Cell and functions unit 1 mine


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  • 1-striated muscle cells 2-macrophage engulfing a bacterium 3- plant cell 4- nervoes cell 5- red blood cell 6- stem cell
  • There are exceptions to these general statements. Red blood cells, for example, do not have a nucleus. Animal cells often have vacuoles but these are small and scattered throughout the cytoplasm.
  • Very few tissues consist of a single cell type. There are usually nerve fibres and blood vessels supplying the tissue
  • All cells consist of cytoplasm, nucleus and a cell membrane. The next three slides explain the function of each of these
  • A cell needs to take up oxygen and food substances to keep it alive. The cell membrane allows these substances to pass into the cytoplasm but keeps unwanted, and possibly harmful, substances out.
  • Under the ordinary microscope, the cytoplasm appears to be a semi-liquid gel. In some plant cells it can be seen streaming around the cell. Small particles and granules can be observed in the cytoplasm but, under higher magnification, a complex arrangement of microscopic tubules and vacuoles is revealed. These structures enable the chemical reactions, which make the cell alive, to take place in an orderly and controlled manner
  • The nucleus contains a substance called DNA. This substance controls what kind of a cell is produced, such as a liver cell, muscle cell or blood cell. Chemicals produced by the DNA escape from the nucleus and regulate all the chemical reactions in the cytoplasm. Cells without a nucleus cannot divide.
  • These cells have been scraped from the inside of the cheek. They are not .stained but viewed by a special type of lighting. The magnification on the print-out is about x 950
  • The cell membrane is pressed up against the inside of the cell wall by the pressure of the vacuole and is difficult to see.. The cell wall is made of cellulose . It is permeable , that is, it lets water and dissolved substances pass in and out freely. The vacuole contains a solution of chemicals such as salts, sugars and, sometimes, coloured substances (pigments). This solution is called ‘cell sap’. Its outward pressure on the cell wall keeps the cell firm.
  • These cells are from a moss leaf. The magnification on this page is about x400. Chloroplasts contain a green pigment, chlorophyll , which absorbs sunlight and helps the plant to make its food
  • Cell and functions unit 1 mine

    1. 1. THE CELL*The Cell Theory.*Types of cells.*Parts of a cell.
    2. 2. All things on earth can be classified into2 groups. Can you group these itemsinto these 2 main groups? LIVING or NON LIVING
    3. 3. All things on earth are either living or non-living. non-livingSo... What makes living things different from Non-living things? Let’s see
    4. 4. There are 7 characteristics:• Movement• Respiration• Sensitivity• Growth• Reproductio n• Excretion• Nutrition
    5. 5. Movement• An action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position or place.
    6. 6. Respiration• The chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy (break down + O2) Respiration is NOT *gaseous exchange *BREATHING
    7. 7. Sensitivity• The ability to detect or sense changes in the environment (stimuli) and to make responses (react to them)
    8. 8. Growth• A permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both.
    9. 9. Reproduction• The processes that make more of the same kind of organism
    10. 10. Excretion• The removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism (chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of requirements.
    11. 11. Nutrition• The taking in of nutrients (from environment)which are organic substances and mineral ions, containing raw materials or energy for growth and tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them.
    12. 12. Quiz Guess which characteristic is beingdemonstrated by the following animations:
    13. 13. Question 1
    14. 14. Question 2
    15. 15. Question 3
    16. 16. Question 4
    17. 17. Question 5Which two characteristics are shown bythis animation:
    18. 18. Question 6Other than movement, which characteristicsare shown by this animation:
    19. 19. Question 7 So far you should have named a total of five different characteristics. However there are 7 characteristics in total. Name the two remaining characteristics.
    20. 20. Answers:How well did you do?
    21. 21. Question 1: Excretion
    22. 22. Question 2: Nutrition
    23. 23. Question 3: Movement
    24. 24. Question 4: Reproduction
    25. 25. Question 5: Sensitivity and Movement Which two characteristics are shown by this animation:
    26. 26. Question 6: Sensitivity and Nutrition Other than movement, which characteristics are shown by this animation:
    27. 27. Cells are the basic unit of life. life This is a single cell of a living thing.
