Running head: Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 1 Instruction Designed with the ADDIE Model Sarah Dowling EDU623 Dr. Linda Kaiser
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 2 Introduction This paper will discuss a professional development training on differentiated instruction.It will first analyze the needs of the training, the audience of the training, and the learningenvironment in which the training will take place. Furthermore, this paper will display a taskanalysis that will showcase the skills needed by the trainees at the conclusion of the training.This paper will also discuss the challenges that may surface during this training, as well as thetechnology that will be used. The schedule of events that will take place during this training willbe outlined, as well as the outcomes and objectives of the training. Additionally, this paper willpresent the specific learning theory that will be prominent within the training. The types ofassessment that will be conducted to ensure mastery of skills will also be presented. Adescription of the implementation plan of the training, as well as the learners‟ environment, willbe provided. Finally, the various levels of evaluation that will be conducted at the conclusion ofthe training will be explained in detail. To view the presentation that will be shown at thistraining, please visit http://ilearnwithyou.com/welcome. AnalysisNeeds Anaylsis In the field of education, there is a strong need for teachers to be aware of the differentways in which students learn. Students enter a classroom as individuals and they should betaught as such. There are many ways for a teacher to differentiate their instruction to meet theneeds of all learners. “When we differentiate, we do whatever it takes to help students learn byproviding individual accommodations and making adjustments to our general lesson plans”(Wormeli, 2007, pg. 3). Professional development training on differentiated instruction willprovide teachers with the skills and resources to teach each individual learner as an individual to
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 3maximize their level of understanding of the content.Audience Analysis The audience for this training will consist of K-12 teachers of various ages, experience,and content areas. Some teachers may have much more experience with differentiatinginstruction than others. In order to better determine the prior knowledge of the audience, asurvey will be distributed prior to the training. This survey will give the instructional designerinformation about the current level of mastery of the audience. The survey questions will bequantifiable in nature as opposed to open-ended questions. As Hodell (2007) states, “open-endedquestions lead to open-ended answers, but for quantifiable data, designers must ask quantifiablequestions and supply specific ranges of answers” (Ch. 4, “Developing Surveys”, para. 1). Anexample of a quantifiable question on the survey may be “How often do you currentlydifferentiate your lessons?” to which the teacher would have to circle “never”, “rarely”,“sometimes”, “often”, or “almost always”. The designer will assume that all audience membershave different learning styles. Therefore, the designer will have to differentiate this professionaldevelopment training for the audience based on both their prior knowledge and their learningstyles. Since this training will be differentiated, it will serve as an example of a differentiatedlesson to the trainees.Learning Environment Analysis This training will take place during a one-day, face-to-face format with the help oftechnology.Computers will be available to all participants and a SMART Board will be used topresent the content. Towards the end of the training, teachers will have the opportunity to use thecomputers to assist them in designing their own differentiated lesson.Online resources will alsobe provided to the audience throughout the training so that they may access these resources while
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 4designing their own differentiated lessons. The technology components of this training will bedescribed further in the Technology Analysis section of this paper.Task Analysis Step 1: The teacher will answer the following three questions:1) What do I want the students to know as a result of this/these learning experience(s)?2) What do I want the students to understand as a result of this/these learning experience(s)?3) What do I want the students to be able to do as a result of this/these learning experience(s)? Step 2: The teacher will give a pre-assessment to determine the students‟ current level ofreadiness. This pre-assessment will provide the teacher with information on the prior knowledgeand current skills of the students Step 3: The teacher will give a survey to determine the interests of the students. This will allowthe teacher to develop learning experiences that incorporate the various interests of the students. Step 4: The teacher will give a survey to determine the learning profile of the students. Whichstudents are visual learners? Which are auditory learners? Which are kinesthetic learners?Which students like to learn independently? Which like to learn in groups? Which studentsneed to learn in a quiet area? Which students need a lot of space to work? Step 5: The teacher will need to decide if they want to differentiate by content, process, orproduct. Differentiating by content means that different students may be working on different
