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Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
Mapping Cybergeographies
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Mapping Cybergeographies

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  • 1. Mapping Cybergeographies Stephen Graham Newcastle University
  • 2. The Myth of the “End of Geography” •  60s-90s: Pervasive rhetoric of “death of distance”, “end of geography”, “end of cities” •  Apparently limitless and infinite mobilities •  Bill Gates “Friction-free capitalism” •  Virilio “Urbanization of real time” •  Substitutionist and deterministic assumptions: “anything-anywhere-anytime dream” •  Dematerialisation, withdrawal from physical world: body-city-geography
  • 3. •  And yet a new age of cartography is emerging centred on revealing the lie to these myths: •  1. Visualizations of Cyberspace •  2. Visualizing Cyberspace Topologies and Flows •  3. Visualizing Cyberspace Materialities •  4. Mapping Uneven Geographies •  5. A Geolocated World: Animating Geographies Through GPS/Mobile/Satellites/Ubiquitous Computing •  Highly charged politics of mapping cybergeographies
  • 4. 1. Visualizations of Cyberspace •  Cartographic techniques which help make informational domains legible, navigable, memorable •  Widespread use of geographical and urban metaphors •  Increasing blurring of cyberspace/real space boundary
  • 5. Classic ‘Virtual Reality’ Paradigm: Immersive, 3D: Marginalize the Body
  • 6. Also Imaginary Geographies of Virtual Worlds
  • 7. Alphaworld Virtual ‘City’
  • 8. SimCity
  • 9. Video Game Urban Simulations
  • 10. Using Familiar Urban Cartography to Structure Online Content
  • 11. Geographical Metaphors to Structure Complex Online Content
  • 12. Amsterdam ‘Digital City’
  • 13. Sometimes utilise national maps
  • 14. 2. Visualizing Cyberspace Topologies and Flows •  Capture the connectivities of ICT systems and how the topological connections and flows of data are constructed to benefit certain interests and/or geographical areas •  Exposes extraordinarily stark and uneven geographies and hidden biases of connectivity
  • 15. Online position: informational space
  • 16. Topological Map of the Internet
  • 17. Alt.discussion groups
  • 18. Hierarchical mapping
  • 19. The UK JANET Academic Backbone
  • 20. Mapping 24hr Global Flows
  • 21. Trace Routing
  • 22. 3. Visualizing Cyberspace Materialities •  Material infrastructures supporting ‘cyberspace’ generally neglected or ignored (until they fail) •  Physical and cultural invisibility •  And yet they have highly uneven and important geographies at all spatial scales: global to the urban •  E.g. Manhattan has more optic fibre than Africa •  Such patterns do much to reveal political, economic and cultural geographies of power
  • 23. Evolution of ARPANET
  • 24. Transnational Optic Fibre Networks
  • 25. Triumvirate of Dominant Capitalist Heartland Regions: N Am, Eur, E Asia
  • 26. New Fibre Corridors and E-Peripheries
  • 27. International Phone Traffic and Bypassed Zones
  • 28. Satellite ‘Footprints’
  • 29. Highly Uneven Urban and Regional ‘Dot.Com Geographies’: UK ‘Spikes’
  • 30. Matt Zook’s US ‘Dot.Com’ Map
  • 31. Zook’s Bay Area
  • 32. Down Town San Francisco
  • 33. Dodge’s IP Address Density Surface in London
  • 34. WiFi ‘Hot Spots’
  • 35. Revealing Fibre for Local Economic Promotion e.g. San Diego
  • 36. Digitised Urban Simulacra
  • 37. Virtual Los Angeles
  • 38. Webcams: Cyberspace as Prosthetic Eyes
  • 39. 4. Mapping Uneven Geographies •  Mapping cybergeographies can act as proxies to reveal and visualise uneven development, divisions of labour, and geographies of social polarisation at all geographical scales: From technogeopolitics to urban social geographies •  An Examples: Technogeopolitics-- Global N-S relations
  • 40. Technogeopolitics: Contrasts Global Population Density and Internet Router Density
  • 41. Main Concentrations of Domain Names
  • 42. Postcolonial Techno Geopolitics of Connectivity
  • 43. Cartograms to Demonstrate Who Dominates Web Growth: 2007
  • 44. 2015 (projected)
  • 45. 5. Geolocated Worlds: Animating Geographies Through GPS/ Mobile/ Ubiquitous Computing •  Eg Amsterdam Realtime project 2002 •  Seehttp:// www.interactivearchitecture.org/ amsterdam-realtime-waagsociety.html
  • 46. Google Earth/Google Maps: Covergence of Geolocation/ Remote Sensing/ Virtual reality/ Photography/Navigation
  • 47. Produces Active Mash-Ups as “New Spatial Media”
  • 48. These Co-exist With Growing Sophistication and Commercialisation of Parallel, Online Worlds
  • 49. Conclusions •  New age of cartography revealing the lie of cyberutopian or dystopian rhetoric of the death of geography or distance through real-time •  Shift from geographical metaphors to help make cyberspace navigable, to sophisticated mapping of the geographical bases and materialities that sustain ‘cyberspace’ •  Blurring real/virtual boundaries •  As with all cartography, these representations biased and politicised, but very revealing •  Shit towards dynamic, animated, cartographies generated by everyday mobilities

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