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Volcanology of Costa Rica - NSTA 2010
 

Volcanology of Costa Rica - NSTA 2010

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This presentation was offered by Carlos Jose Ramirez on behalf of Holbrook Travel's NSTA expedition to Costa Rica for educators July 2010. The presentation echoed a hands-on visit to seismology ...

This presentation was offered by Carlos Jose Ramirez on behalf of Holbrook Travel's NSTA expedition to Costa Rica for educators July 2010. The presentation echoed a hands-on visit to seismology monitoring devices on Arenal Volcano.

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    Volcanology of Costa Rica - NSTA 2010 Volcanology of Costa Rica - NSTA 2010 Presentation Transcript

    • GEOLOGÍA, VOLCANOLOGÍA Y SISMOLOGÍA Red Sismológica National (UCR-ICE) Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) Volcanólogos Carlos José Ramirez
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    • Seismic cross-sections
    • Historic earthquakes M > 5
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    • Turrialba Iraz ú Po ás Barva Arenal Miravalles Rinc ón de la Vieja Subduction 85 mm/yr Tenorio Subduction 65 mm/yr
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      • • First Volcanological Observatory on Central America (1964)
      • • Central America School of Geology, UCR (1970)
      • • Center for Geophysics Reseach, CIGEFI (1979)
      • • National Seismological Network (ICE-UCR, 1974)
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    • Seismometer
    • TURRIALBA VOLCANO 3339 m Altitude 3 craters 2 active Last eruption 1864-66
    • CRATERS AT TURRIALBA VOLCANO Cr áter Noreste
    • Fumaroles
    • Carrying Equipment on the Field Ooh Ooh! Mass Spectrometer
    • New fumarolic activity at southeast crater
    • Plume of gases
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    • IRAZ Ú VOLCANO 3342 m
    • FUMAROLES 90 °C  Iraz ú Crater Diego de la Haya Crater Main Crater Diameter ± 1000 m Deep ± 250 m Lagoon Diameter ± 150 m Lagoon 14 to 20 m depth pH 3.5 to 4.5, 18 to 25 °C
    • Northeast fumaroles ±90 ºC
    • Seismic and Faults around Iraz ú and Turrialba Volcanoes
    • 1960 Similar Changes 3 years before eruption January , 2003 Febraury 9 , 2003
    • 1963-65 Eruptions Time
    • Irazú Volcano (1964) Ash Collectors
    • Barva Lagoon Danta Lagoon Copey Lagoon BARVA VOLCANIC COMPLEX 3 Lagoons
    • Laguna Copey
    • Barva Crater Diameter ± 1 45m pH 4, ± 19 °C
    • Diameter ± 1 00m pH 4, ± 18 °C DANTA CRATER
    • PO ÁS CRATER BOTOS CRATER PLUME AFFECTED AREA PO ÁS VOLCANO > 500.000 visitors / year Parking Lot
    • Crater Diameter ± 1320 m Deep ± 350 m Lagoon Diameter ± 350 m Lagoon 40 to 55 m depth pH 0, 25 to 48 º C surface
    • Dome 95 °C
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    • Eruption period 1984-89
    • Red Sulphur >220 ºC, pH 0 Fumarole Pipe Pyroclastic Sulphur from Pipes BEFORE NOW
    • Poas Pele Hair
    • Sulphur Flow
    • Sulphur Flow
    • Lake Sampling Change of color during the seasons Emerald Rain and sediment Turquoise
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    • Tepha Deposits
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    • Eruption 17 – 25 may 1953 Elaboration of Hazard Maps
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    • Botos Lagoon 14 m depth 12 °C Temperature Diving for collect Gas Sampling Fumaroles Area
    • ARENAL VOLCANO 1100 m Height 37 years continuous activity (1968-2005) One of the 16 most active volcanoes in the world
    • Historic pictures from Arenal 1968 Destroyed town of Pueblo Nuevo 78 death people Bomb Impact craters
      • 1968 Eruption
      • Arenal Volcano
      • (92 Death)
    • Magma Chamber >10 km down Crater C Crater D
    • Fortuna town 6 km from the volcano 10.000 people
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    • ± 120 km / h >400 ºC Pyroclastic Flows 1998 Hot Spring Spa’s at 800 m
    • National Seismological Network Arenal Research Center? NO, is the Hot Spring Spa, at 4 km
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    • Volcanic bomb of ± 10 m diameter
    • Lava front collapse
    • Geological Map
    • Dry Tiltmeter Network
    • Volcanic Stability Analysis
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    • Geochemestry of Hot and Cold Springs
    • Geological Mapping in volcanic areas
    • Miravalles Volcano
    • VOLCAN MIRAVALLES GEODESIC NETWORK
    • Geothermal Electricity Plants at Miravalles Volcano
    • Rincon de la Vieja Volcano
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    • Fumaroles 90 °C Water pH 2 Temperature 25 – 30 °C
    • Seismicity of the Guanacaste Volcanoes
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    • R/V Atlantis Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
    • ALVIN Submarine
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    • METEOR M66 GEOMAR
    • ROV Quest (MARUM, Bremen)
    • Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones : Climate feedback and trigger mechanisms for natural disasters An overview. 3 Themes, each with 4 Subprojects A Input, subduction processes and structure B Volatiles and fluids in the forearc (continental slope) C Volatile transfer through the volcanic arc into the atmosphere
    • 9°30’ 9°20’ 9°10’ 9°00’ 8°50’ 8°40’ -2000 0 85°90’ 85°80’ 85°70’ 85°60’ 85°50’ 85°00 84°90’ 84°80’ Nicoya Slump Tectonic oversteepening at erosive convergent margins: example: Costa Rica SFB 574, Collaborative Research Centre Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones
    • Nicoya Slump slope failure caused by ridge and seamount subduction likely a single, catastrophic (tsunamigenic) event SFB 574, Collaborative Research Centre Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones -2000 0 9°30’ 9°20’ 9°10’ 9°00’ 85°90’ 85°80’ 85°70’ 85°60’ 85°50’ 84°00
    • 9°30’ 9°20’ 9°10’ 9°00’ 8°50’ 8°40’ -2000 0 85°90’ 85°80’ 85°70’ 85°60’ 85°50’ 85°00 84°90’ 84°80’ Nicoya Slump Jaco Scarp Tectonic oversteepening at erosive convergent margins: example: Costa Rica SFB 574, Collaborative Research Centre Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones
    • Jaco Scarp continous slope indentation and failure caused by seamount subduction in a series of small scale slide events SFB 574, Collaborative Research Centre Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones
    • 9°30’ 9°20’ 9°10’ 9°00’ 8°50’ 8°40’ -2000 0 85°90’ 85°80’ 85°70’ 85°60’ 85°50’ 85°00 84°90’ 84°80’ Nicoya Slump Jaco Scarp small scale slumping Tectonic oversteepening at erosive convergent margins: example: Costa Rica SFB 574, Collaborative Research Centre Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones