GEOLOGÍA, VOLCANOLOGÍA Y SISMOLOGÍA  Red Sismológica National (UCR-ICE) Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR)  Instituto Costarr...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Seismic cross-sections
Historic earthquakes M > 5
 
 
 
 
 
 
Turrialba Iraz ú Po ás Barva Arenal Miravalles Rinc ón de la Vieja Subduction 85 mm/yr Tenorio Subduction 65 mm/yr
 
 
<ul><li>•  First Volcanological Observatory on Central America (1964) </li></ul><ul><li>•  Central America School of Geolo...
 
Seismometer
TURRIALBA VOLCANO 3339 m Altitude 3 craters 2 active Last eruption 1864-66
CRATERS AT TURRIALBA VOLCANO Cr áter Noreste
Fumaroles
Carrying Equipment on the Field Ooh Ooh! Mass Spectrometer
New fumarolic activity at southeast crater
Plume of gases
 
IRAZ Ú VOLCANO 3342 m
FUMAROLES 90  °C  Iraz ú  Crater Diego de la Haya Crater Main Crater Diameter  ±  1000 m Deep  ±  250 m Lagoon Diameter ±...
Northeast  fumaroles ±90 ºC
Seismic and Faults around Iraz ú and Turrialba Volcanoes
1960 Similar Changes 3 years before eruption January , 2003 Febraury 9 , 2003
1963-65 Eruptions Time
Irazú Volcano (1964) Ash Collectors
Barva Lagoon Danta Lagoon Copey Lagoon BARVA VOLCANIC COMPLEX 3 Lagoons
Laguna Copey
Barva Crater Diameter  ± 1 45m pH 4, ± 19  °C
Diameter  ± 1 00m pH 4, ± 18  °C DANTA CRATER
PO ÁS CRATER BOTOS CRATER PLUME AFFECTED AREA PO ÁS VOLCANO > 500.000 visitors / year Parking Lot
Crater Diameter  ±  1320 m Deep ± 350 m Lagoon Diameter ± 350 m Lagoon 40 to 55 m depth pH 0, 25 to 48  º C surface
Dome 95  °C
 
Eruption period 1984-89
Red Sulphur >220  ºC, pH 0 Fumarole Pipe Pyroclastic Sulphur from Pipes  BEFORE NOW
Poas Pele Hair
Sulphur Flow
Sulphur Flow
Lake Sampling Change of color during the seasons Emerald Rain and sediment Turquoise
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tepha Deposits
 
 
 
Eruption 17 – 25 may 1953 Elaboration of Hazard Maps
 
Botos Lagoon 14 m depth 12 °C Temperature Diving for collect Gas Sampling Fumaroles Area
ARENAL VOLCANO 1100 m Height 37 years continuous activity (1968-2005) One of the 16 most active volcanoes in the world
Historic pictures from Arenal 1968 Destroyed town of Pueblo Nuevo 78 death people Bomb Impact craters
<ul><li>1968 Eruption </li></ul><ul><li>Arenal Volcano </li></ul><ul><li>(92 Death) </li></ul>
Magma Chamber >10 km down Crater C Crater D
Fortuna town 6 km from the volcano 10.000 people
 
±  120 km / h >400  ºC Pyroclastic Flows 1998 Hot Spring Spa’s at 800 m
National Seismological Network Arenal Research Center? NO, is the Hot Spring Spa, at 4 km
 
Volcanic bomb of  ±  10 m diameter
Lava front collapse
Geological Map
Dry Tiltmeter Network
Volcanic Stability Analysis
 
Geochemestry of Hot and Cold Springs
Geological Mapping in volcanic areas
Miravalles  Volcano
VOLCAN MIRAVALLES GEODESIC NETWORK
Geothermal Electricity Plants at Miravalles Volcano
Rincon de la Vieja  Volcano
 
Fumaroles 90  °C Water pH 2 Temperature 25 – 30  °C
Seismicity of the Guanacaste Volcanoes
 
 
R/V Atlantis Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
ALVIN Submarine
 
 
 
