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Impact of Wireless Technologies on Health, Life and Social Sciences by Mahasweta Sarkar, Assistant Professor, …

Impact of Wireless Technologies on Health, Life and Social Sciences by Mahasweta Sarkar, Assistant Professor,
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
San Diego State University.

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  • 1. Impact of Wireless Technologies on Health, Life and Social Sciences
    • Mahasweta Sarkar
    • Assistant Professor
    • Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
    • San Diego State University
  • 2. Background & Research Interests
    • Ph.D. from UCSD in December 2005.
    • Research Scientist at SPAWAR (Jan 2006-August 2006)
    • Assistant Professor in the department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at SDSU in August 2006.
    • Research interest lies in the area of wireless data networks .
    • Instrumental in setting up the Wireless Multimedia Communications and Networks Lab in her department. The lab is equipped with various state-of-the-art wireless network test beds, such as Cognitive Radio Networks, Wireless Sensor Networks, ZigBee and WLANs.
  • 3. Current Research Projects
    • Optimization of packet delay and energy consumption in wireless nodes
    • Directional Antennas : neighbor discovery and topology control issues
    • QoS issues in wireless and ad hoc networks (especially for multimedia traffic)
    • Scheduling algorithms for Wi-Max networks (802.16)
    • Smart channel access schemes for sensor networks and 802.11e
    • MAC layer channel scheduling schemes for dynamic spectrum allocation in the PHY layer (Multi-channel issues)
  • 4.
    • Impact of Wireless Technology on Health and Life Sciences
  • 5. What is BAN ?
    • Tiny wireless sensors strategically placed on human body create WBAN that monitors various vital signs providing real time feedback to user /medical professional.
    • Challenges: size, operating time, precision, reliability
    • Utility :
    • WBAN systems that monitor vital signs provide affordable health monitoring
    • It will allow a dramatic shift in the way people think and manage their health
    • The shift towards more proactive preventive health care will not only improve quality of life but also health care costs.
  • 6. Application Space : Customizable
    • cardiology
    • diabetes
    • sleep
    • asthma
    • epilepsy
    • EEG/EMG
    • SIDS
    • elderly
  • 7. The Overall Architecture Slide Courtesy: U. Huntsville
  • 8. 3-tier Hierarchical Organization Slide Courtesy: U. Huntsville Tier 1: WBAN Tier 2: Personal Server Tier 3: Medical Servers
  • 9. Motivation
    • Goal: ubiquitous and affordable healthcare
    • Solution: 3-tier ubiquitous monitoring system
      • Tier 1: Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN)
      • Tier 2: Personal Server
      • Tier 3: Healthcare Provider Servers
    • Opportunities:
      • Ambulatory health monitoring
      • Computer-assisted rehabilitation
      • Augmented reality systems
    • Long-term benefits:
      • Promote healthy lifestyle
      • Seamless integration of data into personal medical records and research databases
      • Knowledge discovery through data mining
  • 10. System Criteria and Concerns
    • Sensor and node size and value
    • Sensor nodes must be small enough to be implanted in the body. This is more of hardware oriented issue
    • Safety
    • Wearable and implanted sensors will need to be biocompatible and unobtrusive to prevent harm to the user.
    • Safety-critical applications must have fault-tolerant operation
    • Security
    • Unauthorized access or manipulation of system function could have severe consequences. Security measures such as user authentication will prevent such consequence
    • Privacy
    • BASNs will be entrusted with potentially sensitive information about people. Protecting user privacy will
    • require both technical and nontechnical solutions
    • Quick and efficient data processing within the node
    • We can concentrate on power/energy efficient methods of data processing. We can also work on fast data processing for critical monitoring systems.
  • 11. System Criteria and Concern
    • Power Consumption for transmitting and receiving information from or to a node
    • Maximum research going on in this area
    • Energy Harvesting
    • Tapping energy from surrounding environment to recharge node batteries.
    • Signal & Path Loss Performance 
    • Signal and path loss inside the human body is drastically different than the rules in plain space. Researchers have been able to model signal loss throughout the human body, however the more interesting research involves using the human body as a transmission medium for electrical signals
  • 12. What is IEEE saying? (Interest Group on BAN in 802.15)
    • There is no specific standard for BAN
      • Current standards come close for specific use cases, not broad enough
      • Issues: power consumption, discovery, QoS
      • support for very low power devices
    • Target less than 10% power consumption for communications compared to total device
    • Have single standard with broad range of supported data rate - scalability
  • 13. IEEE Requirements : Draft
    • Distance : 2 m std, 5 m special
    • Piconet density : 2 - 4 nets / m 2
    • Devices per network : max. 100
    • Net network throughput :100 Mbit/s
    • Power consumption :~ 1mW / Mbps (@ 1 m distance)
    • Startup time : < 100 us, or < 10% of TX slot
    • Latency (end to end) : 10 ms
    • Network setup time : < 1 sec (after initial setup, per device)
  • 14. Research Issues : Interdisciplinary
      • Utilize common off-the-shelf components, capable of seamless integration into a WBAN (Mech Eng)
      • Standardization of sensors (EE) (specificity, range, precision, type)
      • Rules of engagement and sensor placement (Medical)
      • Sensor calibration & customization (Medical + EE/ME)
      • Integration of data into medical databases (CS)
      • Privacy and security (CS)
      • Social impact (Psychology)
      • Business opportunities (Business)
  • 15.
