• Save
Skeleton, muscles and movement mine
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Skeleton, muscles and movement mine

on

  • 3,640 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,640
Views on SlideShare
3,115
Embed Views
525

Actions

Likes
5
Downloads
8
Comments
1

16 Embeds 525

http://biologics42013.blogspot.com.ar 278
http://biologics42014.blogspot.com.ar 88
http://www.biologics42013.blogspot.com.ar 66
http://biologics42013.blogspot.com 34
https://www.blogger.com 16
http://www.biologics42014.blogspot.com.ar 12
http://biologics42013.blogspot.fr 9
https://biologics42014.blogspot.com 6
http://biologics42013.blogspot.ca 6
http://biologics42013.blogspot.com.au 3
http://www.blogger.com 2
http://biologics42013.blogspot.in 1
http://biologics42013.blogspot.gr 1
http://biologics42013.blogspot.co.uk 1
http://biologics42013.blogspot.com.br 1
http://biologics42014.blogspot.com 1
More...

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • can you send me a copy of this ? please i really need a copy of your presentation Thnks for your kind consideration here's my email bluegirl_sick18@yahoo.com Thank you
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Skeleton, muscles and movement mine Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Lesson Overview The Skeletal SystemLesson Overview The Skeletal System •Who won the skeleton beauty contest? • No body •What do skeletons say before they begin dining? •Bone appetit ! Why didn't the skeleton dance at the Halloween party? •It had no body to dance with! •What did the skeleton say while riding his Harley Davidson motorcycle? •I'm bone to be wild! • Who was the most famous French skeleton? •Napoleon bone-apart •What instrument do skeletons play? •Trom-BONE. •Why couldn't the skeleton cross the road? •He didn't have the guts. •How did the skeleton know it was going to rain ? •He could feel it in his bones ! •How do skeletons call their friends ? •On the telebone ! •What do you call a skeleton who won't get up in the mornings ? •Lazy bones •Why don't skeletons play music in church ? •They have no organs ! • What is a skeleton ? •Somebody on a diet who forgot to say "when" ! !
  • 2. Lesson Overview The Skeletal SystemLesson Overview The Skeletal System EXOSKELETON ENDOSKELETON
  • 3. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Skeletal System
  • 4. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System What are the functions of the skeletal system? Support – rigid framework that maintains the shape of the body; supports the organs suspended within it. Protection – soft and delicate tissues and organs are protected by the skeleton. Movement – muscles can attach to the bones. Production of blood cells – red and white blood cells are made in the bone marrow. Storage of minerals (and lipids) – calcium and phosphorus levels are maintained by storing the excess in the bones.
  • 5. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system Bones (skeleton) Joints Cartilages Ligaments (bone to bone)(tendon=bone to muscle)
  • 6. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Structure of the Skeleton There are 206 bones in the adult human skeleton. 22 bones in skull 6 in middle ears 1 hyoid bone 26 in vertebral column 25 in thoracic cage 4 in pectoral girdle 60 in upper limbs 60 in lower limbs 2 in pelvic girdle Divided into axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton.
  • 7. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Structure of the Skeleton The axial skeleton supports the central axis of the body and consists of : • Skull (cranium and facial bones) – The cranium has a number of flat bones fitted together at immovable joints. • Vertebral column – The backbone has 33 bones called vertebrae placed end to end, each separated from the other by a cartilage disc. • Ribcage and sternum
  • 8. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Structure of the Skeleton The bones of the arms and legs, along with the bones of the pelvis and shoulder area, form the appendicular skeleton. • Arms and legs – The upper part of the limbs consists of single long bones – the humerus in the arm, and the femur in the leg. – The lower part of the limbs has a pair of bones below the elbow or knee – the radius and ulna in the arms, and the tibia and fibula in the legs. • Pectoral and pelvic girdles – The pectoral, or shoulder, girdle, consists of the clavicle (collar bone) and scapula (shoulder blade). This girdle connects the humerus to the rest of the skeleton. – The pelvic girdle consists of two halves. These two hip bones (sacrum, coccyx) form a hollow cavity known as the pelvis. This girdle connects the femur to the rest of the skeleton.
  • 9. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Bones • Made of layers of living tissue • Covered with a tough, tight-fitting membrane called the periosteum
  • 10. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Bones What is the structure of a typical human bone? A bone is a solid network of living cells and protein fibers (collagen) that are surrounded by deposits of calcium and magnesium salts . which is mostly stored fat.
  • 11. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Adults continually break down and build up bone Osteoclasts remove damaged cells and release calcium into blood Osteoblasts remove calcium from blood and build a new matrix.
