Integrated crop livestock system for sustainable crop production
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Integrated crop livestock system for sustainable crop production

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Integrated crop livestock system for sustainable crop production Integrated crop livestock system for sustainable crop production Presentation Transcript

  • Shantappa Duttarganvi M.Sc. (Agri) Dept of Agronomy, 2009
  • ON
  •  Introduction  Components of cropping system  Components of livestock  Livestock integration  Problems and prospects in crop-livestock based farming system  Advantages  Integrated livestock systems  Conclusion
  • NEED…. Fragmented holdings and lack of capital investment Seasonal income and employment Risk of crop failures Single commodity farming Horizontal expansion – limited scope Deterioration of resource base
  • STRATEGY ENHANCING WEALTH ENHANCING HEALTH Livestock heritage serving a nation….,!!!!!!
  • Relationship between integrated crop-livestock system and related terms
  • Integrated Farming System (IFS) It integrates natural resources into farming activities to achieve maximum replacement of offfarm inputs. Components: Crop-livestock system Agri-silviculture Agri-horticulture Silvi-horticulture
  • “ It is the farming system which combines crop production with livestock rearing”.
  • Maintains sustainable production system without damaging resource base Provides full family employment through out the year Enables recycling of wastes within the farming system Provides balanced food diet Standard of living will be improved Efficient utilization of all land available within the farm
  • COMPONENTS OF CROPPING SYSTEM Three-strata forage system Integrated tree cropping systems Agro-forestry systems Food-feed intercropping system Relay cropping Alley cropping Grazing and stall feeding systems
  • Live stock
  • Components of livestock Dairy farming
  • Poultry farming
  • Sheep and goat
  • Piggery
  • Animal husbandry contributes about 30 per cent of country’s agricultural out put 57 per cent of the world’s buffalo production 15 per cent cattle production Livestock sector contributes 8 per cent to India’s GDP Contribution of livestock to the national economy is Rs.45,000 crores
  • Contribution of livestock to global production CAST,1999.
  • An outline of different resource flows in mixed crop-livestock systems
  • Role of livestock in farming system Livestock is a source of food Livestock is a renewable natural resource Source of draught power and dung manure Acts as a cushion against income shocks Transport
  • Livestock Integration Supplementary integration Complementary integration
  • Why to go for integration of enterprises? Population in Indian sub-continent is increasing by leaps and bounds which require production of more food from the limited available lands There is no scope for horizontal expansion of land for food and feed Only vertical expansion is possible by integrating appropriate farming components requiring less space and time, which provide periodic income to the farmers
  • FUNCTIONAL INTERACTION IN LIVESTOCK FARM Food security Avoidance of temporary food shortages Adequate food quality Avoidance of nutritional deficiencies Environmental protection Contribution to economy Market supply Short and long term risk cover Economic viability Farming integration function Soil fertility Nutrient transfer and supply of manure Biodiversity Supply of draught External effects Peters, 1999
  • Crops Irrigation family Livestock pond Effluent manure biodigester Integration pathway in Ecological farming system
  • Pathways of nutrient flow in mixed crop-livestock farming systems Stangel ., 2001
  • Labour intensity Multistoreyed cropping Agrihorticulture Alley cropping Intercropping with NFT’s Crop-livestock FS Land use intensity Farming systems in relation to labour and land use intensity Singh, 2000
  • Methods of crop-livestock integration Spatially separated crop and livestock farms Spatial and temporal integration on the same land base Russelle et al., 2007
  • Aims of livestock development strategies Conserve the natural resource base Raise productivity Expand production Optimizes the allocation of development resources
  • Integration of Crop-Dairy
  • milk residues Slurry waste
  • Cattle grazing under coconut trees
  • Adding cattle to a legume-grain crop rotation doubled the rate of soil carbon accumulation because of manure addition. Drinkwatr et al., 1998 Recycling of crop carbon through manure and decomposing residues improves soil carbon sequestration Singh et al., 1998
  • Economics and employment generation of dairy as component in farming system Particulars Expenses Rs/ha Total Employm ent Net income Generatio n Rs /ha (man Days) 1. Cropping (Cotton+blackgram, Sorghum+cowpea) 14138 8422 393 2. Dairy+Cropping (3 Jersey milch cows) 32583 19900 702 Chandrasekaran et al., 1994
  • Integration of Crop-Sheep/Goat
  • Sheep grazing under tall-stemmed fruit trees
  • Economics of IFS and CCS (1 ha) Years 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 IFS CCS IFS CCS IFS CCS IFS CCS IFS CCS Crop components 3384 2800 5455 3695 5872 4095 6420 4200 7229 4905 Animal components 2970 - 4805 - 3895 - 11900 - 12375 - Total 6254 2800 10260 3695 14757 4095 18320 4200 19604 4905 - 3625 - 5150 - 8400 - 9250 - Receipts (Rs.) Expenditure (Rs.) Maintenance of goat Cost of cultivation 1772 1547 2217 1840 2852 2115 33300 2150 2795 2450 Total 1512 1547 5842 1840 8002 2115 11700 2150 12045 2450 Net income (Rs.) 2970 1253 4418 1855 6765 1980 6620 2050 7539 2455 Additional income (Rs.) 1717 - 2563 - 4785 - 4620 - 5084 - Shivasankaran et al., 1995
  • Reasons for non adoption of certain practices related to sheep and goat rearing in different agro climatic zones Maintenance of crossbreeds Grazing Provision of house or night shelter Provision of concentrate mixtures Isolation of breeding rams during grazing Knowledge of non-contagious diseases (Bloat, tetanus) Problem of marketting
  • Integration of Crop-Dairy-Goat
  • Cows and sheep grazing together in a pasture to optimize biomass utilization
  • System Productivity (Rice grain equivalent) of Integrated Farming System Farming systems System % over productivity CCS Crop Poultry Pigeon Fish Goat (kg/ha) Component productivity (kg)* Crop 12995 - - - - 12995 - Crop + Fish + Poultry 26352 1205 - 2052 - 29609 128 Crop + Fish + Pigeon 24854 - 2545 1774 - 29173 124 Crop + Fish + Goat 25725 - - 1975 9979 37679 190 * Mean over three years Jayanthi, 2002
  • PROFIT FROM IFS Economic profit Social benefits to the farm family and the community Environmental conservation
  • Economic analysis of maize (f) + cowpea(f) – chickpea + coriander system Cost of cultivation (Rs./ha) Net returns (Rs./ha) B:C ratio S0 No manure 14,669 10,642 1.73 S1 Rec.ferilizers 17,711 22,643 2.28 S2.100%composted buffalo manure 17,679 23,763 2.35 S3 75% composted buffalo manure 17,039 22,927 2.35 S4 100% composted goat manure 15,589 19,216 2.23 S5 75%composted goat manure 15,489 18,056 2.17 Treatment Esther Skekinah , 2004 1 ha farming system: (0.8 ha cropping, 0.1 ha agroforestry, goat +buffaloes 42 on 0.06 ha, farm pond 0.04ha)
  • NUTRIENT ADDITION PER YEAR IN VARIOUS LIVESTOCK BASED SYSTEMS • 3 Adult cows + 2 Calves As FYM (12 tonnes), 113 – 67 – 86 N – P2O5 – K2O kg/year As biogas + slurry ( 730 m3) ( slurry 11 tonnes), 157 – 133 – 114 N – P2O5 – K2O kg/year • 20 female + 1 male of small ruminates under deep litter system Nutrients, 132 – 70 – 60 N – P2O5 – K2O kg/year
  • Integration of Crop – Dairy – Sheep -Poultry
  • Income and employment generation from different enterprises (1 ha) during the study period (2006-07) Bench mark year 2005-06 Second year 2006-07 4521 5966 Dairy unit 11952 16434 Sheep unit 12100 22860 Poultry unit - 5496 5 Fodder crops - 1652 6 Gross income 28573 54358 7 Cost of cultivation 18182 24451 8 Net income 10391 29907 9 Per cent increase over bench mark year - 110.27 10 Employment generation (man-days) 604 697 11 Cropping intensity(%) 87.50 115.62 12 B:C ratios 1.57 2.22 Sl. No 1 Particulars Field crops Subsidiary enterprises 4 Anon., 2007