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 5learning objectives during the same class time. Differentiating by process is about providingstudents with various instructional methods and materials to learn the content. Differentiating byproduct is to differentiate the ways in which the students demonstrate their understanding of thecontent. Step 6: The teacher will decide if they want to differentiate by student readiness, studentinterests, or student learning profiles. According to Tomlinson et al. (2003), “there is a reason inboth theory and research to support movement toward classrooms attentive to student variancethat is manifest in at least three areas: student readiness, interest, and learning profile” (pg.126).“The differentiating for readiness means the teacher is trying to help the students all worktoward the same outcome but at different degrees of difficulty, different degrees of complexity,with different kinds of scaffolding” (Tomlinson, 2012). When differentiating by studentinterests, the learning experiences will incorporate the various interests of the students.“Interest-based differentiation contributes to motivation…when students are interested in [their]work, their motivation to learn increases” (Tomlinson, 2012). Differentiating by learningprofiles ensures that each student is utilizing their own learning style, as well as their ownlearning preferences. “Learning profile is about efficiency of learning” (Tomlinson, 2012).Situational Analysis A potential challenge for this training is that the trainees will be at various skill levelswhen it comes to differentiating in the classroom. Differentiating instruction when teaching is avery different model than the “one-size-fits-all” approach that many teachers may be accustomedto. Another potential challenge may be the willingness of teachers to differentiate theirinstruction. Developing differentiated lessons/assessments/learning activities can prove to be a
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 6very time-consuming task. “Teachers must take time out of the school day to assess students‟learning needs and determine their learning styles. They must also take time to look throughassessments, determine the appropriate action to best accommodate students‟ learning needs,plan lessons, and implement accordingly” (Gangi, 2011, pg. 19). To overcome these challenges,the trainer must ensure that all trainees leave with a good understanding of differentiatedinstruction, as well as a positive understanding of why differentiating is crucial to studentsuccess.Media/Technology Analysis During this training, computers will be available to all participants and a SMART Boardwill be present. The SMART Board will be used to project key points of the training, as well asdisplay various other resources. All audience members will have access to their own computerwith internet access. A list of resources will be provided to the trainees so that each traineemayresearch different strategies for differentiation depending on their content area and grade level. DesignSchedule The following schedule was developed using Gagne‟s Nine Events of Instruction(University of Florida (UF), 2012). The ninth and final event, “enhance retention and transfer tothe job,” is intentionally omitted. This training is designed for a full, one day session. Gaining Attention The designer will ask for volunteers to participate in a specific activity that may be veryeasy for some and very difficult for others. Examples may be to play an instrument, throw a ballat a target, or jump and touch something that is very high. Participants who have priorknowledge of playing an instrument, playing a sport, or who are taller than others will have the
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 7advantage. The designer will then build the connection to teaching students to show that eachstudent will enter their classroom with different interests and different abilities. This activity willgain the attention of the trainees and open their minds to the idea of differentiating theirinstruction to meet the needs of every student. Inform learners of objectives The trainees will be shown lecture slides with the objectives stated. “The presentation ofobjectives is a crucial factor in setting the framework for meeting the course objectives” (Hodell,2011, “Direction”, para. 1). Clark (2012) provides the sequence of this event: “describe the goalof a lesson, [then] state what the learners will be able to accomplish and how they will be able touse the knowledge” (para. 5). Clark also warns that designers should break down the objectives“into a more casual language” so that the learners can better understand the expectations (para 7). The objectives that will be displayed are as follows:1) Trainees will be able to decide if they want to differentiate what they are teaching (content), how they are teaching it (process), or the way in which they will assess the students‟ understanding (product).2) Trainees will be able to decide if they want to differentiate based on the interests of their students, based on the various abilities/prior knowledge of their students (readiness), or based on the different ways in which their students learn (learning profile).3) Trainees will be able to develop at least two differentiated lessons/activities/assessments that they can use in their classroom. Stimulate recall of prior information Prior to the training, a questionnaire was completed by all participants. Therefore, at thisstage in the training, the designer should be aware of the level of understanding/experience that
