Financing Residential Real Estate

Lesson 13:
Seller Financing
Introduction
This lesson will cover:
 how seller financing works
 why seller financing is used
 forms of seller financi...
How Seller Financing Works
Two ways for seller to finance buyer’s
purchase:
 purchase money loan
 land contract
How Seller Financing Works
Mortgage or deed of trust
 Seller is extending credit to buyer, not
providing loan funds.
 Bu...
How Seller Financing Works
Contract for Deed
Buyer (vendee) takes possession of property,
but seller (vendor) retains titl...
How Seller Financing Works
Seller financing may be:
 primary financing
 seller is buyer’s main or only source of
financi...
How Seller Financing Works
Choosing finance instrument
Seller generally decides which type of finance
instrument
 Real es...
Why Seller Financing is Used
Seller financing can:
 attract buyers when interest rates are
high
 help buyer qualify for ...
Why Seller Financing is Used
Seller financing:
 seller isn’t bound by institutional policies
regarding yields, loan-to-va...
Seller Seconds
Seller second:
 buyer paying most of purchase price with
institutional loan
 seller accepts second mortga...
Seller Seconds
Supplementing a new loan
Seller second supplementing new
institutional loan must meet institutional
lender’...
Supplementing New Loan
Buyer’s situation

Factors in buyer’s financial situation may
shape design of seller second:
 fund...
Supplementing New Loan
Buyer’s situation

May be easy to refinance seller second with
balloon payment if:
 property has a...
Supplementing New Loan
Seller’s situation

Seller’s evaluation of second:
 cash at closing
 monthly income
 timing of p...
Seller Seconds
Supplementing an assumption
Seller second can supplement buyer’s
assumption of seller’s existing mortgage.
...
Seller Seconds
Supplementing an assumption
Assumption only possible if:
 existing mortgage doesn’t have due-onsale clause...
Seller Financing as Primary Loan
Unencumbered property
Seller financing is most flexible when seller
has clear title to pr...
Unencumbered Property
Protecting seller’s security

First lien position if finance instruments are
recorded.
Seller should...
Unencumbered Property
Protecting seller’s security

Failure to pay taxes or insure property should
be grounds for default ...
Unencumbered Property
Institutional second
Buyer might want to supplement seller
financing with secondary financing from l...
Unencumbered Property
Contract for deed
Seller may choose to use a contract for deed
instead of mortgage or deed of trust....
Contract for deed
How contract for deed works
Seller (vendor) keeps title to property until
buyer (vendee) pays off entire...
Contract for deed
How contract for deed works
Contract:
 not accompanied by promissory note
 states all terms of sale an...
Contract for deed
Remedies for breach of contract
Forfeiture: penalty if vendee breaches
contract.
 Vendee’s rights in pr...
Contract for deed
Remedies for breach of contract
In Texas, repossession not allowed
40% of the amount owed OR
has made ...
Contract for deed
Remedies for breach of contract
Vendee refusing to leave means legal action
to clear title and remove ve...
Contract for deed
Remedies for breach of contract
Judge may:
 enforce contract as written
 give vendee time to pay off c...
Contract for deed
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages for vendor:
 legal owner until contract paid in full
 may reac...
Contract for deed
Advantages and disadvantages
Disadvantages for vendor:
 delay and expense of court proceedings
 uncert...
Contract for deed
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages for vendee:
 slow court proceedings
Contract for deed
Advantages and disadvantages
Disadvantages for vendee:
 vendor remains legal owner
 judgments against ...
Contract for deed
Using a contract for deed
Lenders generally don’t permit financing to
vendees due to the nature of the o...
Contract for deed
Using a contract for deed
Vendor agrees to have property stand as
security for institutional loan.
 Ven...
Seller Financing as Primary Loan
Encumbered property
Seller of encumbered property can’t afford to
pay off existing mortga...
Encumbered Property
Wraparound financing
Wraparound financing:
 property remains subject to underlying
loan
 buyer does ...
Wraparound Financing
Choice of finance instrument
For wraparound, seller can use:
 mortgage
 deed of trust
 contract fo...
Wraparound Financing
Underlying loan: no due-on-sale clause
Wraparound financing is only proper if
underlying loan doesn’t...
Wraparound Financing
Compared with assumption + second
If seller’s existing loan has no due-on-sale
clause, parties can ch...
Wraparound Financing
Seller’s yield

