Thank you for introducing my colleague and me. Digital media, especially Internet-ready computers play for young people more and more an important role in their sparetime. The high amount of time spent for using the Internet, as evidenced by relevant studies, is largely associated with entertainment-oriented uses. In both questions, the situation apparently differs only slightly from observations from the period of the introduction of the Internet in schools in the late 1990s. Given the ever increasing penetration of online technologies in everyday life of young people, our study examines whether the so-called „digital natives” may also be found at school – while using the computer as a learning tool. In particular, computer-related attitudes, which can affect personal characteristics as well as individual learning skills, are examined in relation to its effect toward computer-based learning media. Many publications on the so-called net generation directly link the media use of young people with their computer-related attitudes but without examining these phenomena in detail. Our study focusses on that point. But first I‘ll give you the outlines of our presentation.
I’ll start with a brief insight into the underlying concepts of our study and then present you the research design and the associated project. My colleague Ms. Schaarschmidt follows with explaining the research method and the central and quite surprising results. And in the end there is still time for questions and remarks. But first some short theory.
Our study is based on three concepts shown on the slide. The first central notion is attitude and in particular the computer-related attitude. The term attitude itself is one of the most relevant constructs in social psychology and in the literature we find a lot of definitions and models about it. For our study we followed the presentation by Naumann (2004) and conceptualized computer-related attitudes as cognition-based attitudes. Such cognitive attitudes are described by the amount of a person‘s evaluative beliefs toward an object, in our case toward the computer. (The computer-related attitudes could be measured with appropriately differentiated scales like the Inventory of Computer Literacy (INCOBI-R) by Richter, Naumann & Horz (2012).) We also had a look on the use of media. In our paper you find two relevant german studies toward the use of media. They show the increase in the general media use – across all ages. 90% of german teenagers use the Internet daily or several times a week and thus more often than traditional telecommunications and printed media, like television, music players and books. However, these statistics do not explain whether young people are capable of web-based learning or not, because the use of Internet affects mainly on communication and entertainment needs. The use of the Internet to learn does only play a weaker role, but nethertheless these teenagers are quite familiar with it as a learning or working tool. The notion of ‚digital natives‘ by Marc Prensky is largely known I think, so I won‘t spent more time with it. That should be enough for an overview about our bases. Now some words to our research design.
Our study was conducted as part of the project UnIbELT which stands for „Transition from school to college with support of Internet-based E-Learning-tools“. It is financed by the Eurpoean Social Fund and develops various E-Learning scenarios for the preparation for higher academic studies under field conditions. During the period of three years participating students receive exclusive access to the learning platform that is used by all universities in the german state of saxony. So already young students make themselves familiar with the methodology of digital learning and especially with that learning platform. Currently, we have 22 courses on that platform with topics for example from computer sciences, psychology and biotechnology. On the following slide I‘ll give you a screenshot of a course about „molecular biotechnology“. Next slide
If you are interested in our courses you find more information on our website. That was the short insight in the context of our study. Now, my colleague Nadine Schaarschmidt will present you the research method and of course the results.
The development process of the e-learning scenarios is accompanied by three evaluation steps: Evaluation I : Expert evaluation using a set of criteria by specialist subject teachers, psychologists and e-learning specialists during the course development, Evaluation II : Online-Questionnaire about demographics, computer use and applications, learning motivation, computer-related attitudes (FIDEC from the INCOBI-R), learning-related self-efficacy expectations and use of e-learning programs, Evaluation III : Group interviews with students upon course completion in the schools, course content, personal experiences with the self-determined, web-based form of learning, learning and working style.
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Where are the 'Digital Natives'? - An empirical study of german high school students’ attitudes toward internet-based learning.
Media CenterWhere are the ‘Digital Natives’?– An empirical study of germanhigh school students’ attitudestoward internet-based learningBarcelona, 03.07.2012
Outlines1. Introduction2. Underlying Concepts3. Research design4. Research method5. Results6. Discussion Nadine.Schaarschmidt@tu-dresden.de 2/12 Sindy.Dietsch@tu-dresden.de Medienzentrum
Research design• study as part of the project UnIbELT: “Transition from school to college with the support of Internet-based e-learning tools“• financed by the European Social Fund (2009 – 2012)• develops various e-learning scenarios to prepare students for higher academic studies under field conditions Nadine.Schaarschmidt@tu-dresden.de 4/12 Sindy.Dietsch@tu-dresden.de Medienzentrum
Research method Nadine.Schaarschmidt@tu-dresden.de 6/12 Sindy.Dietsch@tu-dresden.de Medienzentrum
Sample• total number of participants in the project: over 1.000 high school students of several schools• 763 high school students took part in the survey• between 15 and 20 years old, with the average age of 17 years• 40% girls (n = 297) and 60% boys (n = 454) Nadine.Schaarschmidt@tu-dresden.de 7/12 Sindy.Dietsch@tu-dresden.de Medienzentrum
Results: Computer related attitudes M FIDEC-Scales: 1 = high acceptance Computer related attitudes 5 = low acceptance Positive attitude components: Computers for learning and working 1.9 (PE/LA/+) Negative attitude components: Computers for learning and working 3.7 (PE/LA/-) Positive attitude components: Computers for entertainment and 2.1 communication (PE/UK/+) Negative attitude components: Computers for entertainment and 3.7 communication (PE/UK/-) Nadine.Schaarschmidt@tu-dresden.de 8/12 Sindy.Dietsch@tu-dresden.de Medienzentrum
Results: Influences on computer relatedattitudes• Computer usage• Quantity of experience with computer-based learning/E- Learning• Quality of the experience with computer-based learning/E- Learning• Learning outcome and motivation• Learning related self-efficacy expectations• Gender Nadine.Schaarschmidt@tu-dresden.de 9/12 Sindy.Dietsch@tu-dresden.de Medienzentrum
Results: Influences on computer relatedattitudes• Gender Gender N M SD p Computer as a learning and working tool female 294 2.0 .53 .447 (positive attitude) male 434 1.9 .66 Computer as a learning and working tool female 294 3.6 .71 .000 (negative attitude) male 434 3.9 .76 Computer as a communication and female 294 2.3 .71 .000 entertainment tool (positive attitude) male 434 2.0 .71 Computer as a communication and female 294 3.6 .63 .000 entertainment tool (negative attitude) male 434 3.9 .69 Nadine.Schaarschmidt@tu-dresden.de 10/12 Sindy.Dietsch@tu-dresden.de Medienzentrum
Conclusions and future work• attitudes toward computer-based learning are very positive• Surprisingly and in contrast to recent studies: traditional influences can not be confirmed• experience with e-learning within this sample is also very large• Characteristic of this sample: they have chosen to participate in the e-learning programs voluntarily. It can be assumed that the sample belongs to an education friendly group.• a comparison of the educational backgrounds is needed to test a connection between the highly positive attitudes to the computer as an entertainment item and learning tool• a comparative analysis to other attitudes is recommended• Answer to the initial question if digital natives can be found at school: the term must be discussed in relation to several aspects Nadine.Schaarschmidt@tu-dresden.de 11/12 Sindy.Dietsch@tu-dresden.de Medienzentrum