    • Impact of Wireless Technology on Social Sciences (Networking)
  • 16. The Big Picture
    • Simple message exchanges among small, low-cost, personal wireless devices (preferably wearable).
    • These devices are intended to be used as smart cards at large conferences or other gatherings of people possibly sharing common interests.
    • The idea is that two individuals coming into a physical proximity, e.g., shaking hands or simply passing close to one another, may want to exchange some information, e.g., corresponding to the contents of a generalized business card, via their smart cards.
  • 17. Let’s Get Fancier Than That…
    • What if my Card can…
    • talk to my Twitter followers and tell them my current status (I am giving a talk at SDSC)
    • update my status message on my facebook (Sweta is having fun discussing future facebook apps  )
    • alert me in case of an emergency (Mumbai blast victims were reported to Twitter each other constantly)
    • find me my soul-mate or just a dinner-date tonight (Social Profile)
    • find me a research collaborator (Business Profile)
    • find me a kayaking buddy (Special Interest Profile)
  • 18. Smart Card Internet Server Smart Card Smart Card Smart Card PC The System Architecture
  • 19. Smart Card Internet Server Smart Card Smart Card Smart Card PC Wireless/Wired Technology Integration WPAN WLAN Cellular Wired TCP/IP
  • 20. Deliverables
    • The Smart Card
    • Inter Smart-Card Communication
    • Smart Card – Cell Phone Communication (Cell phone app)
    • Cell Phone – Internet Communication
    • Facebook/Twitter Applications for automatic message/status updates
  • 21. Design Considerations
    • - Slow moving low-cost & low-power mobile nodes
    • - Message sizes short (few bytes – few KB) - 2 types of messages (Profile & Description)
    • - Single shared radio channel - Short range of transmission (Approx 5m)
    • - Traffic type: Intermittent data (Application/External Stimulus defined) - Application is not QoS specific and is moderately latency tolerant
  • 22. What is a smart card?
    • Processor cards (and therefore memory too)
    • Credit card size
      • With or without contacts.
    • Cards have an operating system too.
    • The OS provides
      • A standard way of interchanging information
      • An interpretation of the commands and data.
    • Cards must interface to a computer or terminal through a standard card reader.
  • 23. What’s in a card? Radio Network Protocol Stack Antenna My Profiles Profile Matching Logic I/O Database of people I met Operating System
  • 24. Typical Smart Card Configurations 256 bytes to 4KB RAM. 8KB to 32KB ROM. 1KB to 32KB EEPROM. Crypto-coprocessors (implementing 3DES, RSA etc., in hardware) are optional. 8-bit to 16-bit CPU. 8051 based designs are common. The price of a mid-level chip when produced in bulk is less than US$1.
  • 25. Smart Card Readers Computer based readers connect through USB or COM (Serial) ports
  • 26. Security Mechanisms
    • Password
      • Card holder’s protection
    • Cryptographic challenge Response
      • Entity authentication
    • Biometric information
      • Person’s identification
    • A combination of one or more
  • 27. Data Storage
    • Data is stored in smart cards in E 2 PROM
      • Card OS provides a file structure mechanism
    File types Binary file (unstructured) Fixed size record file Variable size record file MF DF DF DF EF EF EF EF EF
  • 28. Data Mining/ Data aggregation/Making sense of the data
    • Interesting things to study:
    • How many fruitful collaborations were actually made via Smart Card
    • The speed of message propagation through Smart Card (status msg, twitter msg, emergency msg)
    • Pros and Cons of random information dissemination
  • 29. Issues and Challenges
    • Network Issues:
    • Power Efficiency
    • Reliable data delivery
    • Node density issues
    • Mobility issues
    • Data Management:
    • What to throw out, when to throw out
    • Putting information to good use
    • Social Issues :
    • Protecting oneself from malicious users
    • Integration of several communication techniques
  • 30.
    • “ Things that think… don’t make sense unless they link.”
    • - Nicholas Negroponte, MIT Media Laboratory