Seller’s yield depends on:
 amount of credit extended to buyer, and
 difference bet...
Wraparound Financing
Seller’s yield

Example:
Sales price: $200,000 Downpayment: $20,000
Underlying loan: $150,000, balanc...
Wraparound Financing
Seller’s yield

Example, cont.
In first year:
 Seller collects $13,500 in interest from
buyer.
 Sel...
Wraparound Financing
Protecting wraparound buyer
To ensure seller makes payments on
underlying loan:
 provision in financ...
Alternatives to Seller Financing
Seller can help with:
 buydown
 contribution to closing costs
 equity exchange
 lease...
Alternatives to Seller Financing
Buydowns
Buydown: seller pays to reduce buyer’s
interest rate on loan.
 Seller proceeds ...
Alternatives to Seller Financing
Contributions to closing costs
Seller sometimes willing to make up shortfall
when buyer d...
Alternatives to Seller Financing
Equity exchanges
Seller may be willing to accept other assets
from buyer and reduce cash ...
Alternatives to Seller Financing
Lease arrangements
Sometimes buyer wants to lease home before
actually buying it.
 Time ...
Alternatives to Seller Financing
Lease arrangements
Seller can lease property to prospective buyer
in one of two ways:
 l...
Lease Arrangements
Lease/options
Lease/Option: lease agreement includes
option to purchase.
 Seller leases property to bu...
Lease Arrangements
Lease/options
Lease/option:
 buyer has no obligation to buy
 seller can’t sell property during option...
Lease/Options
How lease/option works
Lease/option:
 buyer pays seller option money to make
option binding on seller
 opt...
Lease/Options
Rental payments
Rent charged on lease/option is often higher
than rent under ordinary lease.
 Gives optione...
Lease/Options
Rent credit
Three ways rent credit can be applied to
purchase:
 applied to down payment
 deducted from sal...
Lease/Options
Provisions of lease/option agreement
Lease/option should:
 include all terms of lease
 include all terms o...
Lease Arrangements
Lease/purchase
Lease/Purchase: purchase contract allows
buyer to lease property for extended period
bef...
Lease Arrangements
Lease/purchase
If tenant/buyer decides not to buy property,
good faith deposit is forfeited.
 Tenant/b...
Agent Responsibilities
Real estate agent should:
 make sure both parties understand seller
financing arrangement
 encour...
Agent Responsibilities
Disclosures
Seller financing disclosure:
 required in some states when agent
helps arrange seller ...
Agent Responsibilities
Disclosures
Good idea to use disclosure statement even if
not required by state law.
 Provides inf...
Agent Responsibilities
Liability
Disclosure statement does not completely
shield agent from liability.
 Breach of fiducia...
RELE 1319 Chapter 13
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RELE 1319 Chapter 13