  • 12. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Compact Bone • Directly under the periosteum • Hard, strong layer • Gives bones strength • Contains deposits of calcium phosphate • Contains bone cells and blood vessels
  • 13. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Spongy Bone • Located at the ends of long bones • Has many small, open spaces that make bones lightweight • Filled with a substance called marrow – yellow composed of fat cells – red produces red blood cells
  • 14. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape *Longer than wide *Bear weight *About same length as width *Bear weight Thin and usually curved Protect brain and thoracic organs Skeletal System (e) Sesamoid (e.g.,Patella) Small and round
  • 15. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System
  • 16. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Characteristics of cartilage • Smooth ,glossy ,flexible thick layer of tissue • It doesn’t contain very many minerals although it contains collagen • Does not contain blood vessels • Covers the ends of bones • Spread loads, reduces friction, and allows flexible movement, acts as a shock absorber
  • 17. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System The Vertebral Column 33 Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs The spine has a normal curvature Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location The spinal cord runs through an arch of bone formed by the vertebrae
  • 18. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System
  • 19. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System The Skull or Cranium •The skull protects the brain, most of the organs of the senses and entrances to respiratory and digestive systems. The skull has 28 bones (14 belong to the face) join by immovable joints can’t move at all. They either interlock or overlap. hinged to the skull
  • 20. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System The Hyoid Bone The only bone that does not articulate with another bone Serves as a moveable base for the tongue
  • 21. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Thoracic Cage Commonly called the rib cage Protects the heart, lungs, and other organs of the thoracic cavity Encloses the thoracic cavity Composed of twelve pairs of ribs and the sternum (breast plate or bone)
  • 22. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System The classification of ribs: 1. True ribs – 1st 7 pairs that attach directly to the sternum by the coastal cartilage 2. False ribs – inferior 5 pairs that connect indirectly (first 3 pairs) to the sternum or do not attach at all to the sternum (last two pairs) 3. Floating ribs – the last two pairs of false ribs that are not attached at all
  • 23. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Bones of upper limb Humerus (upper arm) Radius; ulna Carpals, metacarpals, phalanges Bones of lower limb Femur Patella Tibia, fibula Tarsals, metatarslas, phalanges
  • 24. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System
  • 25. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System
  • 26. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System How are bones connected together? • By Ligaments: A ligament is a tough band of white, fibrous, slightly elastic tissue. This is an essential part of the skeletal joints; binding the bone ends together to prevent dislocation and excessive movement that might cause breakage. Ligaments also support many internal organs; including the uterus, the bladder, the liver, and the diaphragm . • By Joints: constructed to both allow movement and provide mechanical support.
  • 27. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System • Joints are where two, or more, bones meet. • They are divided up into three types depending on how freely the bones can move:  Immovable  slightly movable  freely movable • Joints contain connective tissues that hold bones together. • Joints permit bones to move without damaging each other. • If we did not have joints no movement would occur.
  • 28. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System • Joints • Immovable: bones sutured together by connective tissue: skull • Slightly movable connected by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage: vertebrae, rib/sternum joint, pubic • Freely movable – separated ligaments- hold bones together tendons- muscle to bone lined by synovial membrane
  • 29. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Types of Joints Hinge- 
A hinge joint allows extension and retraction of an appendage. (Elbow, Knee)
  • 30. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Ball and Socket- 
A ball and socket joint allows for radial movement in almost any direction. They are found in the hips and shoulders. (Hip, Shoulder)
  • 31. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Gliding- 
In a gliding or plane joint bones slide past each other. Mid-carpal and mid- tarsal joints are gliding joints. (Hands, Feet)
  • 32. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Saddle- This type of joint occurs when the touching surfaces of two bones have both concave and convex regions with the shapes of the two bones complementing one other and allowing a wide range of movement. (Thumb)
