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Presentation Biometrics ITech Law 2009 European Conference


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Lorenz gave a presentation on the legal aspects of biometrics at the Annual European ITechLaw Conference which was held in Brussels on November 5-6, 2009. Biometrics are gaining importance to …

Lorenz gave a presentation on the legal aspects of biometrics at the Annual European ITechLaw Conference which was held in Brussels on November 5-6, 2009. Biometrics are gaining importance to adequately secure physical access as well as access to information systems. However, the implementation of biometric technology on the European market requires that a number of legal hurdles are successfully overcome by the biometrics industry and companies planning to invest in such technology.

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  • 1. Lorenz 1 Brussels Bishkek Geneva
  • 2. 2 Table of Contents LorenzBrussels Bishkek Geneva I. Introduction to Biometrics II. Privacy Protection under Regulatory Regimes III. Other Legal Issues A. Biometrics in the Workplace B. E-commerce C. Evidence D. Standardization IV. Concluding Remarks and Questions
  • 3. I. INTRODUCTION TO BIOMETRICS Brussels Bishkek Geneva 3 Lorenz
  • 4. WHAT IS ‘BIOMETRICS’? 1. Characteristic: The measurement of (i) psychological or (ii) behavioural characteristics of an individual, for use in proving their identity. 2. Process: The automated method of recognizing an individual based on measurable characteristics. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 4 Lorenz
  • 5. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 5 Lorenz 1. Sensor 2. Biometric Template 3. Data storage Components 4. Matching Algorithm 5. Decision Process How does a biometric system work?
  • 6. Practical uses of biometric technology 1) Logical access – information and assets 2) Physical Access – facility or location Brussels Bishkek Geneva 6 Lorenz
  • 7. Verification Versus Identification Verification systems compares sample to previously submitted templates. 1 = 1 Identification systems try to determine who the individual is by comparing to a closed set or open set of data. 1 = multiple Brussels Bishkek Geneva 7 Lorenz
  • 8. Characteristics Biometric Elements: - Universality - Uniqueness - Permanence - Accessibility and ability to be quantified Lorenz
  • 9. Common Characteristics of Biometric Recognition Systems -System Performance (error rates) -User Tolerance -Robustness -Interface Ability Lorenz
  • 10. Fingerprint recognition Brussels Bishkek Geneva 10 Lorenz
  • 11. Hand and Finger Geometry Brussels Bishkek Geneva 11 Lorenz
  • 12. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 12 Face Recognition Lorenz
  • 13. Speaker Recognition Brussels Bishkek Geneva 13 Lorenz
  • 14. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 14 Iris Recognition Lorenz passport.jpg
  • 15. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 15 Iris Recognition Lorenz
  • 16. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 16 Lorenz Biometric Passports
  • 17. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 17 • Dynamic signature • Keystroke dynamics • Circulatory recognition • Gait/body recognition • Facial thermography • DNA recognition ? • Etc. Lorenz Developing biometric technologies
  • 18. Brussels Bishkek Geneva Government uses: • E-passports • National Security • Transportation: Airport/airline travel • Immigration • Information Security Private sector uses: •Hardware •Information Security •Domestic Uses •Health care •HR Purposes •Assets 18 Brussels Bishkek Geneva Lorenz Current Uses in the Market
  • 19. II. BIOMETRICS AND EUROPEAN PRIVACY Brussels Bishkek Geneva 19 Lorenz
  • 20. European Context - Right to data protection - Right to privacy - Human right approach Brussels Bishkek Geneva 20 Lorenz
  • 21. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 21 LorenzBrussels Bishkek Geneva Biometrics and Human Rights
  • 22. Generic Concerns Article 29 Working Party - Special sensitivity biometric data : - behavioural and physiological characteristics of an individual - Unique identification - Potential re-use (both private and public sector actors) - Potential desensitization Brussels Bishkek Geneva 22 Lorenz
  • 23. Brussels Bishkek Geneva Purpose and Proportionality - Impact on legitimacy of biometric process used in a specific context (e.g. Storage of reference information; raw data may contain unnecessary information) - Affected population (in terms of quantity and quality) - Public sector uses v. Private sector uses Brussels Bishkek Geneva 23 Lorenz
  • 24. Brussels Bishkek Geneva Other Issues • Fair collection and information • Criteria for making data processing legitimate • Prior Checking – notification requirements • Security measures • Sensitive data • Unique identifier Brussels Bishkek Geneva 24 Lorenz
  • 25. Interpretations by member state DPAs Brussels Bishkek Geneva 25 Lorenz
  • 26.  No harmonized approach (country by country)  Gradually but slowly more acceptance of biometrics technology  Factors:  DPAs tend to be sceptical about storing templates in a central database  DPAs promote the use of biometric applications that do not “leave traces”  DPA are more lenient towards public sector purposes (private sector purposes typically require stronger justification) Lorenz
  • 27. Potential Bottlenecks For Companies - Biometrics technology industry - Users of biometrics technology Brussels Bishkek Geneva 27 Lorenz
  • 29. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 29 A. Biometrics in the workplace LorenzBrussels Bishkek Geneva
  • 30. Biometrics in the workplace (continued)  Need for employer to secure premises and IT Network (physical and logical access control)  Monitoring of employees (e.g. prevention of ‘buddy punching’) 30 Lorenz
  • 31. Biometrics in the workplace (continued) • Privacy Issues: – Legitimacy of specific use of biometrics – Biometric information stored in central database or on individual carriers (e.g. badge)? – Are some biometric data to be considered as sensitive data (containing information on race, health,...)? • Consultation Issues – Introduction of biometric system may have impact on the work organisation and the privacy of employees – Involvement of employee representative bodies Lorenz
  • 32. Brussels Bishkek Geneva B. Biometrics and E-commerce Ability to identify the purchaser? • Better than passwords Industry is slow to embrace biometric technology Costs • Non-portability of devices  Alternatives such as keystroke dynamics and speaker recognition could solve these issues. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 32 Lorenz
  • 33. Brussels Bishkek Geneva Biometrics and E-commerce continued Brussels Bishkek Geneva 33 Lorenz
  • 34. Brussels Bishkek Geneva C. Possible Contractual Issues 1. Liability 2. Malfunctions and technical problems Brussels Bishkek Geneva 34 Lorenz
  • 35. Brussels Bishkek Geneva D. Evidence Brussels Bishkek Geneva 35 Lorenz
  • 36. Brussels Bishkek Geneva Brussels Bishkek Geneva 36 Lorenz Outstanding problems with biometrics as evidence: 1.Lack of harmonization 2.Advantages and disadvantages experts 3.Right to counter-expertise 4.Rights of second experts
  • 37. Brussels Bishkek Geneva E. Standardization Brussels Bishkek Geneva 37 Lorenz •National and International efforts for standardization of biometrics and biometric systems •International Standardizing Organization in cooperation with the International Electro-technical Commission publishes standards •Importance of interoperability of systems
  • 38. Brussels Bishkek Geneva IV. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND QUESTIONS Brussels Bishkek Geneva 38 Lorenz
  • 39. Brussels Bishkek Geneva 39 Jan Dhont Steven De Schrijver Lorenz Troonstraat 14-16 B. 5 Rue du Trône 1000 Brussels T. 32 2 239 2000 - F. 32 2 239 2002 Lorenz