 
METEOR M66 GEOMAR
ROV Quest (MARUM, Bremen)
  Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones  : Climate feedback and trigger mechanisms for natural disasters An overview. 3...
9°30’ 9°20’ 9°10’ 9°00’ 8°50’ 8°40’ -2000 0 85°90’ 85°80’ 85°70’ 85°60’ 85°50’ 85°00 84°90’ 84°80’ Nicoya Slump Tectonic o...
Nicoya Slump slope failure caused by ridge and seamount subduction likely a single, catastrophic (tsunamigenic) event SFB ...
9°30’ 9°20’ 9°10’ 9°00’ 8°50’ 8°40’ -2000 0 85°90’ 85°80’ 85°70’ 85°60’ 85°50’ 85°00 84°90’ 84°80’ Nicoya Slump Jaco Scarp...
Jaco Scarp continous slope indentation and failure caused by seamount subduction in a series of small scale slide events S...
9°30’ 9°20’ 9°10’ 9°00’ 8°50’ 8°40’ -2000 0 85°90’ 85°80’ 85°70’ 85°60’ 85°50’ 85°00 84°90’ 84°80’ Nicoya Slump Jaco Scarp...
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Volcanology of Costa Rica - NSTA 2010

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This presentation was offered by Carlos Jose Ramirez on behalf of Holbrook Travel's NSTA expedition to Costa Rica for educators July 2010. The presentation echoed a hands-on visit to seismology monitoring devices on Arenal Volcano.

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Volcanology of Costa Rica - NSTA 2010

  1. 1. GEOLOGÍA, VOLCANOLOGÍA Y SISMOLOGÍA Red Sismológica National (UCR-ICE) Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) Volcanólogos Carlos José Ramirez
  2. 14. Seismic cross-sections
  3. 15. Historic earthquakes M > 5
  4. 22. Turrialba Iraz ú Po ás Barva Arenal Miravalles Rinc ón de la Vieja Subduction 85 mm/yr Tenorio Subduction 65 mm/yr
  5. 25. <ul><li>• First Volcanological Observatory on Central America (1964) </li></ul><ul><li>• Central America School of Geology, UCR (1970) </li></ul><ul><li>• Center for Geophysics Reseach, CIGEFI (1979) </li></ul><ul><li>• National Seismological Network (ICE-UCR, 1974) </li></ul>
  6. 27. Seismometer
  7. 28. TURRIALBA VOLCANO 3339 m Altitude 3 craters 2 active Last eruption 1864-66
  8. 29. CRATERS AT TURRIALBA VOLCANO Cr áter Noreste
  9. 30. Fumaroles
  10. 31. Carrying Equipment on the Field Ooh Ooh! Mass Spectrometer
  11. 32. New fumarolic activity at southeast crater
  12. 33. Plume of gases
  13. 35. IRAZ Ú VOLCANO 3342 m
  14. 36. FUMAROLES 90 °C  Iraz ú Crater Diego de la Haya Crater Main Crater Diameter ± 1000 m Deep ± 250 m Lagoon Diameter ± 150 m Lagoon 14 to 20 m depth pH 3.5 to 4.5, 18 to 25 °C
  15. 37. Northeast fumaroles ±90 ºC
  16. 38. Seismic and Faults around Iraz ú and Turrialba Volcanoes
  17. 39. 1960 Similar Changes 3 years before eruption January , 2003 Febraury 9 , 2003
  18. 40. 1963-65 Eruptions Time
  19. 41. Irazú Volcano (1964) Ash Collectors
  20. 42. Barva Lagoon Danta Lagoon Copey Lagoon BARVA VOLCANIC COMPLEX 3 Lagoons
  21. 43. Laguna Copey
  22. 44. Barva Crater Diameter ± 1 45m pH 4, ± 19 °C
  23. 45. Diameter ± 1 00m pH 4, ± 18 °C DANTA CRATER
  24. 46. PO ÁS CRATER BOTOS CRATER PLUME AFFECTED AREA PO ÁS VOLCANO > 500.000 visitors / year Parking Lot
  25. 47. Crater Diameter ± 1320 m Deep ± 350 m Lagoon Diameter ± 350 m Lagoon 40 to 55 m depth pH 0, 25 to 48 º C surface
  26. 48. Dome 95 °C
  27. 50. Eruption period 1984-89
  28. 51. Red Sulphur >220 ºC, pH 0 Fumarole Pipe Pyroclastic Sulphur from Pipes BEFORE NOW
  29. 52. Poas Pele Hair
  30. 53. Sulphur Flow
  31. 54. Sulphur Flow
  32. 55. Lake Sampling Change of color during the seasons Emerald Rain and sediment Turquoise
  33. 64. Tepha Deposits
  34. 68. Eruption 17 – 25 may 1953 Elaboration of Hazard Maps
  35. 70. Botos Lagoon 14 m depth 12 °C Temperature Diving for collect Gas Sampling Fumaroles Area
  36. 71. ARENAL VOLCANO 1100 m Height 37 years continuous activity (1968-2005) One of the 16 most active volcanoes in the world
  37. 72. Historic pictures from Arenal 1968 Destroyed town of Pueblo Nuevo 78 death people Bomb Impact craters
  38. 73. <ul><li>1968 Eruption </li></ul><ul><li>Arenal Volcano </li></ul><ul><li>(92 Death) </li></ul>
  39. 74. Magma Chamber >10 km down Crater C Crater D
  40. 75. Fortuna town 6 km from the volcano 10.000 people
  41. 77. ± 120 km / h >400 ºC Pyroclastic Flows 1998 Hot Spring Spa’s at 800 m
  42. 78. National Seismological Network Arenal Research Center? NO, is the Hot Spring Spa, at 4 km
  43. 80. Volcanic bomb of ± 10 m diameter
  44. 81. Lava front collapse
  45. 82. Geological Map
  46. 83. Dry Tiltmeter Network
  47. 84. Volcanic Stability Analysis
  48. 86. Geochemestry of Hot and Cold Springs
  49. 87. Geological Mapping in volcanic areas
  50. 88. Miravalles Volcano
  51. 89. VOLCAN MIRAVALLES GEODESIC NETWORK
  52. 90. Geothermal Electricity Plants at Miravalles Volcano
  53. 91. Rincon de la Vieja Volcano
  54. 93. Fumaroles 90 °C Water pH 2 Temperature 25 – 30 °C
  55. 94. Seismicity of the Guanacaste Volcanoes
  56. 97. R/V Atlantis Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
  57. 98. ALVIN Submarine
  58. 103. METEOR M66 GEOMAR
  59. 104. ROV Quest (MARUM, Bremen)
  60. 105. Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones : Climate feedback and trigger mechanisms for natural disasters An overview. 3 Themes, each with 4 Subprojects A Input, subduction processes and structure B Volatiles and fluids in the forearc (continental slope) C Volatile transfer through the volcanic arc into the atmosphere
  61. 106. 9°30’ 9°20’ 9°10’ 9°00’ 8°50’ 8°40’ -2000 0 85°90’ 85°80’ 85°70’ 85°60’ 85°50’ 85°00 84°90’ 84°80’ Nicoya Slump Tectonic oversteepening at erosive convergent margins: example: Costa Rica SFB 574, Collaborative Research Centre Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones
  62. 107. Nicoya Slump slope failure caused by ridge and seamount subduction likely a single, catastrophic (tsunamigenic) event SFB 574, Collaborative Research Centre Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones -2000 0 9°30’ 9°20’ 9°10’ 9°00’ 85°90’ 85°80’ 85°70’ 85°60’ 85°50’ 84°00
  63. 108. 9°30’ 9°20’ 9°10’ 9°00’ 8°50’ 8°40’ -2000 0 85°90’ 85°80’ 85°70’ 85°60’ 85°50’ 85°00 84°90’ 84°80’ Nicoya Slump Jaco Scarp Tectonic oversteepening at erosive convergent margins: example: Costa Rica SFB 574, Collaborative Research Centre Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones
  64. 109. Jaco Scarp continous slope indentation and failure caused by seamount subduction in a series of small scale slide events SFB 574, Collaborative Research Centre Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones
  65. 110. 9°30’ 9°20’ 9°10’ 9°00’ 8°50’ 8°40’ -2000 0 85°90’ 85°80’ 85°70’ 85°60’ 85°50’ 85°00 84°90’ 84°80’ Nicoya Slump Jaco Scarp small scale slumping Tectonic oversteepening at erosive convergent margins: example: Costa Rica SFB 574, Collaborative Research Centre Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones

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