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 8each trainee has with DI. This event will depend on the results of that questionnaire. If mostparticipants have little to no experience with DI, this event should stimulate the trainees‟ priorknowledge of learning styles. Within this event, a discussion could also take place about thevarious levels at which students enter a classroom since all teachers have undoubtedlyexperienced these variations. Present the content “How content is presented has more impact on learners than any other facet of thedesign” (Hodell, 2011, “Content”, para. 1). To present the content, the designer will show a briefPowerPoint presentation that discusses the rationale for DI, a description of differentiating bycontent, process, and product, and a description of differentiating by student readiness, studentinterests, and student learning profiles. Each trainee will be given a handout with all of the slidesto take notes on. Provide “learning guidance” During this stage of the training, trainees will be in small groups and will be presentedwith two examples of classroom lessons. The trainees will have to decide what wasdifferentiated, content, process, or product, as well as how they were differentiated, by studentreadiness, interests, or learning profiles. The instructor will provide guidance in making thesedecisions. A whole-group discussion will then occur centered on the decisions made by eachsmall group. As Hodell (2011) discusses, it is important for the trainer and the trainees to “shareequally in the process. One excellent way to do this is to have a large group discussion thatinvolves working through a problem or discussing a concept” (“Application Feedback – Level1”, para. 2). Elicit performance (practice)
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 9 In order to practice differentiating a lesson, the trainees will be separated into smallgroups by their content. (For example, math teachers will be grouped together, English teacherstogether, science teachers together, and so on.) Each group will choose two of the lessons thatthe participants brought with them. Together, the group will have to decide what and how todifferentiate these lessons. According to Hodell, “at this stage of the process, learners are largelyon their own and receiving feedback from other learners and the facilitator” (“ApplicationFeedback – Level 2”, para. 2). Provide feedback During this stage, each group will be required to choose one of the lessons that theydifferentiated and present it to the whole group. After their presentation, specific feedback willbe given by the facilitator, as well as the other groups. Hodell (2011) describes this stage asfollows: “Application feedback level 3 shifts responsibility to the learner and usually sees afacilitator on the sidelines observing and answering questions or correcting errors in content asnecessary, but not leading the process” (“Application Feedback – Level 3”, para. 7). Clark(2012) also warns that the feedback should be specific: “Tell then „why‟ they are doing a goodjob or provide specific guidance” (para. 15). Assess performance To assess the performance of the trainees, each trainee will then be required to workindependently to design two differentiated lessons to be used in their own classrooms. While thetrainees work, the facilitator will be checking in with each trainee to assess their understandingof the content.Outcomes and Objectives Each of the objectives for this training were developed using the A-B-C-D Model
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 10described by Hodell (2011). The „A‟ represents the audience of the training. According toHodell, “…designers must make sure that the audience statement is specific to the course andintended population” (“Audience”, para. 2). The „B‟ represents the behavior of the trainees.Hodell discusses that the behavior component should be something that is observable andmeasurable, and use active verbs instead of words such as „learn‟ or „understand‟ since thosecannot easily be measured (“Behavior”, para. 5). The „C‟ represents the condition element of theobjective. In the A-B-C-D Model, the condition component “provides two important designelements: the context of the learning environment and the framework for evaluation for eachlearning event” (Hodell, “Condition”, para. 1). Lastly, the „D‟ represents the degree by which thebehavior will be measured. Hodell describes the degree as the “evaluative finishing line ofmastery” (“Degree”, para. 1). For this course, the first two objectives do not have degreeelements since the behavior is to make an informed, educated decision. The first two objectives are enabling objectives since they “are the supporting behaviorsthat, when grouped together, build the path to a terminal objective” (Hodell, “EnablingObjectives”, para. 1). The third objective is a terminal objective because it demonstrates thefinal mastery that the learner should have at the end of the training (Hodell, “TerminalObjectives”, para. 1). The objectives for this course are as follows: (1) Given descriptions and examples of eachtype (condition), the Differentiated Instruction student (audience) should be able to decide if theywant to differentiate the content, process, or product (behavior). (2) Given descriptions andexamples of each type (condition), the Differentiated Instruction student (audience) should beable to decide if they want to differentiate by student readiness, student interests, or studentlearning profiles (behavior). (3) Given classroom examples of differentiated lessons, handouts