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RELE 1319 Chapter 13

  1. 1. Financing Residential Real Estate Lesson 13: Seller Financing
  2. 2. Introduction This lesson will cover:  how seller financing works  why seller financing is used  forms of seller financing  alternatives to seller financing  agent’s responsibilities in seller-financed transactions
  3. 3. How Seller Financing Works Two ways for seller to finance buyer’s purchase:  purchase money loan  land contract
  4. 4. How Seller Financing Works Mortgage or deed of trust  Seller is extending credit to buyer, not providing loan funds.  Buyer makes installment payments to seller.  Seller is mortgagee or beneficiary, with right to foreclose in case of default.
  5. 5. How Seller Financing Works Contract for Deed Buyer (vendee) takes possession of property, but seller (vendor) retains title until contract price paid in full.  Alternative to a lien.  Seller extends credit to buyer.
  6. 6. How Seller Financing Works Seller financing may be:  primary financing  seller is buyer’s main or only source of financing for purchase  secondary financing (seller second)  supplements primary loan from institutional lender  covers part of downpayment or closing costs required for primary loan
  7. 7. How Seller Financing Works Choosing finance instrument Seller generally decides which type of finance instrument  Real estate lawyer should prepare/review.  Deed of trust: trustee must be appointed.
  8. 8. Why Seller Financing is Used Seller financing can:  attract buyers when interest rates are high  help buyer qualify for institutional loan  enable seller to charge higher price  provide tax benefits to seller
  9. 9. Why Seller Financing is Used Seller financing:  seller isn’t bound by institutional policies regarding yields, loan-to-value ratios, or qualifying standards  not an option for seller who needs to be cashed out quickly
  10. 10. Seller Seconds Seller second:  buyer paying most of purchase price with institutional loan  seller accepts second mortgage for remainder
  11. 11. Seller Seconds Supplementing a new loan Seller second supplementing new institutional loan must meet institutional lender’s standards. Combined loan to value (CLTV) Credit Income and debt ratios Assets (including reserves) Terms
  12. 12. Supplementing New Loan Buyer’s situation Factors in buyer’s financial situation may shape design of seller second:  funds available for down payment  buyer’s qualifying for total monthly payment  interest rate  balloon payment
  13. 13. Supplementing New Loan Buyer’s situation May be easy to refinance seller second with balloon payment if:  property has appreciated substantially  interest rates are low But if interest rates are high or property has lost value, refinancing could be difficult.
  14. 14. Supplementing New Loan Seller’s situation Seller’s evaluation of second:  cash at closing  monthly income  timing of payoff (balloon payment)  yield on investment  tax consequences  lien priority
  15. 15. Seller Seconds Supplementing an assumption Seller second can supplement buyer’s assumption of seller’s existing mortgage.  Buyer makes payments on seller second to seller.  Buyer takes over monthly payments on seller’s existing mortgage.
  16. 16. Seller Seconds Supplementing an assumption Assumption only possible if:  existing mortgage doesn’t have due-onsale clause, or  lender agrees to assumption.  Needed to release seller from liability.  Usual underwriting standards to evaluate buyer assuming loan.
  17. 17. Seller Financing as Primary Loan Unencumbered property Seller financing is most flexible when seller has clear title to property.  Buyer and seller negotiate price and terms  Buyer may need less cash  May not have discount points or origination fees  Lower closing costs
  18. 18. Unencumbered Property Protecting seller’s security First lien position if finance instruments are recorded. Seller should still be concerned with:  property taxes  special assessment liens  hazard insurance
  19. 19. Unencumbered Property Protecting seller’s security Failure to pay taxes or insure property should be grounds for default under the finance instrument.  Seller can require impound account.  If not, seller should require proof be sent to him.
  20. 20. Unencumbered Property Institutional second Buyer might want to supplement seller financing with secondary financing from lender.  Seller should investigate terms of proposed second loan before agreeing to transaction.  Can buyer afford monthly payments on both loans?  Does second have provisions that make default likely?
