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Respiratory system mine 4th year
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Respiratory system mine 4th year

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  • 1. Respiratory System
  • 2. Why do we, large organisms, need a respiratory system???
  • 3. Any respiratory surface needs:▪ 1‐ LARGE SURFACE AREA▪ 2‐THIN EPITHELIUM   SHORT DISTANCE FOR DIFFUSION▪ 3‐ CAPILLARY NETWORK  KEEPS * LOW CONCENTRATION OF* HIGH CONCENTRATION OF▪ 4‐VENTILATION    HIGH DIFFUSION GRADIENT4 VENTILATION    HIGH DIFFUSION GRADIENT▪ 5‐ GOOD SUPPLY OF▪ 6‐ MUST BE MOIST  PREVENT CELLS FROM DYING
  • 4. hi d i iBreathing and respirationRespiration is the process used in all living things for gaining ENERGYENERGYfrom FOODFOOD. Breathing:    VENTILATIONVENTILATION GASEOUS GASEOUS EXCHANGEEXCHANGEgProcess of Process of  Intake of O2 and Intake of O2 and Process of Process of renewing the air renewing the air in the lungsin the lungsoutput of CO2 at output of CO2 at the alveolithe alveoliInspiration / Expiration
  • 5. Upper Respiratory TractF i Passageway forrespirationFunctionsrespiration Receptors for smell Filters incoming air tofilter larger foreignmaterial Warms incoming airgEpiglottis  stops food and drink from entering the air drink from entering the air passages when we swallow
  • 6. LowerLowerR i tR i tRespiratoryRespiratoryTractTractactact Functions: Larynx: maintains an open airway, routes food and airappropriately, assists in sound production Trachea: transports air to and from lungsB hi b h i t lCartilage rings Cartilage rings No collapsing Bronchi: branch into lungs Lungs: transport air to alveoli for gas exchangep g
  • 7. Lined by EPITHELIUMEPITHELIUMCILLIATED CELLS CILLIATED CELLS TracheaMUCUSMUCUSAway from the Trap dust /bacteriabronchiAway from the alveoliBronchioles*alveolar number 480 million*alveolar number 480 million*90 m2 of absorbing surface *90 m2 of absorbing surface gg
  • 8. AlveoliAlveoliAlveoliAlveoliLEFT LEFT ventricleventricleRight Right ventricleventriclePulmonary Pulmonary veinveinPulmonary Pulmonary arteryartery
  • 9. The lungs have ghelpers▪ The RIBSRIBS protect the lungs and help us breathe  lungs and help us breathe. ▪ Another helper is the DIAPHRAGMDIAPHRAGMDIAPHRAGMDIAPHRAGM..▪▪ The The INTERCOSTAL INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES MUSCLES (internal & (internal & MUSCLES MUSCLES (internal & (internal & external)external)
  • 10. Lung volumes and capacitiesLung volumes and capacities5 5 lsls500 500 cm3cm3cm3cm33 3 lslsGaseous Exchange Gaseous Exchange  1 5 1 5 Gaseous Exchange Gaseous Exchange happens herehappens here1.5 1.5 litreslitres
  • 11. BreathingBreathing▪ is an involuntary function of the CNSinvoluntary function of the CNS ggis an involuntary function of the CNSinvoluntary function of the CNS* a respiratory / breathing center in the medullaoblongata [part of brain stem] establishes basicoblongata [part of brain stem] establishes basicbreathing patternS i l Brain stemBrain stemSpinal cord
  • 12. Lungs: The picture on the left is of emphysema (largeair sacs) and the picture on the right is of normalair sacs) and the picture on the right is of normallung.(27)emphysema normal lung