until harvest • Scope for 10, 20, 25 and 30 cm with different genotypes and different location
  • YIELD AND WATER USE OF AWD AND CONTINUOUSLY FLOODED CONDITIONS Location Treatment Yield (t ha-1) Total water input (mm) Tuanlin, Huibei, China 1999 (Belder et al 2004) Flooded AWD 8.4 8.0 965 878 0.90 0.95 2000 Flooded AWD 8.1 8.4 878 802 0.92 1.07 2001 Flooded AWD 7.2 7.7 602 518 1.20 1.34 Munoz, Philippines, (Belder et al 2004) Year Water productivity (g grain kg-1 water) BOUMAN et al. (2006)
  • Results -No yield difference between AWD and farmers’ practice -Farmers achieved 16-30% savings by adopting AWD -Increased net profit - reduced competition of water between households and rice farming. Irrigation water used (mm) AWD Yield (t/ha) AWD
  • AWD Promotes higher zinc availability In the soils : soil Zn (mg/kg) AWD vs. CF: •higher redox (i.e. more oxidized) •higher Zn availability
  • Better root anchorage to reduce lodging
  • 4. AWD reduces methane emissions! N2O & CH4 g CO2 eq./m2/season Continuous flooding (CF) 1,440 AWD 1 AWD 2 AWD 3 48 h Field Water level 48 h 500 390-540 Flooding for 1 week Time 390 Hosen et al. unpubl.
  • Precautions • • • • Sandy, salt affected soil Levelled land Weed problem Flowering
  • Perceived benefits of AWD by farmers  Reduced total pumping cost and labor Better rooting system: lodging have been reduced Mechanized harvesting Soil sterilization: Rice plants have less pest population Grain quality will improve Knowing the concept of AWD, they do not worry even if the rice field do not have water
  • Thank u