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 11with guidelines to design a DI lesson, and time to collaborate with others in their same content(condition), the Differentiated Instruction student (audience) should be able to design at least twodifferentiated lessons for their classroom (behavior and degree).Learning Theory Howard Gardner‟s Theory of Multiple Intelligences will be an integral part of thistraining. “The theory of multiple intelligences suggests that there are a number of distinct formsof intelligence that each individual possesses in varying degrees. Gardner proposes sevenprimary forms: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, body-kinesthetic,intrapersonal,… and interpersonal…” (Culatta, para. 1). Through recognizing and appreciatingthese various forms of intelligence, trainees will understand the importance of differentiatingtheir instruction. Trainees will also use this theory of multiple intelligences to assist them indeveloping differentiated lessons and activities that appeal to the different types of intelligences.For example, a trainee may develop a differentiated activity to assess their students‟understanding of a particular concept and offer his or her students the choice of creating a video,writing a report, or designing a Prezi presentation to demonstrate their understanding. Thecreation of a video may appeal to the musical, kinesthetic, or interpersonal types of intelligence;writing a report may appeal to the linguistic or logical-mathematical types of intelligence; andthe Prezi presentation may appeal to the spatial or intrapersonal types of intelligence.Lesson Structure “Differentiation can be defined as an approach to teaching in which teachers proactivelymodify curricula, teaching methods, resources, learning activities, and student products toaddress the diverse needs of individual students and small groups of students to maximize thelearning opportunity for each student in a classroom” (Tomlinson et al., 2003, p. 121)
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 12Differentiation is critical to our current system of education in order to meet the educationalneeds of each individual student. Within this training on differentiated instruction, the traineeswill be presented with the various ways to differentiate, as well as the rationale fordifferentiating. The trainees will be given opportunities to discuss and collaborate with others intheir content area in order to develop a better understanding of the ways to differentiate. Thetraining is designed in such a way that the trainees are first provided with the backgroundknowledge on why and how to differentiate. They will then have the opportunity to practicedifferentiating classroom lessons before being evaluated on their new level of understanding.During this practice segment of the training, learners will be able to work in small groups toensure full engagement and participation. Feedback will be provided during these groupcollaborations. As part of the final instructional event (although not mentioned in the scheduleabove), trainees will then be required to develop at least two of their own differentiated lessonsor activities to be implemented in their classroom.Assessment During this training, there will be two different types of assessment that occur. Firstly,after the small group collaboration on differentiating real-life classroom lessons, the groups willbe required to present their newly differentiated lesson. During these presentations, the groupswill be evaluated on their mastery, as well as provided with specific feedback. The second typeof assessment will occur when the trainees are required to work independently on differentiatinga lesson/activity of their own choosing. Specific feedback will also be provided after thisassessment.Media Specs For this training, a computer with the PowerPoint program is required, as well as the
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 13ability to project the image of the computer onto a projection screen (preferably a SMARTBoard). Audio from the computer carried through a sound system will also be necessary for thetrainees to be able to watch and hear a video. For the final events of the instructional training,each trainee will need a computer to design their own differentiated lessons. Additionalresources on differentiation will also be provided to the trainees. Therefore, computer andinternet access will be needed in order for the trainees to access these resources. Development The development portion of this project is presented as a PowerPoint presentationattached in a separate document. Each trainee will receive a printout of the presentation withspace for note-taking. In addition, the trainees will also receive multiple handouts, including alist of differentiation strategies with descriptions of each and a list of additional resources. Implementation This training on differentiated instruction (DI) will take place during a one dayprofessional development training. The trainer of the training will be a teacher in the buildingthat is experienced in differentiated instruction. Training will be provided for this trainer on anas-needed basis. This trainer-of-trainers will take place in the weeks leading up to the DItraining. During this trainer-of-trainers session, the designer will prepare the trainer by showingthem the presentation that was created, as well as the materials that were created. The trainerwill have the opportunity to complete a mock run-through of the actual training with the designerpresent to answer any questions. The environment for the DI training would need to be a large room with tables andcomputers. A school Media Center where there are both empty tables and a separate section ofcomputers would be ideal. However, a traditional computer lab would also suffice. The empty
