African Americans Kayla Kellogg Sarah Montoya Cassandra Quinton- McGruder
Geographical Concentration In the United States African Americans are the national’s largest ethnic minority group, most live in the metropolitan areas, suburban population is growing. 2010 Census: Population declined in DC 308.7 million U.S population Total US population grew by 9.7% Black population grew by 12% The south showed greatest population of Blacks 55% North East 17.1% Midwest 18.1% West 9.8% In Colorado 5%
History of this group in the educational system of the US including specific challenges: Education as a Slave: Some Christian missionaries believed that education could save them, if they learned how to read they would read the bible Most slave-owners thought it was a waste of time to teach them because ―slaves lacked the ability to absorb formal education‖ Slaves thirsted for an education, that was freedom to them Bray School in Williamshurg Virginia and Elas Neau’s School in NY were permitted to teach slave children to read and write A slave named Newport Gardner allowed to take music lessons opened and owned a music school in Rhode Island for both slaves and non-slaves
History of this group in the educational systemof the US including specific challenges: Cont. Education as a Slave cont. Most colonist felt like slaves didn’t need the formal education afraid that they would spread messages and convince one another to rebel against their owners Some believed made slaves more valuable if they were taught Most learned how to read and write in secret and some owner’s children taught the slaves Children helped the adults with chores and learned sewing, weaving, cooking, and hunting skills that helped prepared children for their adulthood Children learned how to behave to avoid punishment Learned many things through stories and folktales that taught values and morals North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia banned anyone from teaching an AA to read or write whether they were free or not
Blair Education bill 1880: (Still under education as a slave) Intended to distribute federal funds equally for the instruction of AA and white children Suggested a 10 year commitment of federal money. Starting with 15 million oin the first year and decreasing by 1 million each successive year. Never preached the floor of House of Representation
Education during Civil Rights 1954: Brown vs. Board of Education where ―separate but equal‖ was declared unconstitutional. There were a lot of other cases that went into this case as well. Violent white mobs in Delaware caused closure of the entire public school system for 10 days. West Virginia, Mississippi, Texas, Louisiana, and Ohio also had school closures. Mississippi voters endorsed constitutional amendment to abolish public schools.
1955 The Supreme Court ordered that the decision on the Brown case be carried out ―with all deliberate speed‖ 1957 Little Rock Nine—President Dwight Eisenhower sends paratroops to Centra High School (Minnie Jean Brown was expelled for physically retaliating against white peers in Feb.) Tennesse Board of Education supported colleges to admit all qualified students without discrimination
1959 More 30,000 youth march for Public School desegregation Bombs explode around Little Rock Nine. Faubus closes public schools 1961 Massive student violence when Charlayne Hunter and Hamiltion Holmes the 1st African Americans to attend University of Georgia 1962 Catholic Schools in New Orleans desegregated for the first time in 50 years 1964 congress passed a law mandating equal education opportunity for all American regardless of race, sex, color, or religion.
The Roles of different Family Members especially pertaining to interacting with the school. Grandfather Grandmother Tom Joyner Tom Joyner Build schools Worked at the school Chris Rock Jackie Joyner- Kersee Maya Angelou Oprah Winfrey
Father Mother Linda Johnson Rice Chris Tucker Oprah Winfrey Bishop T.D. Jakes
Helping Education Nathan Ross Margold Charles Summer & Robert Morris Freedom Bureau
Education Nathan Ross Margold Charles Summer & Robert Morris Freedmens Bureau
Martin Luther King Jr ―The function of educationis to teach one to thinkintensively and to thinkcritically. Intelligence pluscharacter - that is the goalof true education.‖
Songs ―Follow the Drinking Gourd‖ ―Let my people go‖ ―Wade in the water‖
Letters & Newspapers
Abolitionists: New England anti-slavery Head by: William Lloyd Garrison
Unique Forms of Communication Toast Jive Rap
Teacher Sources: Bibliography Skogbergh, J. M. (2010). African American History (Vol. 1, pp. 56-73). Santa Barbara, CA: Library of Congress cataloging. (Talks about the African American Heritage and highlights the many trials and tribulations they went through. Gives dates and information about the heritage and culture of African Americans.) Blight, B. W. (1995). African American People (pp. 74-86). London, United Kingdom: Salamander Books. (talks about the many important people throughout history that helped with the progression of equality. Covers all parts of the education and segregation that took place. Very great resource.) Skogbergh, J. M. (2010). African American History (Vol. 1, pp. 56-73). Santa Barbara, CA: Library of Congress cataloging. (This encyclopedia has all you want to know about the African Americans past. Has many famous African American people and on top of that includes many people many of us have never heard of. Touches on education and the process that it took to overcome the segregation policies. Great resource.
Baker, John. The Washingtons of Wessyngton Plantation. New York: Atria Books, 2009. 419. Print. Ezra, Michael. Civil rights movement : people and perspectives. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2009. This teacher resource is helpful in that it had an entire time line of everything that happened during the Civil Rights movements. Than as you went through the book it had more details on events that happened and had some more personal details on the events and great pictures that a teacher could use to really show the students what the African Americans went through to get their rights. Rodriguez, Junius D.. Slavery in the US a Social, Political, and History. 1 ed. Santa Barbara: 2007. This encyclopedia was helpful for things that happened while African Americans were slaves in this country. It talked about the education they were able to get in how they would get along with other rights that they didn’t have and the history of that time period. It was full of useful information. http://youtu.be/m2wype7HbfU (video) "Listening To Our Past." Prod. Sabin Streeter. African American Lives. PBS: 2006. DVD. This program is very useful for teachers because it deals with famous figures that the students will know and like. It also gives great views of how life was from their personal experiences. It is raw truth about what life was like for these big figures. "The Road Home." Prod. Sabin Streeter. African American Lives 2. PBS: 2008. DVD.
Resources for children Webquest.com( Great online resource for students. Has topics set up for students and also includes- interactive games, videos, outlines, expectations, summaries, goals and pre-approved links to websites. This is a great reliable resource for students of all ages.) Books- I am Rosa Parks- by: Rosa Parks & James Haskins illustrated by Will Clay( Rosa Parks gives incite into her battle with segregation. This book shows that anyone can stand up for what they believe in. Great resource for teachers, especially during black history month.) Sweet Clara and the freedom quilt –By-Deborah Hopkinson illustrated by James Ransome(Is about a young colored girl who children can relate to during her journey. She shows the African American culture and gives great incite on what their culture is like.) Weatherford, Carole B, and R Christie. Dear Mr. Rosenwald. New York: Scholastic Press, 2006. This picture book is based on a true story of the Rosenwald schools that were built in the 1920’s in rural South. It is told in the eyes of a 10 year old girl who is helping her community build a school. This is great for kids to read to see things through a child’s eyes and to see the hope that Rosenwald and Booker T. Washington inspired in the African American people. Kalman, Bobbie. A Slave Family. New York: Crabtree Publishing Company, 2004. Print. This book is a great source for children because it is an easy read. It also gives a good amount of detail about slave life but doesn’t go as far as to scare the children with too much vivid detail. Americas Journey Through Slavery. Film. 12 Nov 2012. This movie is perfect because it is short enough to keep their attention and also gives good information that is right to the point. It is full of facts that are talked about and shown. It gives examples of all different types of slaves and where they came from and each different type of journey to freedom.