  21. 21. Unencumbered Property Contract for deed Seller may choose to use a contract for deed instead of mortgage or deed of trust. Also known as:  land contract  bond for deed  conditional sales contract  installment sales contract  installment land contract  real estate contract
  22. 22. Contract for deed How contract for deed works Seller (vendor) keeps title to property until buyer (vendee) pays off entire purchase price in installments.  Legal title: vendor’s title during contract term.  Equitable title: right of vendee to possess and enjoy property.
  23. 23. Contract for deed How contract for deed works Contract:  not accompanied by promissory note  states all terms of sale and financing arrangement between vendor and vendee  should always be recorded
  24. 24. Contract for deed Remedies for breach of contract Forfeiture: penalty if vendee breaches contract.  Vendee’s rights in property are terminated.  Payments may be kept by vendor as liquidated damages.  Vendor may retake possession of property immediately.
  25. 25. Contract for deed Remedies for breach of contract In Texas, repossession not allowed 40% of the amount owed OR has made 48 monthly payments Trustee must be used to sell property instead
  26. 26. Contract for deed Remedies for breach of contract Vendee refusing to leave means legal action to clear title and remove vendee from property.  Drawback for vendor: may take months.
  27. 27. Contract for deed Remedies for breach of contract Judge may:  enforce contract as written  give vendee time to pay off contract balance  allow vendee to reinstate contract by paying delinquent payments plus interest  order sheriff’s sale of property
  28. 28. Contract for deed Advantages and disadvantages Advantages for vendor:  legal owner until contract paid in full  may reacquire property in event of default
  29. 29. Contract for deed Advantages and disadvantages Disadvantages for vendor:  delay and expense of court proceedings  uncertainty of trial results
  30. 30. Contract for deed Advantages and disadvantages Advantages for vendee:  slow court proceedings
  31. 31. Contract for deed Advantages and disadvantages Disadvantages for vendee:  vendor remains legal owner  judgments against vendor might cloud interest  uncertainty of court decision
  32. 32. Contract for deed Using a contract for deed Lenders generally don’t permit financing to vendees due to the nature of the ownership Two possible solutions:  Vendor agrees to have property stand as security for institutional loan.  Vendee could mortgage his equitable interest in property.
  33. 33. Contract for deed Using a contract for deed Vendor agrees to have property stand as security for institutional loan.  Vendor doesn’t assume personal responsibility for repayment.  Lender can foreclose on property but can’t sue vendor for deficiency.
  34. 34. Seller Financing as Primary Loan Encumbered property Seller of encumbered property can’t afford to pay off existing mortgage at closing.  Seller second was one alternative.  Wraparound financing is another alternative.
  35. 35. Encumbered Property Wraparound financing Wraparound financing:  property remains subject to underlying loan  buyer does not assume underlying loan  seller remains responsible for payments  buyer makes monthly payments to seller  seller uses part of buyer’s payment to make payment on underlying loan
  36. 36. Wraparound Financing Choice of finance instrument For wraparound, seller can use:  mortgage  deed of trust  contract for deed Deed of trust used for wrap: all-inclusive trust deed.
  37. 37. Wraparound Financing Underlying loan: no due-on-sale clause Wraparound financing is only proper if underlying loan doesn’t have due-on-sale clause and lender approves of it.  Silent wrap: without lender’s consent.
  38. 38. Wraparound Financing Compared with assumption + second If seller’s existing loan has no due-on-sale clause, parties can choose between:  assumption plus seller second  buyer gets benefit of existing loan with below-market interest rate  wraparound  may give buyer below-market rate and seller above-market yield
  39. 39. Wraparound Financing Seller’s yield Seller’s yield depends on:  amount of credit extended to buyer, and  difference between interest rate on wrap and rate on underlying loan. Credit extended is:  difference between wrap amount and balance on underlying loan  not full amount of wrap
  40. 40. Wraparound Financing Seller’s yield Example: Sales price: $200,000 Downpayment: $20,000 Underlying loan: $150,000, balance at 6% interest Wraparound: $180,000 at 7.5% interest $180,000 Wrap financing for buyer – 150,000 Seller’s underlying loan balance $30,000 Credit extended to buyer
