Presentation Biometrics ITech Law 2009 European Conference


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Lorenz gave a presentation on the legal aspects of biometrics at the Annual European ITechLaw Conference which was held in Brussels on November 5-6, 2009. Biometrics are gaining importance to adequately secure physical access as well as access to information systems. However, the implementation of biometric technology on the European market requires that a number of legal hurdles are successfully overcome by the biometrics industry and companies planning to invest in such technology.

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Presentation Biometrics ITech Law 2009 European Conference

  1. 1. Lorenz 1 Brussels Bishkek Geneva
  2. 2. 2 Table of Contents LorenzBrussels Bishkek Geneva I. Introduction to Biometrics II. Privacy Protection under Regulatory Regimes III. Other Legal Issues A. Biometrics in the Workplace B. E-commerce C. Evidence D. Standardization IV. Concluding Remarks and Questions
  3. 3. I. INTRODUCTION TO BIOMETRICS Brussels Bishkek Geneva 3 Lorenz
  4. 4. WHAT IS ‘BIOMETRICS’? 1. Characteristic: The measurement of (i) psychological or (ii) behavioural characteristics of an individual, for use in proving their identity. 2. Process: The automated method of recognizing an individual based on measurable characteristics. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 4 Lorenz
  5. 5. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 5 Lorenz 1. Sensor 2. Biometric Template 3. Data storage Components 4. Matching Algorithm 5. Decision Process How does a biometric system work?
  6. 6. Practical uses of biometric technology 1) Logical access – information and assets 2) Physical Access – facility or location Brussels Bishkek Geneva 6 Lorenz
  7. 7. Verification Versus Identification Verification systems compares sample to previously submitted templates. 1 = 1 Identification systems try to determine who the individual is by comparing to a closed set or open set of data. 1 = multiple Brussels Bishkek Geneva 7 Lorenz
  8. 8. Characteristics Biometric Elements: - Universality - Uniqueness - Permanence - Accessibility and ability to be quantified Lorenz
  9. 9. Common Characteristics of Biometric Recognition Systems -System Performance (error rates) -User Tolerance -Robustness -Interface Ability Lorenz
  10. 10. Fingerprint recognition Brussels Bishkek Geneva 10 Lorenz
  11. 11. Hand and Finger Geometry Brussels Bishkek Geneva 11 Lorenz
  12. 12. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 12 Face Recognition Lorenz
  13. 13. Speaker Recognition Brussels Bishkek Geneva 13 Lorenz
  14. 14. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 14 Iris Recognition Lorenz passport.jpg
  15. 15. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 15 Iris Recognition Lorenz
  16. 16. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 16 Lorenz Biometric Passports
  17. 17. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 17 • Dynamic signature • Keystroke dynamics • Circulatory recognition • Gait/body recognition • Facial thermography • DNA recognition ? • Etc. Lorenz Developing biometric technologies
  18. 18. Brussels Bishkek Geneva Government uses: • E-passports • National Security • Transportation: Airport/airline travel • Immigration • Information Security Private sector uses: •Hardware •Information Security •Domestic Uses •Health care •HR Purposes •Assets 18 Brussels Bishkek Geneva Lorenz Current Uses in the Market
  19. 19. II. BIOMETRICS AND EUROPEAN PRIVACY Brussels Bishkek Geneva 19 Lorenz
  20. 20. European Context - Right to data protection - Right to privacy - Human right approach Brussels Bishkek Geneva 20 Lorenz
  21. 21. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 21 LorenzBrussels Bishkek Geneva Biometrics and Human Rights
  22. 22. Generic Concerns Article 29 Working Party - Special sensitivity biometric data : - behavioural and physiological characteristics of an individual - Unique identification - Potential re-use (both private and public sector actors) - Potential desensitization Brussels Bishkek Geneva 22 Lorenz
  23. 23. Brussels Bishkek Geneva Purpose and Proportionality - Impact on legitimacy of biometric process used in a specific context (e.g. Storage of reference information; raw data may contain unnecessary information) - Affected population (in terms of quantity and quality) - Public sector uses v. Private sector uses Brussels Bishkek Geneva 23 Lorenz
  24. 24. Brussels Bishkek Geneva Other Issues • Fair collection and information • Criteria for making data processing legitimate • Prior Checking – notification requirements • Security measures • Sensitive data • Unique identifier Brussels Bishkek Geneva 24 Lorenz
  25. 25. Interpretations by member state DPAs Brussels Bishkek Geneva 25 Lorenz
  26. 26.  No harmonized approach (country by country)  Gradually but slowly more acceptance of biometrics technology  Factors:  DPAs tend to be sceptical about storing templates in a central database  DPAs promote the use of biometric applications that do not “leave traces”  DPA are more lenient towards public sector purposes (private sector purposes typically require stronger justification) Lorenz
  27. 27. Potential Bottlenecks For Companies - Biometrics technology industry - Users of biometrics technology Brussels Bishkek Geneva 27 Lorenz
  29. 29. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 29 A. Biometrics in the workplace LorenzBrussels Bishkek Geneva
  30. 30. Biometrics in the workplace (continued)  Need for employer to secure premises and IT Network (physical and logical access control)  Monitoring of employees (e.g. prevention of ‘buddy punching’) 30 Lorenz
  31. 31. Biometrics in the workplace (continued) • Privacy Issues: – Legitimacy of specific use of biometrics – Biometric information stored in central database or on individual carriers (e.g. badge)? – Are some biometric data to be considered as sensitive data (containing information on race, health,...)? • Consultation Issues – Introduction of biometric system may have impact on the work organisation and the privacy of employees – Involvement of employee representative bodies Lorenz
  32. 32. Brussels Bishkek Geneva B. Biometrics and E-commerce Ability to identify the purchaser? • Better than passwords Industry is slow to embrace biometric technology Costs • Non-portability of devices  Alternatives such as keystroke dynamics and speaker recognition could solve these issues. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 32 Lorenz
  33. 33. Brussels Bishkek Geneva Biometrics and E-commerce continued Brussels Bishkek Geneva 33 Lorenz
  34. 34. Brussels Bishkek Geneva C. Possible Contractual Issues 1. Liability 2. Malfunctions and technical problems Brussels Bishkek Geneva 34 Lorenz
  35. 35. Brussels Bishkek Geneva D. Evidence Brussels Bishkek Geneva 35 Lorenz
  36. 36. Brussels Bishkek Geneva Brussels Bishkek Geneva 36 Lorenz Outstanding problems with biometrics as evidence: 1.Lack of harmonization 2.Advantages and disadvantages experts 3.Right to counter-expertise 4.Rights of second experts
  37. 37. Brussels Bishkek Geneva E. Standardization Brussels Bishkek Geneva 37 Lorenz •National and International efforts for standardization of biometrics and biometric systems •International Standardizing Organization in cooperation with the International Electro-technical Commission publishes standards •Importance of interoperability of systems
  38. 38. Brussels Bishkek Geneva IV. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND QUESTIONS Brussels Bishkek Geneva 38 Lorenz
  39. 39. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 39 Jan Dhont Steven De Schrijver Lorenz Troonstraat 14-16 B. 5 Rue du Trône 1000 Brussels T. 32 2 239 2000 - F. 32 2 239 2002 Lorenz