    28. 28. Definition of CellA cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
    29. 29. Cells• Cells are the basic units of all living things… if it is alive it has cells
    30. 30. Cells pictures
    31. 31. Hooke´s microscope
    32. 32. CELL THEORY 1. The basic unit of life is the cell. (Hooke)• In 1665, an English scientist named Robert Hooke made an improved microscope and viewed thin slices of cork viewing plant cell walls• Hooke named what he saw "cells" Slide from: http://www.worldofteaching.com
    33. 33. CELL THEORY 2. All living things are made of 1 or more cells.• Matthias Schleiden (botanist studying plants)• Theodore Schwann (zoologist studying animals) stated that all living things were made of cells Slide from: http://www.worldofteaching.com Schwann Schleiden
    34. 34. CELL THEORY3. All cells divide & come from old cells. (Virchow) Virchow
    35. 35. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes CELLSEukaryotic cell = with nucleusProkaryotic cell = without nucleus BACTERIA Prokaryotic cell Cell membrane Eukaryotic cell Cytoplasm Cell membrane Cytoplasm Organelles Nucleus
    36. 36. Eukaryotic • Contain organelles surrounded by membranes • Most living organisms Plant Animalhttp://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html
    37. 37. What are the main parts of a cell? • Cell membrane • Cytoplasm • Nucleus
    38. 38. artists rendition of the plant cellSection 7-2 Smooth endoplasmic Vacuole reticulum Ribosome (free) Chloroplast Ribosome (attached) Cell Membrane Nuclear Cell wall envelope Nucleolus Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Rough endoplasmic reticulum Plant Cell
    39. 39. artists rendition of an animal cell Animal cell
    40. 40. Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant StemBacteria Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell
    41. 41. “Typical” Animal Cellhttp://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif
    42. 42. “Typical” Plant Cellhttp://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gif
    43. 43. A section through a liver cell (animal cell):cell membrane nucleuscontrols what contains theenters and DNA and soleaves the cell controls the cell cytoplasm DNA metabolic contains the (chemical) coded reactions instructions to occur here make proteins
    44. 44. Section through a palisade cell of a leaf (plant cell) chloroplastcell membrane Site of photosynthesis large sap vacuole nucleus Storage of nutrients and waste products. cellulose cell wall cytoplasm Provides protections and support for cell
    45. 45. Comparing animal and plant cellsFound in both animal Found only in plant and plant cells cells cell membrane cellulose cell wall nucleus large sap vacuole cytoplasm chloroplast
    46. 46. 13 Plant and animal cells• All cells have cytoplasm, a nucleus and a cell membrane.• Plant cells have also a cell wall, a central vacuole and in many cases, chloroplasts.• Animal cells do not have these structures
    47. 47. 14 Plant cells Animal cellsCytoplasm CytoplasmNucleus NucleusCell membrane Cell membraneNucleolus NucleolusRibosomes RibosomesMitochondria MitochondriaSER SERRER RERGolgi Apparatus Golgi ApparatusCell wallChloroplastsCentral vacuole lysosomes centrioles
    48. 48. Red blood cells transport oxygen cell surface membrane cytoplasm contains no nucleus allows more room for haemoglobincytoplasm containshaemoglobinhaemoglobin is aprotein which carries bi-concave disc shapethe oxygen molecules increases surface area over which absorption of oxygen can occur
    49. 49. Muscle cells contract and enable movement of the body muscle Muscle cells have many nuclei cell surface membrane nucleusThe strands of proteinslide over each othermaking the muscle cell(fibre) shorter and causingthe muscle to contract protein strands
    50. 50. Ciliated cells move bacteria and dust away from the lungs cilia Cilia are small extensions of the cell. They beat rhythmically to sweep mucus, which has trapped bacteria and dust, away from the lungs nucleus magnification X3000
    51. 51. Xylem vessels transport water and minerals up the plant xylem vessels are continuous tubes xylem vesselno cytoplasmhollow: allows forcontinuous flow of waterand dissolved mineralions lignin water-proof and strong; helps support the plant cross-section longitudinal section
    52. 52. Root hair cells absorb minerals and water from the soil Cross-section of a root hair cell cell membrane semi-permeable, so will allow water and mineralcytoplasm ions into the cellcontains nochloroplasts as nophotosynthesis isneeded root hair cell increases surface area for absorption of water and mineral ions
    54. 54. A tissue is a group of cell of similarstructure that form a shared function Tissues found in the leaf Animal tissues: muscle tissue upper epidermal tissue palisade mesophyll tissue spongy mesophyll nervous tissue tissue lower epidermal tissueCross-section of a leaf
    55. 55. An organ is a structure made of agroup of tissues working together to perform specific functions heart lungs liver stomach brain kidneys Plant organs include the stem and the leaves
    56. 56. An organ system is a group of organs that coordinate to perform related functionslymphatic digestive reproductive skeletal endocrine system system system system system respiratory excretory muscular nervous circulatory system system system system systemIn plants the shoot is an organ system consisting of leaves and the stem