  41. 41. Wraparound Financing Seller’s yield Example, cont. In first year:  Seller collects $13,500 in interest from buyer.  Seller pays $9,000 in interest on underlying loan.  Net interest to seller: $4,500. Net Interest ÷ Credit Extended = Seller’s Yield $4,500 ÷ $30,000 = 15%
  42. 42. Wraparound Financing Protecting wraparound buyer To ensure seller makes payments on underlying loan:  provision in finance instrument requiring seller to make timely payments, and allowing buyer to pay lender directly if seller defaults  “Request for Notice of Delinquency”  escrow account managed by third party
  43. 43. Alternatives to Seller Financing Seller can help with:  buydown  contribution to closing costs  equity exchange  lease/option  lease/purchase
  44. 44. Alternatives to Seller Financing Buydowns Buydown: seller pays to reduce buyer’s interest rate on loan.  Seller proceeds are reduced by amount of buydown.  Buyer more easily affords lower payment and/or qualifies easier with lower DTI
  45. 45. Alternatives to Seller Financing Contributions to closing costs Seller sometimes willing to make up shortfall when buyer doesn’t have enough money for closing costs.  Lenders impose limits on amounts.
  46. 46. Alternatives to Seller Financing Equity exchanges Seller may be willing to accept other assets from buyer and reduce cash sales price.  Equity in vacant land or personal property.
  47. 47. Alternatives to Seller Financing Lease arrangements Sometimes buyer wants to lease home before actually buying it.  Time to get cash for closing or downpayment.  Cannot currently qualify for loan.
  48. 48. Alternatives to Seller Financing Lease arrangements Seller can lease property to prospective buyer in one of two ways:  lease/option arrangement  lease/purchase arrangement
  49. 49. Lease Arrangements Lease/options Lease/Option: lease agreement includes option to purchase.  Seller leases property to buyer for term.  Buyer granted option to purchase property at certain price during lease term.  Seller = Landlord/Optionor  Buyer = Tenant/Optionee
  50. 50. Lease Arrangements Lease/options Lease/option:  buyer has no obligation to buy  seller can’t sell property during option period  can be used even if seller’s loan has due-on-sale clause
  51. 51. Lease/Options How lease/option works Lease/option:  buyer pays seller option money to make option binding on seller  option money not refundable  option money may be applied to purchase price if buyer exercises option  rental payments may be applied to purchase (rent credit)
  52. 52. Lease/Options Rental payments Rent charged on lease/option is often higher than rent under ordinary lease.  Gives optionee incentive to exercise option quickly.  Provides compensation to optionor for uncertainty of outcome.  Permits a lender at the exercise of the option to credit excess toward down payment.
  53. 53. Lease/Options Rent credit Three ways rent credit can be applied to purchase:  applied to down payment  deducted from sales price  applied toward closing costs/prepaids
  54. 54. Lease/Options Provisions of lease/option agreement Lease/option should:  include all terms of lease  include all terms of potential purchase contract  state that option money is not security deposit  state that option rights are forfeited if tenant defaults on lease  state that option money is forfeited if purchase is not consummated by buyer
  55. 55. Lease Arrangements Lease/purchase Lease/Purchase: purchase contract allows buyer to lease property for extended period before closing.  Parties sign purchase agreement (not option) along with lease.  Tenant/buyer provides good faith deposit instead of option money.  Closing date set quite far off; buyer rents property in meantime.
  56. 56. Lease Arrangements Lease/purchase If tenant/buyer decides not to buy property, good faith deposit is forfeited.  Tenant/buyer probably more committed with lease/purchase contract than with lease/option.  Eventual sale more likely.
  57. 57. Agent Responsibilities Real estate agent should:  make sure both parties understand seller financing arrangement  encourage both to consult lawyers or CPAs  never prepare seller financing documents
  58. 58. Agent Responsibilities Disclosures Seller financing disclosure:  required in some states when agent helps arrange seller financing  discloses all financing terms  informs seller of buyer’s financial situation
  59. 59. Agent Responsibilities Disclosures Good idea to use disclosure statement even if not required by state law.  Provides information to parties.  Protects agent by documenting that certain information was provided.
  60. 60. Agent Responsibilities Liability Disclosure statement does not completely shield agent from liability.  Breach of fiduciary duties.  Inadvertent dual agency.
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