  • 33. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System • Pivot: Rounded or conical surfaces of one bone fit into a ring of one or tendon allowing rotation. An example is the joint between the axis and atlas in the neck. Examples • The joint between the atlas and axis. • The joint between the radius and ulna.
  • 34. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Types of movement and examples (with muscles) flexion- move lower leg toward upper extension- straightening the leg abduction- moving leg away from body adduction- movong leg toward the body rotation- around its axis supination- rotation of arm to palm-up position pronation- palm down circumduction- swinging arms in circles inversion- turning foot so sole is inward eversion- sole is out
  • 35. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Freely moveable joints Or Synovial joints. • Outer sleeve is called the joint capsule. – It holds bones together & protects joint. – It is an extension of the skin or periosteum that covers the bone. • A synovial membrane. – Lines the capsule and oozes a slippery liquid called synovial fluid. • A joint cavity. – A small gap between the bones. – Filled with synovial fluid. – Lubricates the joint so the joint moves more freely. • A covering of smooth slippery cartilage at the end of the bones. – Stops the bones knocking together. • Ligaments which hold the bones together.
  • 36. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System • Ligament• Tendon • Join bone to bone (joint) and hold joints in place. • Its matrix contains yellow elastin fibres • Elastic but tough • Allows movement at the joint • Connects muscle to bone (normally one tendon to a non-moving part and another tendon to a movable part) • Its matrix contains white fibrous collagen • Tough and do not stretch • They don’t stretch when the muscle contracts to move the bone
  • 37. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Diseases and Conditions of the Skeletal System * Arthritis * Bursitis Inflammation of the Bursa sac *Tendonitis most common cause of tendonitis is overuse of the tendons. * Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: swelling or change in position of the tissue within the carpal tunnel squeezes and irritates the median nerve. It causes tingling and numbness of the thumb, index, and the middle fingers * Osteoporosis bones have lost minerals (especially calcium) making them weak, brittle, and susceptible to fractures
  • 38. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System * Scoliosis abnormal curvature of the spine. More girls than boys have severe scoliosis. * Kyphosis spine may develop a hump * Lordosis A curvature of the vertebrae in the lower back area *Rickets softening and weakening of bones in children *Acromegaly occurs when the body produces too much of the hormones that control growth, tissues grow larger than normal
  • 39. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System • How many muscles are there in the human body? – Answer: 640 Muscles – The muscles make up about 40 % of the body mass. • What is the longest muscle in the body? – Answer: The Sartorius – The Sartorius runs from the outside of the hip, down and across to the inside of the knee. It twists and pulls the thigh outwards. • What is the smallest muscle in the body? Would you like to see it? – Answer: The Stapedius – The Stapedius is located deep in the ear. It is only 5mm long and thinner than cotton thread. It is involved in hearing. • What is the biggest muscle in the body? – Answer: The Gluteus Maximus – The Gluteus Maximus is located in the buttock. It pulls the leg backwards powerfully for walking and running. TRIVIA!
  • 40. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System • back
  • 41. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Functions of the Muscles • Movement • Heat production • Maintenance of posture and muscle tone • Protects the bones and internal organs.
  • 42. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Muscle Classification • Functionally –Voluntary – can be moved at will –Involuntary – can’t be moved intentionally • Structurally –Striated – have stripes across the fiber –Smooth – no striations
  • 43. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Chart Title Skeletal Muscle Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle 3 Types of Muscles The 3 Types of Muscles
  • 44. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Smooth Muscle • Fibers are thin and in layers • No striations • Single nuclei • Involuntary • Contracts and fatigues slowly Found in the * circulatory system (Lining of the blood vessels) Helps in the circulation of the blood *digestive system (Esophagus, stomach, intestine) Controls digestion *respiratory system Controls breathing *urinary system (Urinary bladder) Controls urination
  • 45. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Cardiac Muscle • Cells are branched and appear fused with one another • Has striations • Each cell has a central nuclei • Involuntary • Found ONLY in the heart • Contractions of the heart muscles pump blood throughout the body and account for the heartbeat. • Healthy cardiac muscle NEVER fatigues  or else…
  • 46. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Skeletal Muscle  Fibers are long and cylindrical (arranged in bundles)  Has many nuclei  Has striations  Have alternating dark and light bands  Voluntary • Attached to skeleton by tendons • Causes movement of bones at the joints. • And yes… they do fatigue what substance forms causing muscle fatigue???