    57. 57. Levels of organisation cell tissue organ organ organism systemsnerve cell nervous brain nervous Homo sapiens tissue system smallest largest
    58. 58. 15 Organs, cells and tissues The stomach is an organ, part of the digestive system The stomach wall contains muscle tissueThe muscle tissue consists ofmuscle cells
    59. 59. 4A group of cells from animal tissue cell membranecytoplasm nucleus
    60. 60. Cell PartsOrganelles
    61. 61. Surrounding the Cell
    62. 62. 7 Cell membraneThe cell membrane encloses thecytoplasm and stops it flowing outIt also controls which substancescan get into and out of the cellIt is only about 0.00001mm thick Double layer cell membraneIf it is damaged, the cell will die
    63. 63. Cell Wall • Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria • It is made of cellulose. • It supports & protects cellshttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
    64. 64. Inside the Cell
    65. 65. Cytoplasm• Collective term for cytosol and organelles
    66. 66. 5 Cytoplasm The cytoplasm is a living, semi-liquid material cytoplasmAlthough it looks structurelessit contains many structureswhich are not visible at thismagnificationAll the processes which keepthe cell alive, take place in thecytoplasm or nucleus
    67. 67. Cytoskeleton - Composed of microtubules - Supports cell and provides shape - Aids movement of materials in and out of cellshttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
    68. 68. 6 Nucleus *The nucleus is a specialised region of cytoplasm which regulates all the chemical changes which take nucleus place in the cytoplasm*It sends chemical signals to thecytoplasm which start or stop thechemical processes going on in it*The nucleus also controls cell division *Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane Contains genetic material - DNA
    69. 69. Nuclear Membrane • Surrounds nucleus • Made of two layers • Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleushttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
    70. 70. Chromosomes • In nucleus • Made of DNA • Contain instructions for traits & characteristicshttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
    71. 71. Nucleolus • Inside nucleus • Contains RNA to build proteinshttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
    72. 72. Endoplasmic Reticulum • Moves materials around in cell • Smooth type: lacks ribosomes • Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surfacehttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
    73. 73. Ribosomes • Each cell contains thousands • Make proteins • Found on ribosomes & floating throughout the cellhttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
    74. 74. Mitochondria• Produces energy through chemical reactions – breaking down fats & carbohydrates• Controls level of water and other materials in cell• Recycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydrateshttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
    75. 75. Golgi Bodies • Protein packaging plant • Move materials within the cell • Move materials out of the cellhttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
    76. 76. Lysosome • Digestive plant for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates • Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal • Cell breaks down if lysosome explodeshttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
    77. 77. Vacuoles• Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal• Contains water solution• Help plants maintain shapehttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
    78. 78. Chloroplast• Usually found in plant cells• Contains green chlorophyll• Where photosynthesis takes placehttp://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
    79. 79. Centrioles• Centrioles are found in animal cells and help to organize the assembly of microtubules during cell division.
    80. 80. 8 Cells from the cheek lining cytoplasm nucleuscell membrane 0.01mm © Biophoto Associates
    81. 81. 9 Plant cells nucleuscytoplasm vacuole cell wall Plant cells differ from animal cells in having a cell wall outside the cell membrane, and a large, fluid-filled vacuole
    82. 82. 10 Chloroplasts 0.2mm vacuolechloroplast cell wall © Biophoto Associates Cells from the green parts of plants, such as leaves, contain chloroplasts. The chloroplasts are always in the cytoplasm
    83. 83. 17 Question 1Which of these structures controls cell division?• Cytoplasm• Nucleus• Cell membrane• Cell wall
    84. 84. 18 Question 2In a plant cell, which of these describes the vacuole?• A semi-liquid living material• A specialized region of cytoplasm• A region containing chloroplasts• A solution of salts and sugars
    85. 85. 19 Question 3The cell structure which controls the entry or exit of substances is• the nucleus• The cell wall• The cell membrane• The cytoplasm
    86. 86. 20 Question 4 Which one of these statements is correct?•Plant cells do not have cell walls•Plant cells have no vacuoles•Plant cells have nuclei•All plant cells have chloroplasts
    87. 87. 21AnswerIncorrect
    88. 88. 22AnswerCorrect