  • Gross and net income from different IFS models IFS model Income from crop (Rs/ha) Income from animal s (Rs) Gross income (Rs/ha) Expen diture (Rs) Net income (Rs/ha) B:C ratio Employment (mandays/ha / year) 28196 -- 28196 22025 6171 1.28 185 Crop+goat+ poultry 27138 24633 51771 26950 24821 1.92 297 Crop+goat+ poultry+dairy 27478 74605 102083 59458 42625 1.72 343 Crop+goat+ poultry+sheep 28213 39563 67776 45980 21796 1.47 343 Crop+goat+ poultry+dairy+ sheep 29281 93640 122921 70127 52794 1.75 389 Mean 28061 58110 74549 44908 29641 1.63 311 SD 825 31618 38116 20585 18305 0.25 78 CV(%) 2.9 54.4 51.1 45.8 61.8 15.5 25 Crop alone Solaiappan et al., 2007
  • Integration of Crop-Fish-poultry
  • manure manure dropping feed feed Food waste
  • Utilization of byproducts
  • Net returns, sustainable value index and profit per day as influenced by rice-fish-poultry integrated farming systems Treatment Net returns Rs/ha/year Sustainable Value Index (SVI) Profit Rs/ha/day 2004-05 2005-06 T1 37,062 61,545 0.48 182.6 T2 36,734 58,754 0.48 176.8 T3 49,348 76,606 0.64 233.2 T4 31,301 44,231 0.41 139.9 T5 37,590 52,858 0.46 167.5 T6 14,139 29,059 0.18 80.0 (conventional rice field) Channabasavanna et al., 2007
  • Rice grain-equivalent yield under different production systems Production Productivity (kg/ha) Monocropping Cashew Coconut Rice Total 4,489 2,624 4,943 12,056 Improved cropping system Cashew Coconut +forage Rice- Brinjal+ Rice-Cowpea Total 4,489 7,796 10,859 23,144 IFS Cashew Coconut +forage +dairy Rice-Brinjal +Rice-Cowpea +poultry Total 7,521 13,553 21,223 42,297 Kalyan Singh et al., 2007
  • Integrated farming system approach Production system Gross returns (Rs/ha) COC (Rs/ha) Net returns (Rs/ha) B:C ratio Coconut + 94,870 forage +dairy 62,535 32,335 0.52 Rice-brinjal + 1,48,560 Rice-cowpea +poultry 73,200 75,360 1.03 Total 1,52,050 1,44,025 0.95 2,96,075 Manjunath et al., 2002
  • Productivity of integrated farming system (mean over 2 years) Crop Poultry Mushroom Riceequivalent yield (kg/ha) 4,311 - - 4,311 Ricegroundnut + mushroom + poultry 6,557 6,060 4,305 16,922 RiceCowpea + mushroom + poultry 7,662 6,060 4,305 18,027 RiceBrinjal + mushroom + poultry 11,122 6,060 4,305 21,487 Ricesunhemp + mushroom + poultry 4,993 6,060 4,305 15,358 Component productivity Farming system Rice cropping alone Manjunath, 2002
  • Economics analysis of Integrated Farming System Net Returns B:C Ratio Per day Return 64975 37153 2.43 178 4833 146035 97731 3.02 400 Cropping + Fish + Pigeon 47090 145868 98778 3.06 400 Cropping + Fish + Goat 55549 186667 131118 3.36 511 Farming Systems Production Cost (Rs/ha) Gross Returns (Rs) Cropping alone 27822 Cropping + Fish + Poultry Jayanthi , 2002
  • Information required for decision making in integrated crop-livestock systems Consideration Information required Short term profit Crop yield and feeding value Input cost Output value Multiyear factors Rotation benefits Symbiotic N2 fixation Residual fertilizer Weed populations Whole-farm factors Farm size and spatial distribution Availability of different enterprises Labour, cost, livestock Ewing et al., 2004
  • Contd… Risk factors Yield variability Price variability Risk acceptance responsiveness Sustainability factors Persistence of perennials Weed population Soil condition and sensitivity
  • Advantages of integrated livestock based farming system Increases productivity Better recycling of produces Increases profitability Improves soil fertility Provides balance food Employment generation Money flow around the year Adoption of new technology Solve the energy crisis
  • Constraints in integrated crop-livestock system Fragmentation and division of holdings Scarcity of family labour Less reliable market Scarcity of own funds Lack of transport and marketing facilities Fluctuation in output prices