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 14tables would allow the trainees to work together on the small-group activities that are a part ofthe training, whereas the computers are needed for the end-of-training activity where trainees arerequired to design their own differentiated classroom activities. Evaluation Donald Kirkpatrick developed Four Levels of Evaluation that can be applied to theADDIE Model. The first two levels – Reaction and Learning – should take place during theImplementation phase of the ADDIE Model, whereas the second two levels – Behavior andResults – should take place during the Evaluation phase of the ADDIE Model (Hodell, Ch. 7,“Kirkpatrick‟s Levels of Evaluation”, para. 2). The first level of evaluation – reaction – would take place immediately following theprofessional development training on differentiated instruction (DI). As Hodell states, “thefreshest and most accurate data for a level 1 evaluation comes at the immediate conclusion of thetraining” (Ch. 7, “Level 1: Reaction”, para. 3). Therefore, an online survey using an onlinesurveying tool, such as surveymonkey.com, that would automatically populate the trainees‟responses will be used. The purpose of this first level of evaluation is to gauge the trainees‟initial reactions and feelings about the training. Some examples of questions may be: Did youenjoy the training? Did you feel that the training was worthwhile? How did you feel about thelearning space that was used?(Chapman, “Kirkpatrick‟s four levels of training evaluation indetail”).Using an online surveying tool that automatically populates the data, the trainees‟reactions and feelings towards the training will be immediately known to the trainer. The second level of evaluation – learning – is primarily based on whether or not theobjectives of the training were met (Hodell, Ch. 7, “Level 2: Learning”, para. 1). This level ofevaluation would require some type of assessment in order to determine if the trainees met the
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 15objectives of the training. For this training, the terminal objective is for the trainees to developadifferentiated classroom learning activity. Therefore, this level 2 learning evaluation would bethe learning activity that is developed by the trainees on which their understanding of how todifferentiate would be assessed and feedback would be provided. After the first two levels of evaluation are complete and the training has concluded, thesecond two steps of evaluation would occur. The third level of evaluation – behavior – would bein the form of an observation of the trainees. This level of evaluation would determine if thetrainees took the skills learned from the training and applied those skills to their job (Chapman,“Kirkpatrick‟s four levels of training evaluation in detail”). The trainer will observe adifferentiated classroom lesson by each of the trainees to evaluate whether the training wastransferred to the workplace. The fourth and final level of evaluation – results – would take the form of studentperformance on classroom assessments and standardized tests. Since the purpose ofdifferentiating instruction is the improved education and success of the students being taught,this would be the final form of evaluation of the training. Conclusion This paper described a professional development training using the ADDIE Model ondifferentiating instruction in a K-12 classroom. The ability to differentiate instruction is animportant skill in education due to the various differences in our students. As Wormeli (2007)states, “Students are more diverse than ever – culturally, emotionally, economically, physically,and intellectually” (pg. 3). It is our responsibility as educators to learn about our studentsdiversities and adjust our instruction appropriately to ensure that each student receives theeducation they need and deserve.
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 17 ReferencesChapman, A. (2012). Kirkpatrick‟s learning and training evaluation theory. Businessballs. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/kirkpatricklearningevaluationmodel.htmClark, D. (2012). Robert gagne‟s nine steps of instruction. Big Dog & Little Dog‟s Performance Juxtaposition. Retrieved from http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/id/nine_step_id.html.Culatta, R. (2013). Multiple intelligences (H. Gardner). InnovativeLearning.com. Retrieved from http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/multiple-intelligences.htmlGangi, S. (2011). Differentiating instruction using multiple intelligences in the elementary school classroom: A literature review. The Graduate School: University of Wisconsin-Stout.Hodell, C. (2011). ISD From the ground up: A no-nonsense approach to instructional design. [Kindle]. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training & Development.University of Florida. (2013). Gagne‟s 9 events of instruction. Center for Instructional Technology & Training: Information Technology. Retrieved from http://citt.ufl.edu/tools/gagnes-9-events-of-instruction.Tomlinson, C. A. (1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Tomlinson, C. (2012). Differentiation central. [Video]. Retrieved from http://differentiationcentral.com.Tomlinson, C. A., Brighton, C., Hertberg, H., Callahan, C. M., Moon, T. R., Brimijoin,K.,… Reynolds, T. (2003). Differentiating instruction in response to student readiness, interest, and learning profile in academically diverse classrooms: A review of literature. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 27, 119-145.
Instruction designed with the ADDIE model 18Wormeli, R. (2007). Differentiation: From planning to practice, grades 6-12. Portland, MA: Stenhouse Publishers.