  • 47. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Functions of Skeletal Muscle • Movement – muscle move bones by pulling not pushing. – Antagonists – muscles and muscle groups usually work in pairs – example the biceps flex your arm and its partner the triceps extend your arm. The two muscles are antagonists, i.e. cause opposite actions. – when one contracts the other relaxes. – Levators – muscle that raise a body part.
  • 48. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System
  • 49. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Functions of Skeletal Muscle • Maintenance of posture or muscle tone – We are able to maintain our body position because of tonic contractions in our skeletal muscles. These contractions don’t produce movement yet hold our muscles in position. • Heat production – contraction of muscles produces most of the heat required to maintain body temperature.
  • 50. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Structure of Skeletal Muscle • Composed of striated muscle cells (=muscle fibers) and connective tissue. – Most muscles attach to 2 bones that have a moveable joint between them. • The attachment to the bone that does not move is the origin. • The attachment to the bone that moves is the insertion. – Tendons anchor muscle firmly to bones. Tendons are made of dense fibrous connective tissue. – Ligaments connect bone to bone at a joint.
  • 51. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Structure of Skeletal Muscle • Contribution of the nervous system Electrochemical impulses travel from the frontal lobes via motor nerves to the muscle fibers and cause them to contract. Sensation is a function of the brain – impulses are integrated in the parietal lobes of the cerebrum (conscious muscle sense) and in the cerebellum (unconscious). These activities promote coordination.
  • 52. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System
  • 53. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Structure of Skeletal Muscle - Muscle cells are filled with 2 types of fine threadlike proteins called myofilaments: myosin (thick) and actin (thin). are arranged in the cells in small units called sarcomeres. These structures slide past each other causing the muscle cell to contract or shorten.
  • 54. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Muscle Contraction • Sequence – Electrical impulse travels down a motor neuron. It causes an electrical impulse to spread over the cell. – The sarcomeres shorten and the muscle cell contracts. (FIBRES AND CELLS CANNOT ELONGATE)
  • 55. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Movement of Muscles • Origin: the attachment of the muscle to the bone that remains stationary • Insertion: the attachment of the muscle to the bone that moves • Belly: the fleshy part of the muscle between the tendons of origin and/or insertion origin insertion belly
  • 56. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Categories of skeletal muscle actions • Categories Actions • Extensor Increases the angle at a joint • Flexor Decreases the angle at a joint • Abductor Moves limb away from midline of body • Adductor Moves limb toward midline of body • Levator Moves insertion upward • Depressor Moves insertion downward • Rotator Rotates a bone along its axis • Sphincter Constricts an opening
  • 57. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Skeletal muscles usually work in pairs. E.g. The biceps and triceps muscles attached to the scapula at the top and to the radius at the bottom flexor muscle. extensor muscle. As they bring about opposite effects, the biceps and triceps are examples of antagonistic muscles. A small contraction of the muscle will produce a large movement at the end of the limb
  • 58. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System • After exercise =>HIGH LEVEL of O2 consumption PERSISTS until the excess of LACTIC ACID is oxidized : • Accumulation of Lactic acid causes CRAMPS and MUSCULAR FATIGUE Glucose Glucose PYRUVIC ACIDLACTIC ACID 2 ATP LACTIC ACID PYRUVIC ACID BLOOD MUSCLE LIVER CORI CYCLE Only in EXTREME MUSCULAR ACTIVITY 6 ATPGLUCO NEO GENESIS OXYGEN DEBT Volume of O2 needed to complete oxidize the lactic acid
  • 59. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System
  • 60. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Long-term benefits of exercise. •increase in size of the muscles used, •reduction of heart rate and increase in stroke volume, •more enzymes made in the muscles, •stronger ligaments and tendons, •more flexibility at the joints, •possibly loss of excess body fat, •possibly reduced chance of premature heart attack •Healthy body and mind.
  • 61. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Injuries to JOINTS, MUSCLES and BONES • SPRAINS joint is forced beyond its normal degree of movement ligament totally or partially torn • STRAINS violent contraction of the muscle some of the fibres are torn • DISLOCATIONS bones at a joint become displaced as a result of a violent movement. Usually ligaments also damaged • FRACTURES a bone is broken
  • 62. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System Stages in the Healing of a Bone Fracture
  • 63. Lesson Overview The Skeletal System There are about 60 muscles in the face. Smiling is easier than frowning. It takes 20 muscles to smile and over 40 to frown. Smile and make someone happy.