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Transcript

  • 1. Sharing our Guidance Backup Generators
  • 2. X 08/01/13 2 What Is A Generator? • A generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. • Serve as a power source in the event of utility power failure • Sources of mechanical energy can include: • Steam engine • Waterwheel • Hand crank • Compressed air • Internal combustion engine
  • 3. X 08/01/13 3 Generator Fuel Types SUMMARY OF FUEL FACTORS FACTOR GASOLINE DIESEL & MIXES NATURAL GAS VAPOR PROPANE LIQUID PROPANE ENGINE COST EXCELLENT (MANY LOW COST GENSETS ON THE MARKET) EXCELLENT (HIGH COST IN SMALL SIZES) EXCELLENT (LOW COST IN SMALL SIZES) EXCELLENT (LOW COST IN SMALL SIZES) EXCELLENT (LOW COST IN SMALL SIZES) FUEL SYSTEM INSTALLATION & STORAGE COST VARIES (LOW COST IN SMALL SIZES) VARIES (LOW COST IN SMALL SIZES) EXCELLENT (IF GAS SERVICE ALREADY AVAILABLE AT SITE) EXCELLENT (IF ADEQUATELY SIZED TANK ALREADY AT SITE) EXCELLENT (IF ADEQUATELY SIZED TANK ALREADY AT SITE) FIRE PERSONNEL SAFETY POOR (HIGHLY FLAMMABLE, POISONOUS VAPORS) EXCELLENT (HIGH FLASH POINT) MEDIUM (RARE LEAK RISK) MEDIUM (RARE LEAK OR TANK EXPLOSION RISK) MEDIUM (RARE LEAK OR TANK EXPLOSION RISK) ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS POOR (SPILL RISK, EXHAUST NOT CLEAN) POOR (SPILL RISK, EXHAUST NOT CLEAN) EXCELLENT (CLEAN BURNING) EXCELLENT (CLEAN BURNING) EXCELLENT (CLEAN BURNING) FUEL AVAILABILITY MEDIUM (EASY TO PURCHASE) MEDIUM (MUST BE DELIVERED & STORED) EXCELLENT (STORAGE NOT REQUIRED, SUPPLY RARELY LOST) MEDIUM (MUST BE DELIVERED & STORED) MEDIUM (MUST BE DELIVERED & STORED) COLD STARTING & OPERATION POOR (FORMS GUM DEPOSITS) MEDIUM (HARD STARTING AT COLD TEMPERATURES) EXCELLENT MEDIUM (TANK MUST BE LARGE & FULL) EXCELLENT (NO VAPORIZATION ISSUE) ENGINE LIFE/WEAR POOR/MEDIUM (DEPENDS ON ENGINE TYPE) EXCELLENT MEDIUM MEDIUM MEDIUM
  • 4. X 08/01/13 4 Engine Generator Requirements • Required to have enough fuel to run generator at full load for 2 hours minimum • Generators generally consume 7 gallons/hour for every 100kW of generator capacity • Some critical facilities store up to 72 hours of fuel • Fuel can be stored in belly tanks under the generator or separate tanks • Storage limited to 660 gallons inside a structure or on the roof (NFPA 110 7.9.5) • Subject to strict emission standards (Tier 1, 2, 3, 4) • NEC Article 445 – Generator Installation/Requirements • NEC Articles 700, 701, and 702 – Backup Load Types
  • 5. X 08/01/13 5 Backup Load Types 1. Emergency • Legally required and classified as emergency by code • Automatically supply light, power, or both essential for safety of human life • Egress lighting, fire detection/protection, elevators, public safety communications, etc. • Power must be available within 10 seconds 1. Legally Required Standby • Legally required by code • Provide power to systems that may create hazards or hamper firefighting operations if off • Communications, ventilation, smoke removal systems, lighting, industrial processes, etc. • Power must be available within 60 seconds
  • 6. X 08/01/13 6 Generator Power Source Categories 3. Optional Standby • Loads that do not affect life safety but would result in unacceptable financial or operational losses to a facility • Data processing, communication systems, refrigeration, HVAC loads, critical processes, etc. • Power must be available within 60 seconds 3. Mission Critical • Designated by local, state, or federal government • Loads that are necessary for public safety, national security, business continuity • Data centers, semiconductor manufacturing, etc. • Power must be available within 60 seconds
  • 7. X 08/01/13 7 Backup System One Line Diagram
  • 8. X 08/01/13 8 Loading & Generator Sizing • Emergency and required standby system loads must be applied without demand factors • Full load must be applied to the generator at all times • Must include starting currents of motors on the system • Use of a generator sizing program is recommended: • Inductive loads can present concerns with inrush • Harmonics • Voltage regulation • Load shedding or sequencing must be implemented when including emergency and non-emergency loads on the same generator
  • 9. X 08/01/13 9 Generators vs. Batteries GENERATOR BATTERIES START UP TIME 10-60 SECONDS MILLISECONDS NOISE NOISY QUIET FUEL RESERVE SUPPLY NONE NEEDED RUN-TIME AS LONG AS FUEL IS AVAILABLE UNTIL BATTERIES ARE DISCHARGED UPFRONT COST MORE EXPENSIVE LESS EXPENSIVE MAINTENANCE HIGH MAINTENANCE LOW MAINTENANCE LIFE SPAN LONG LIFE SPAN SHORT LIFE SPAN BACK UP TYPE LONG TERM SHORT TERM
  • 10. CONCLUSION THANK YOU.